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$home/articles/jargon_file/jargon-2.8.1 term% cat index.txt ============ THIS IS THE JARGON FILE, VERSION 2.8.1, 22 MAR 1991 ============ Copyright 1991 by Eric S. Raymond, all rights reserved. Permission to make copies and derived works for non-profit use is granted as long as this notice is not removed. Introduction ************ This document is a collection of slang terms used by various subcultures of computer hackers. Though some technical material is included for background and flavor, it is not a technical dictionary; what we describe here is the language hackers use among themselves for fun, social communication, and technical debate within their communities. The hacker culture' is actually a loosely networked collection of subcultures that is nevertheless conscious of some important shared experiences, shared roots, and shared values. It has its own myths, heroes, villains, folk epics, in-jokes, taboos, and dreams. Because hackers as a group are particularly creative people who define themselves partly by rejection of normal' values and working habits, it has unusually rich and conscious traditions for an intentional culture less than thirty-five years old. As usual with slang, the special vocabulary of hackers helps hold their culture together --- it helps hackers recognize each other's places in the community and expresses shared values and experiences. Also as usual, *not* knowing the slang (or using it inappropriately) defines one as an outsider, a mundane, or (worst of all in hackish vocabulary) possibly even a *suit*. All human cultures use slang in this threefold way --- as a tool of communication, and of inclusion, and of exclusion. Among hackers, though, slang has a subtler aspect paralleled perhaps in the slang of jazz musicians and some kinds of fine artists but hard to detect in most technical or scientific cultures; parts of it are code for shared states of *consciousness*. There is a whole range of altered states and problem-solving mental stances basic to high-level hacking which don't fit into conventional linguistic reality any better than a Coltrane solo or one of Maurits Escher's trompe l'oeil' compositions (Escher is a favorite of hackers), and hacker slang encodes these subtleties in many unobvious ways. Take the distinction between a {kluge} and an {elegant} solution, and the differing connotations attached to each, as a simple example. The distinction is not only of engineering significance; it reaches right back into the nature of the generative processes in program design and asserts something important about two different kinds of relationship between the hacker and the hack. Hacker slang is unusually rich in implications of this kind, of overtones and undertones that illuminate the hackish psyche. But there is more. Hackers, as a rule, love word-play and are very conscious and inventive in their use of language. These traits seem to be common in young children, but the conformity-enforcing machine we are pleased to call an educational system bludgeons them out of most of us before adolescence. Thus, linguistic invention in most subcultures of ours is a halting and largely unconscious process. Hackers, by contrast, regard slang formation and use as a game to be played for conscious pleasure. Their inventions thus display an almost unique combination of the neotenous enjoyment of language-play with the discrimination of educated and powerful intelligence. Further, the electronic media which knit them together are fluid, hot' connections, well adapted to both the dissemination of new slang and the ruthless culling of weak and superannuated specimens. The results of this process give us perhaps a uniquely intense ans accelerated view of linguistic evolution in action. The intensity and consciousness of hackish invention makes a compilation of hacker slang a particularly effective window into the surrounding culture --- and, in fact, this one is the latest version of an evolving compilation called the Jargon File' maintained by hackers themselves for over fifteen years. This one (like its ancestors) is primarily a lexicon, but also includes topic entries' which collect background or sidelight information on hacker culture that would be awkward to try to subsume under individual entries. Though the format is that of a reference, it is also intended that the material be enjoyable to browse or read straight through. Even a complete outsider should find at least a chuckle on nearly every page, and much that is amusingly thought-provoking. But it is also true that hackers use humorous word-play to make strong, sometime combative statements about what they feel. Some of these entries reflect the views of opposing sides in disputes that have been genuinely passionate; this is deliberate. We have not tried to moderate or pretty up these disputes; rather we have attempted to ensure that *everyone's* sacred cows get gored, impartially. Compromise is not particularly a hackish virtue, but the honest presentation of divergent viewpoints is. The reader with minimal computer background who finds some references incomprehensibly technical can safely ignore them. We have not felt it either necessary or desirable to eliminate all such; they, too, contribute flavor, and one of this document's major intended audiences (fledgling hackers already partway inside the culture) will benefit from them. A selection of longer items of hacker folklore and humor are included in Appendix A. The outside' reader's attention is particularly directed to Appendix B, the Portrait of J. Random Hacker. Appendix C is a bibliography of non-technical works which have either influenced or described the hacker culture. Because hackerdom is an intentional culture (one each individual must choose by action to join), one should not be surprised that the line between description and influence can become more than a little blurred. Earlier Jargon File versions have played a central role in spreading hacker language and the culture that goes with it to successively larger populations, and we hope and expect that this one will do likewise. Of Slang, Jargon, and Techspeak =============================== Linguists usually refer to informal language as slang' and reserve the term jargon' for the technical vocabularies of various occupations. However, the ancestor of this collection was called the Jargon File' and hackish slang is traditionally the jargon'. When talking about the jargon there is therefore no convenient way to distinguish what a *linguist* would call hackers' jargon --- the formal vocabulary they learn from textbooks, technical papers, and manuals. To make a confused situation worse, the line between hackish slang and technical programming and computer science vocabulary is fuzzy, and shifts over time. Further, this technical vocabulary is shared with a wider technical culture of programmers, many of whom are not hackers and do not speak or recognize hackish slang. Accordingly, this lexicon will try to be as precise as the facts of usage permit about the distinctions between three categories: * slang': informal language from mainstream English or non-techical subcultures (bikers, rock fans, surfers, etc.). * jargon': without qualifier, denotes informal slangy' language peculiar to hackers --- the subject of this lexicon. * techspeak': the formal technical vocabulary of programming, computer science, electronics, and other fields connected to hacking. This terminology will be consistently used throughout the remainder of this lexicon. The jargon/techspeak distinction is the delicate one. A lot of techspeak originated as jargon, and there is a steady continuing uptake of jargon into techspeak. On the other hand, a lot of jargon arises from overgeneralization of techspeak terms (there is more about this in the Jargon Construction' section below). In general, we have considered techspeak any term which communicates primarily by a denotation well established in textbooks, technical dictionaries, or standards documents. A few obviously techspeak terms (names of operating systems, languages or documents) are listed when they are tied to hacker folklore that isn't covered in formal sources, or sometimes to convey critical historical background necessary to understand other entries to which they are cross-referenced. Some other techspeak senses of jargon words have been listed in order to make the jargon senses clear; where the text does not specify that a straight technical sense is under discussion, these are marked with [techspeak]' as an etymology. Many entries have a sense #1 marked this way, with subsequent jargon meanings explained in terms of it. We have also tried to indicate (where known) the apparent origins of terms. The results are probably the least reliable information in the lexicon, for several reasons. For one thing, it is well known that many hackish usages have been independently re-invented multiple times, even among the more obscure and intricate neologisms. It often seems that the generative processes underlying hackish jargon formation have an internal logic so powerful as to create substantial parallelism across separate cultures and even in different languages! For another, the networks tend to propagate innovations so quickly that first use' is often impossible to pin down. And, finally, compendia like this one alter what they observe by implicitly stamping cultural approval on terms and widening their use. Revision History ================ The original Jargon File was a collection of hacker jargon from technical cultures including the MIT AI Lab, the Stanford AI lab (SAIL), and others of the old ARPANET AI/LISP/PDP-10 communities including Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN), Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU), and Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI). The Jargon File (hereafter referred to as jargon-1' or the File') was begun by Raphael Finkel at Stanford in 1975. From this time until the plug was finally pulled on the SAIL computer in 1991 the File was named AIWORD.RF[UP,DOC] there. Some terms in it date back considerably earlier ({frob} and some senses of {moby}, for instance, go back to the Tech Model Railroad Club and MIT and are believed to date at least back to the early 1960s). The revisions of jargon-1 were all unnumbered and may be collectively considered Version 1'. In 1976, Mark Crispin brought the File to MIT; he and Guy Steele then added a first wave of new entries. In 1976, Mark Crispin, having seen an announcement about the File on the SAIL computer, {FTP}ed a copy of the File to MIT. He noticed that it was hardly restricted to AI words' and so stored the file on his directory as AI:MRC;SAIL JARGON. The file was quickly renamed to JARGON > (the >' means numbered with a version number) as a flurry of enhancements were made by Mark Crispin and Guy L. Steele. Unfortunately, amidst all this activity, nobody thought of correcting the term jargon' to slang' until the compendium had become widely known as the Jargon File it was too late. Raphael Finkel dropped out of active participation shortly thereafter, and Don Woods became the SAIL contact for the File (which was subsequently kept in duplicate at SAIL and MIT, with periodic re-synchronizations). The File expanded by fits and starts until about 1983; Richard Stallman was prominent among the contributors, adding many MIT and ITS-related coinages. A late version of jargon-1, expanded with commentary for the mass market, was edited by Guy L. Steele into a book published in 1983 as The Hacker's Dictionary' (Harper & Row CN 1082, ISBN 0-06-091082-8). The other jargon-1 editors (Raphael Finkel, Don Woods, and Mark Crispin) contributed to the revision, as did Richard M. Stallman and Geoff Goodfellow. This book is hereafter referred to as Steele-1983'. It is now out of print. Shortly after the publication of Steele-1983, the File effectively stopped growing and changing. Originally, this was because of a desire to freeze the file temporarily to facilitate the production of Steele-1983, but external conditions caused the temporary' freeze became permanent. The AI-Lab culture had been hit hard in the late 1970s by funding cuts, and the resulting administrative decision to use vendor-supported hardware and software instead of homebrew whenever possible. At MIT, most AI work had turned to dedicated LISP Machines. At the same time, the commercialization of AI technology lured some of the AI Labs' best and brightest away to startups along the Route 128 strip in Massachusetts and out west to Silicon Valley. The startups built LISP machines for MIT; the central MIT-AI computer became a {TWENEX} system rather than a host for the AI hackers' beloved {ITS}. The Stanford AI Lab had effectively ceased to exist by 1980, although the SAIL computer continued as a Computer Science Department resource until 1991. Stanford became a major {TWENEX} site, at one point operating more than a dozen TOPS-20 systems; but by the mid-1980's most of the interesting software work was being done on the emerging BSD Unix standard. In April 1983, the PDP-10-centered cultures that had nourished the File were dealt a death-blow by the cancellation of the Jupiter project at DEC. The File's compilers, already dispersed, moved on to other things. Steele-1983 was partly a monument to what its authors thought was a dying tradition; no one involved realized at the time just how widely its influence was to run. By the mid-1980s the File's content was dated, but the legend that had grown up around it never quite died out. The book, and softcopies obtained off the ARPANET, circulated even in cultures far removed from MIT's and Stanford's; the content exerted a strong and continuing influence on hackish language and humor. Even as the advent of the microcomputer and other trends fueled a tremendous expansion of hackerdom, the File (and related materials like the AI Koans in Appendix A) came to be seen as a sort of sacred epic, a hacker-culture Matter of Britain chronicling the heroic exploits of the Knights of the Lab. The pace of change in hackerdom at large accelerated tremendously --- but the Jargon File, having passed from living document to icon, remained essentially untouched for seven years. This revision contains nearly the entire text of a late version of jargon-1 (a few obsolete PDP-10-related entries have been dropped following careful consultation with the editors of Steele-1983). It merges in about about 80% of the Steele-1983 text, omitting some framing material and a very few entries introduced in Steele-1983 which are now also obsolete. This new version casts a wider net than the old jargon file; its aim is to cover not just AI or PDP-10 hacker culture but all the technical computing cultures wherein the true hacker-nature is manifested. More than half of the entries now derive from USENET and represent jargon now current in the C and UNIX communities, but special efforts have been made to collect jargon from other cultures including IBM PC programmers, Amiga fans, Mac enthusiasts, and even the IBM mainframe world. Where a term can be attributed to a particular subculture or is known to have originated there, we have tried to so indicate. Here is a list of abbreviations used in etymologies: Berkeley University of California at Berkeley Cambridge The university in England (*not* the city in Massachusetts where MIT happens to be located!) BBN Bolt, Beranek & Newman CMU Carnegie-Mellon University Commodore Commodore Business Machines DEC The Digital Equipment Corporation. Fairchild The Fairchild Instruments Palo Alto development group. Fidonet See the {Fidonet} entry. IBM International Business Machines MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology; esp. the legendary MIT AI Lab culture of roughly 1971 to 1983. See also TMRC. NYU New York University Purdue Purdue University SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Stanford Stanford University Sun Sun Microsystems TMRC Some MITisms go back as far as the Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC) at MIT c.1960. Material marked TMRC is from An Abridged Dictionary of the TMRC Language', originally compiled by Pete Samson in 1959. UCLA University of California at Los Angeles USENET See the {USENET} entry. WPI Worcester Polytechnic Institute, site of a very active community of PDP-10 hackers during the Seventies. XEROX PARC XEROX's Palo Alto Research Center, site of much pioneering research in user interface design and networking. Yale Yale University Some other etymology abbreviations such as {UNIX}, {PDP-10}, etc. refer to technical cultures surrounding specific operating systems, processors, or other environments. Note: the fact that a term is labelled with any of these abbreviations does not necessarily mean its use is confined to that culture. In particular, many terms labelled MIT' and Stanford' are in quite general use. We have tried to give some indication of speaker distribution in the usage notes. However, a number of factors mentioned in the introduction conspire to make these indications less definite than might be desirable. Eric S. Raymond (eric@snark.thyrsus.com) maintains the new File with assistance from Guy L. Steele (gls@think.com); these are the persons primarily reflected in the File's editorial we', though we take pleasure in acknowledging the special contribution of the other coauthors of Steele-1983. Please email all additions, corrections and correspondence relating to the jargon file to jargon@thyrsus.com (UUCP-only sites without connections to an autorouting smart site can use ...!uunet!snark!jargon). (Warning: other email addresses appear in this file *but are not guaranteed to be correct* later than the revision date on the first line. *Don't* email us if an attempt to reach your idol bounces --- we have no magic way of checking addresses or looking up people) Some snapshot of this on-line version will become the main text of a New Hacker's Dictionary', to be published by MIT Press possibly as early as Summer 1991. The maintainers are committed to updating the on-line version of the jargon file through and beyond paper publication, and will continue to make it available to archives and public-access sites as a trust of the hacker community. Here is a chronology of the recent on-line revisions: Version 2.1.1, Jun 12 1990: the jargon file comes alive again after a seven-year hiatus. Reorganization and massive additions were by Eric S. Raymond, approved by Guy Steele. Many items of UNIX, C, USENET, and microcomputer-based jargon were added at that time (as well as The Untimely Demise of Mabel The Monkey). Some obsolete usages (mostly PDP-10 derived) were moved to Appendix B. Version 2.1.5, Nov 28 1990: changes and additions by ESR in response to numerous USENET submissions and comment from the First Edition co-authors. The bibliography (Appendix C) was also appended. Version 2.2.1, Dec 15 1990: most of the contents of the 1983 paper edition edited by Guy Steele was merged in. Many more USENET submissions added, including the International Style and the material on Commonwealth Hackish. This version had 9394 lines, 75954 words, 490501 characters, and 1046 entries. Version 2.3.1, Jan 03 1991: the great format change --- case is no longer smashed in lexicon keys and cross-references. A very few entries from jargon-1 which were basically straight techspeak were deleted; this enabled the rest of Appendix B to be merged back into main text and the appendix replaced with the Portrait of J. Random Hacker. More USENET submissions were added. This version had 10728 lines, 85070 words, 558261 characters, and 1138 entries. Version 2.4.1, Jan 14 1991: the Story of Mel and many more USENET submissions merged in. More material on hackish writing habits added. Numerous typo fixes. This version had 12362 lines, 97819 words, 642899 characters, and 1239 entries. Version 2.5.1, Jan 29 1991: many new entries merged in. Discussion of inclusion styles added. This version had 14145 lines, 111904 words, 734285 characters, and 1425 entries. Version 2.6.1, Feb 13 1991: second great format change; no more <> around headwords or references. Merged in results of serious copy-editing passes by Guy Steele, Mark Brader. Still more entries added. This version had 15011 lines, 118277 words, 774942 characters, and 1485 entries. Version 2.7.1, Mar 1 1991: new section on slang/jargon/techspeak added. Results of Guy's 2nd edit pass merged in. This version had 16087 lines, 126885 words, 831872 characters, and 1533 entries. Version 2.8.1, Mar 22 1991: material from the TMRC Dictionary and MRC's editing pass merged in. This version had 17154 lines, 135647 words, 888333 characters, and 1602 entries. Version numbering: Read versions as major.minor.revision. Major version 1 is reserved for the old' (ITS) Jargon File, jargon-1. Major version 2 encompasses revisions by ESR (Eric S. Raymond) with assistance from GLS (Guy L. Steele). Someday, the next maintainer will take over and spawn version 3'. Usually later versions will either completely supersede or incorporate earlier versions, so there is generally no point in keeping old versions around. Our thanks to the other co-authors of Steele-1983 for oversight and assistance; also to all the USENETters who contributed entries and encouragement. Special thanks go to our Scandinavian correspondent Per Lindberg (per@front.se), author of the remarkable Swedish language 'zine Hackerbladet', for bringing FOO! comics to our attention and smuggling one of the IBM hacker underground's own baby jargon files out to us. Also, much gratitude to ace hacker/linguist Joe Keane (jkg@osc.osc.com) for helping us improve the pronunciation guides; and to Maarten Litmaath for generously allowing the inclusion of the ASCII pronunciation guide he formerly maintained. Don Libes contributed some appropriate material from his excellent book Life With UNIX'. Linguists David Stampe and Charles Hoequist also contributed valuable criticism. Finally, Mark Brader (msb@sq.com) submitted many thoughtful comments and did yeoman service in catching typos and minor usage bobbles, and Eric Tiedemann (est@thyrsus.com) contributed sage advice on rhetoric, amphigory, and philosophunculism. Format For New Entries ====================== Try to conform to the format already being used --- head-words separated from text by a colon (double colon for topic entries), cross-references in curly brackets (doubled for topic entries), pronunciations in slashes, etymologies in square brackets, single-space after definition numbers and word classes, etc. Stick to the standard ASCII character set (7-bit printable, no high-half characters or [nt]roff/TeX/Scribe escapes), as one of the versions generated from the master file is an info document that has to be viewable on a character tty. We are looking to expand the file's range of technical specialties covered. There are doubtless rich veins of jargon yet untapped in the scientific computing, graphics, and networking hacker communities; also in numerical analysis, computer architectures and VLSI design, language design, and many other related fields. Send us your jargon! We are *not* interested in straight technical terms explained by textbooks or technical dictionaries unless an entry illuminates underground' meanings or aspects not covered by official histories. We are also not interested in joke' entries --- there is a lot of humor in the file but it must flow naturally out of the explanations of what hackers do and how they think. It is OK to submit items of jargon you have originated if they have spread to the point of being used by people who are not personally acquainted with you. We prefer items to be attested by independent submission from two different sites. A few new definitions attached to entries are marked [proposed]. These are usually generalizations suggested by editors or USENET respondents in the process of commenting on previous definitions of those entries. These are *not* represented as established jargon. The jargon file will be regularly maintained and re-posted from now on and will include a version number. Read it, pass it around, contribute --- this is *your* monument! Jargon Construction =================== There are some standard methods of jargonification which became established quite early (i.e. before 1970), spreading from such sources as the MIT Model Railroad Club, the PDP-1 SPACEWAR hackers, and John McCarthy's original crew of LISPers. These include: Verb doubling: A standard construction in English is to double a verb and use it as an exclamation, such as "Bang, bang!" or "Quack, quack!". Most of these are names for noises. Hackers also double verbs as a concise, sometimes sarcastic comment on what the implied subject does. Also, a doubled verb is often used to terminate a conversation, in the process remarking on the current state of affairs or what the speaker intends to do next. Typical examples involve {win}, {lose}, {hack}, {flame}, {barf}, {chomp}: "The disk heads just crashed." "Lose, lose." "Mostly he talked about his latest crock. Flame, flame." "Boy, what a bagbiter! Chomp, chomp!" Some verb-doubled constructions have special meanings not immediately obvious from the verb. These have their own listings in the lexicon. Soundalike slang: Hackers will often make rhymes or puns in order to convert an ordinary word or phrase into something more interesting. It is considered particularly {flavorful} if the phrase is bent so as to include some other jargon word; thus the computer hobbyist magazine Dr. Dobb's Journal' is almost always referred to among hackers as Dr. Frob's Journal' or simply Dr. Frob's'. Terms of this kind that have been in fairly wide use include names for newspapers: Boston Herald American => Horrid (or Harried) American Boston Globe => Boston Glob Houston (or San Francisco) Chronicle => the Crocknicle (or the Comical) New York Times => New York Slime However, terms like these are often made up on the spur of the moment. Standard examples include: Prime Time => Slime Time Data General => Dirty Genitals IBM 360 => IBM Three-Sickly Government Property --- Do Not Duplicate (seen on keys) => Government Duplicity --- Do Not Propagate for historical reasons => for hysterical raisins Margaret Jacks Hall => Marginal Hacks Hall This is not really similar to the Cockney rhyming slang it has been compared to in the past, because Cockney substitutions are opaque whereas hacker punning jargon is intentionally transparent. The -P convention: turning a word into a question by appending the syllable P'; from the LISP convention of appending the letter P' to denote a predicate (a Boolean-valued function). The question should expect a yes/no answer, though it needn't. (See T and NIL.) At dinnertime: Q: "Foodp?" A: "Yeah, I'm pretty hungry." or "T!" Q: "State-of-the-world-P?" A: (Straight) "I'm about to go home." A: (Humorous) "Yes, the world has a state." On the phone to Florida: Q: "State-p Florida?" A: "Been reading JARGON.TXT again, eh?" [One of the best of these is a {Gosperism} Once, when we were at a Chinese restaurant, Bill Gosper wanted to know whether someone would like to share with him a two-person-sized bowl of soup. His inquiry was: "Split-p soup?" --- GLS] Overgeneralization: A very conspicuous feature of jargon is the frequency with which techspeak items like names of program tools, command language primitives, and even assembler opcodes are applied to contexts outside of computing wherever hackers find amusing analogies to them. Thus, (to cite one of the best-known examples) UNIX hackers often {grep} for things rather than searching for them. Many of the lexicon entries are generalizations of exactly this kind. Hackers enjoy overgeneralization on the grammatical level as well. Many hackers love to take various words and add the wrong endings to them to make nouns and verbs, often by extending a standard rule to nonuniform cases (or vice versa). For example, because porous => porosity generous => generosity hackers happily generalize: mysterious => mysteriosity ferrous => ferrosity obvious => obviosity dubious => dubiosity Also, note that all nouns can be verbed. E.g.: "All nouns can be verbed", "I'll mouse it up", "Hang on while I clipboard it over", "I'm grepping the files". English as a whole is already heading in this direction (towards pure-positional grammar like Chinese); hackers are simply a bit ahead of the curve. Similarly, all verbs can be nouned. Thus: win => winnitude, winnage disgust => disgustitude hack => hackification Finally, note the prevalence of certain kinds of nonstandard plural forms. Some of these go back quite a ways; the TMRC Dictionary noted that the defined plural of caboose' is cabeese'. On a similarly Anglo-Saxon note, almost anything ending in x' may form plurals in -xen (see {VAXen} and {boxen} in the main text). Even words ending in phonetic /k/ alone are sometimes treated this way; e.g. soxen' for a bunch of socks. Other funny plurals are frobbotzim' for the plural of frobbozz' (see {frobnitz}) and Unices' and Tenices' (rather than Unixes' and Tenexes'; see {UNIX}, {TENEX} in main text). But note that Unixen' and Tenexen' are *never* used; it has been suggested that this is because -ix' and -ex' are Latin singular endings that attract a Latinate plural. The pattern here, as with other hackish grammatical quirks, is generalization of an inflectional rule which (in English) is either an import or a fossil (such as Hebrew plural in -im', or the Anglo-Saxon plural in -en') to cases where it isn't normally considered to apply. This is not poor grammar', as hackers are generally quite well aware of what they are doing when they distort the language. It is grammatical creativity, a form of playfulness. Spoken inarticulations: Words such as mumble', sigh', and groan' are spoken in places where their referent might more naturally be used. It has been suggested that this usage derives from the impossibility of representing such noises on a comm link or in email. Another expression sometimes heard is "Complain!", meaning "I have a complaint!" Of the five listed constructions, verb doubling, peculiar noun formations, and (especially!) spoken inarticulations have become quite general; but punning jargon is still largely confined to MIT and other large universities, and the -P convention is found only where LISPers flourish. Finally, note that many words in hacker jargon have to be understood as members of sets of comparatives. This is especially true of the adjectives and nouns used to describe the beauty and functional quality of code. Here is an approximately correct spectrum: MONSTROSITY BRAIN-DAMAGE SCREW BUG LOSE MISFEATURE CROCK KLUGE HACK WIN FEATURE ELEGANCE PERFECTION The last is spoken of as a mythical absolute, approximated but never actually attained. Coinages for describing {lossage} seem to call forth the very finest in hackish linguistic inventiveness; it has been truly said that "{Computer geeks} have more words for equipment failures than Inuit have for snow", or than Yiddish has for obnoxious people. Hacker Speech Style =================== This features extremely precise diction, careful word choice, a relatively large working vocabulary, and relatively little use of contractions or street slang'. Dry humor, irony, puns, and a mildly flippant attitude are highly valued --- but an underlying seriousness and intelligence is essential. One should use just enough jargon to communicate precisely and identify oneself as in the culture'; overuse of jargon or a breathless, excessively gung-ho attitude are considered tacky and the mark of a loser. This speech style is a variety of the precisionist English normally spoken by scientists, design engineers, and academics in technical fields. Unlike the jargon construction methods, it is fairly constant throughout hackerdom. It has been observed that many hackers are confused by negative questions --- or, at least, the people they're talking to are often confused by the sense of their answers. The problem is that they've done so much coding that distinguishes between if (going) { and if (!going) { that when they parse the question "Aren't you going?" it seems to be asking the opposite question from "Are you going?", and so merits an answer in the opposite sense. This confuses English-speaking non-hackers because they were taught to answer as though the negative part weren't there. In some other languages (including Russian, Chinese and Japanese) the hackish interpretation is standard and the problem wouldn't arise. Hackers often find themselves wishing for a word like French si' or German doch' with which one could unambiguously answer yes' to a negative question. For similar reasons, English-speaking hackers almost never use a double negative even if they live in a region where colloquial usage allows it. The thought of uttering something that logically ought to be an affirmative knowing it will be mis-parsed as a negative tends to disturb them. Hacker Writing Style ==================== We've already seen that hackers often coin jargon by overgeneralizing grammatical rules. This is one aspect of a more general fondness for form-versus-content language jokes that shows up particularly in hackish writing. One correspondent reports that he consistently misspells wrong' as worng'. Others has been known to criticize glitches in Jargon File drafts by observing "This sentence no verb", or "Bad speling", or "Incorrectspa cing." Similarly, intentional Spoonerisms are often made of phrases relating to confusion, or things which are confusing; dain bramage' for brain damage' is perhaps the most common (similarly, a hacker would be likely to write "Excuse me, I'm cixelsyd today", rather than "I'm dyslexic..."). This sort of thing is quite common and enjoyed by all concerned. Hackers tend to use quotes as balanced delimiters like parentheses, much to the dismay of American editors. Thus, if "Jim is going" is a phrase, and so is "Bill runs" and "Spock groks", then hackers generally prefer to write: "Jim is going", "Bill runs", and "Spock groks". This is incorrect according to standard American usage (which would put the continuation commas and the final period inside the string quotes) but it is counter-intuitive to hackers to mutilate literal strings with characters that don't belong in them. Given the sorts of examples that can come up in discussing programming, American-style quoting can even be grossly misleading. When communicating command lines or small pieces of code, extra characters can be a real pain in the neck. For example: First do "foo -acrZ tempo | bar -," then ... is different from First do "foo -acrZ tempo | bar -", then ... from a computer's point of view. While the first is correct according to the stylebooks and would probably be parsed correctly by the a human recipient, the second is unambiguous. The Jargon File follows hackish usage consistently throughout. Interestingly, a similar style is now preferred practice in Great Britain, though the older style (which became established for typographical reasons having to do with the aesthetics of comma and quotes in typeset text) is still accepted there. Hart's Rules and the Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors call the hacker-like style new' or logical' style quoting. Another hacker quirk about quoting style is a tendency to distinguish between scare' quotes and speech' quotes; that is, to use British-style single quotes for marking and reserve American-style double quotes for actual reports of speech or text included from elsewhere. Interestingly, some authorities describe this as correct general usage, but mainstream American English has gone to using double-quotes thoroughly enough that hacker usage appears marked [and, in fact, I thought this was a personal quirk of mine until I checked with USENET --- ESR]. One further permutation that is definitely *not* standard is a hackish tendency to do marking quotes by using apostrophes in pairs; that is, 'like this'. This is modelled on string and character literal syntax in some programming languages (reinforced by the fact that many character-only terminals display a vertical single quote). There seems to be a meta-rule behind these nonstandard hackerisms to the effect that precision of expression is more important than conformance to traditional rules; where the latter create ambiguity or lose information they can be discarded without a second thought. It is notable in this respect that other hackish inventions (for example, in vocabulary) also tend to carry very precise shades of meaning even when constructed to appear slangy and loose. In fact, to a hacker, the contrast between loose' form and tight' content in jargon is a substantial part of its humor! There is another respect in which hackish usage often parallels British usage; it tends to choose British spellings whenever these seem more phonetically consistent than the American ones. Hackers have also developed a number of punctuation and emphasis conventions adapted to single-font all-ASCII communications links, and these are occasionally carried over into written documents even when normal means of font changes, underlining, and the like are available. One of these is that TEXT IN ALL CAPS IS INTERPRETED AS LOUD', and this becomes such an ingrained synesthetic reflex that a person who goes to caps-lock while in {talk mode} may be asked to "stop shouting, please, you're hurting my ears!". Also, it is common to use bracketing with asterisks to signify emphasis, as in "What the *hell*?" (note that this interferes with the common use of asterisk suffix as a footnote mark). An alternative form uses paired slash and backslash: "What the \hell/?". The latter is never used in text documents, as many formatters treat backslash as an escape and may do inappropriate things with the following text. Yet another form emphasizes text L I K E T H I S. Also note that there is a semantic difference between *emphasis like this*, (which emphasizes the phrase as a whole) and *emphasis* *like* *this* (which suggests the writer speaking very slowly and distinctly, as if to a very young child or mentally impaired person). See also the lexicon entry for {emoticon}. In a formula, *' signifies multiplication but two asterisks in a row are a shorthand for exponentiation (this derives from FORTRAN). Thus, one might write 2 ** 8 = 256'. Another notation for exponentiation one sees more frequently uses the caret (^, ASCII 1011110); one might write instead 2 ^ 8 = 256'. This goes all the way back to Algol-60, which used the archaic ASCII up-arrow' that later became caret; this was picked up by Kemeny & Kurtz's original BASIC, which in turn influenced the design of the bc(1) and dc(1) UNIX tools that have probably done most to reinforce the convention on USENET. The notation is mildly confusing to C programmers, because ^' means logical {XOR} in C. Despite this, it was favored 3:1 over ** in a late-1990 snapshot of USENET. It is used consistently in this text. In on-line exchanges, hackers tend to write improper fractions in ratio or decimal form rather than typewriter' style: that is, 7/2' or 3.5' rather than 3-1/2'. The major motive here is probably that the former are more readable in a monospaced font, and avoid the risk that the latter might be read as three minus one-half'. The decimal form is definitely preferred for fractions with a terminating decimal representation; there may be some cultural influence here from the high status of scientific notation. Another on-line convention, used especially for very large or very small numbers, is taken from C (which derived it from FORTRAN). This is a form of scientific notation' using e' to replace *10^'; for example, one year is about 3e7 seconds long . The tilde (~) is commonly used in a quantifying sense of approximately'; that is, ~50' means about fifty'. Underlining is often suggested by substituting underscores for spaces and prepending and appending one underscore to the underlined phrase. Example: "It is often alleged that Haldeman wrote _The_Forever_War_ in response to Robert Heinlein's earlier _Starship_Troopers_." Occasionally this underline indication is used for emphasis, like the paired asterisks. There is also an accepted convention for writing under erasure'; the text Be nice to this fool^H^H^H^Hgentleman, he's in from corporate HQ. would be read as "Be nice to this fool, I mean this gentleman...". This comes from the fact that the digraph ^H is often used as a print representation for a backspace. It parallels (and may have been influenced by) the ironic use of slashouts' in science-fiction fanzines. On USENET and in the {MUD} world, common C boolean, logical, and relational operators such as (|', &', !', ==', !=', >', and <') are often combined with English. The Pascal not-equals, <>', is also recognized. The use of prefix !' as a loose synonym for not-' or no-' is particularly common; thus, !clue' is read no-clue' or clueless'. Another habit is that of using angle-bracket enclosure to genericize a term; this derives from conventions used in {BNF}. Uses like the following are common: So this <ethnic> walks into a bar one day, and... One quirk that shows up frequently in the {email} style of UNIX hackers in particular is a tendency for some things which are normally all-lowercase (including usernames and the names of commands and C routines) to remain uncapitalized even when they occur at the beginning of sentences. It is clear that, for many hackers, the case of such identifiers becomes a part of their internal representation (the spelling') and cannot be overridden without mental effort (an appropriate reflex because UNIX and C both distinguish cases and confusing them can lead to lossage). A way of escaping this dilemma is simply to avoid using these constructions at the beginning of sentences. Hackers also mix letters and numbers more freely than in mainstream usage. In particular, it is good hackish style to write a digit sequence where you intend the reader to understand the text string that names that number in English. So, hackers write "1970s" rather than "nineteen-seventies" or "1970's" (the later looks like a possessive). Finally, it should be noted that hackers exhibit much less reluctance to use multiply nested parentheses than is normal in English. Partly this is almost certainly due to influence from LISP ((which uses deeply nested parentheses (like this) in its syntax) (a lot (see?))), but it has also been suggested that a more basic hacker trait of enjoying playing with complexity and pushing systems to their limits is in operation. One area where hackish conventions for on-line writing are still in some flux is the marking of included material from earlier messages --- what would be called block quotations' in ordinary English. From the usual typographic convention employed for these (smaller font at an extra indent), there derived the notation of included text being indented by one ASCII TAB (0001001) character, which under UNIX and many other environments gives the appearance of an 8-space indent. Early mail and netnews readers had no facility for including messages this way, so people had to paste in copy manually. BSD Mail(1)' was the first message agent to support inclusion, and early USENETters emulated its style. But the TAB character tended to push included text too far to the right (especially in multiply nested inclusions), leading to ugly wraparounds. After a brief period of confusion (during which an inclusion leader consisting of three or four spaces became established in EMACS and a few mailers), the use of leading ">" or "> " became standard, perhaps because the character suggests movement to the right (alternatively, it may derive from the ">" that some V7 UNIX mailers use to quote leading instances of "From" in text). Inclusions within inclusions keep their ">" leaders, so the nesting level' of a quotation is visually apparent. A few other idiosyncratic quoting styles survive because they're automatically generated. One particularly ugly one looks like this: /* Written hh:mm pm Mmm dd, yyyy by user@site in local:group */ /* ---------- "Subject of article chopped to 35 ch" ---------- */ <<quoted text>> /* End of text from local:group */ It's generated by an elderly, variant news-reading system called notesfiles'. The overall trend, however, is definitely away from such verbosity. The practice of including text helped solve what had been a major nuisance on USENET: the fact that articles do not arrive at different sites in the same order. Careless posters used to post articles that would begin with, or even consist entirely of, "No, that's wrong", or "I agree" or the like. It was hard to see who was responding to what. Consequently, in about 1984, new news-posting software was created with a facility to automatically include the text of a previous article, marked with "> " or whatever the poster chose. The poster was expected to delete all but the relevant lines. The result has been that, now, careless posters post articles containing the *entire* text of a preceding article, *followed* only by "No, that's wrong" or "I agree". Many people feel that this cure is worse than the original disease, and there soon appeared newsreader software designed to let the reader skip over included text if desired. Today, some posting software rejects articles containing too high a proportion of lines beginning with ">", but this too has led to undesirable workarounds such as the deliberate inclusion of zero-content filler lines which aren't quoted and thus pull the message below the rejection threshold. Because the default mailers supplied with UNIX and other operating systems haven't evolved as quickly as human usage, the older conventions using a leading TAB or three or four spaces are still alive; however, >-inclusion is now clearly the prevalent form in both netnews and mail. Practice is still evolving, and disputes over the correct' inclusion style occasionally leads to {holy wars}. One variant style reported uses the citation character |' in place of >' for extended quotations where original variations in indentation are being retained. One also sees different styles of quoting a number of authors in the same message: one (deprecated because it loses information) uses a leader of "> " for everyone, another (the most common) is "> > > > ", "> > > ", etc. (or ">>>> ", ">>> ", etc., depending on line length and nesting depth) reflecting the original order of messages, and yet another is to use a different citation leader for each author, say "> ", ": ", "| ", "} " (preserving nesting so that the inclusion order of messages is still apparent, or tagging the inclusions with authors' names). Yet *another* style is to use each poster's initials (or login name) as a citation leader for that poster. Occasionally one sees a "# " leader used for quotations from *authoritative* sources such as standards documents; the intended allusion is to the root prompt (the special UNIX command prompt issued when one is running as the privileged super-user). Finally, it is worth mentioning that many studies of on-line communication have shown that electronic links have a de-inhibiting effect on people. Deprived of the body-language cues through which emotional state is expressed, people tend to forget everything about other parties except what is presented over that ASCII link. This has both good and bad effects. The good one is that it encourages honesty and tends to break down hierarchical authority relationships; the bad is that it may encourage depersonalization and gratuitous rudeness. Perhaps in response to this, experienced netters often display a sort of conscious formal politesse in their writing that has passed out of fashion in other spoken and written media (for example, the phrase "Well said, sir!" is not uncommon). Many introverted hackers who are next to inarticulate in person communicate with considerable fluency over the net, perhaps precisely because they can forget on an unconscious level that they are dealing with people and thus don't feel stressed and anxious as they would face to face. Though it is considered gauche to publicly criticize posters for poor spelling or grammar, the network definitely places a premium on literacy and clarity of expression. It may well be that future historians of literature will see in it a revival of the great tradition of personal letters as art. International Style =================== Although the Jargon File remains primarily a lexicon of hacker usage in American English, we have made some effort to get input from abroad. Though the hacker-speak of other languages often uses translations of jargon from English (often as transmitted to them by earlier Jargon File versions!), the local variations are interesting, and knowledge of them may be of some use to travelling hackers. There are some references herein to Commonwealth English'. These are intended to describe some variations in hacker usage as reported in the English spoken in Great Britain and the Commonwealth (Canada, Australia, India, etc., though Canada is heavily influenced by American usage). There is also an entry on {{Commonwealth Hackish}} reporting some general phonetic and vocabulary differences from U.S. hackish. Hackers in Western Europe and (especially) Scandinavia are reported to often use a mixture of English and their native languages for technical conversation. Occasionally they develop idioms in their English usage which are influenced by their native-language styles. Some of these are reported here. A note or two on hackish usages in Russian have been added where they are parallel with English idioms and thus comprehensible to English-speakers. Pronunciation Guide =================== Pronunciation keys are provided in the jargon listing for all entries that are neither dictionary words pronounced as in standard English nor obvious compounds of same. Slashes bracket a phonetic pronunciation to be interpreted using the following conventions: 1. Syllables are hyphen-separated, except that an apostrophe or back-apostrophe follows each accented syllable (the back apostrophe marks a secondary accent in some words of four or more syllables). 2. Consonants are pronounced as in American English. The letter g' is always hard (as in "got" rather than "giant"); ch' is soft ("church" rather than "chemist"). The letter j' is the sound that occurs twice in "judge". The letter s' is always as in "pass", never a z sound (but it is sometimes doubled at the end of syllables to emphasize this). The digraph kh' is the guttural of "loch" or "l'chaim". 3. Vowels are represented as follows: a back, that ah father, palm ar far, mark aw flaw, caught ay bake, rain e less, men ee easy, ski eir their, software i trip, hit ie life, sky o cot, top oh flow, sew oo loot, through or more, door ow out, how oy boy, coin uh but, some u put, foot y yet yoo few [y]oo /oo/ with optional fronting as in news' (/nooz/ or /nyooz/) A /*/ is used for the schwa' sound of unstressed or occluded vowels (the one that is often written with an upside-down e'). The schwa vowel is omitted in syllables containing vocalic r, l, m or n; that is, kitten' and color' would be rendered /kit'n/ and /kuhl'r/, not /kit'*n/ and /kuhl'*r/. Entries with a pronunciation of //' are written-only usages (no, UNIX weenies, this does *not* mean pronounce like previous pronunciation!) Other Lexicon Conventions ========================= Entries are sorted in case-blind ASCII collation order (rather than the letter-by-letter order ignoring interword spacing common in mainstream dictionaries), except that all entries beginning with nonalphabetic characters are sorted to the beginning. The case-blindness is a feature, not a bug. The OED' referred to in several entries is, of course, the Oxford English Dictionary. In pure ASCII renderings of the Jargon File, you will see {} used to bracket words which themselves have entries in the File. This isn't done all the time for every such word, but it is done everywhere that a reminder seems useful that the term has a jargon meaning and one might wish to refer to its entry. In this all-ASCII version, headwords for topic entries are distinguished from those for ordinary entries by being followed by "::" rather than ":"; similarly, references are surrounded by "{{" and "}}" rather than "{" and "}". References such as malloc(3)' and patch(1)' are to UNIX facilities (some of which, such as patch(1)', are actually freeware distributed over USENET). The UNIX manuals use foo(n)' to refer to item foo in section (n) of the manual, where n=1 is utilities, n=2 is system calls, n=3 is C library routines, n=6 is games, and n=8 (where present) is system administration utilities. Sections 4, 5, and 7 have changed roles frequently and in any case are not referred to from any of the entries. The Jargon Lexicon ****************** = [^A-Za-z] (see {regexp}) = ============================ 'Snooze: /snooz/ [FidoNet] n. Fidonews, the weekly official on-line newsletter of FidoNet. As the editorial policy of Fidonews is "anything that arrives, we print", there are often large articles completely unrelated to FidoNet, which in turn tend to elicit {flamage} in subsequent issues. (TM): [USENET] ASCII rendition of the trademark-superscript symbol , appended to phrases that the author feels should be recorded for posterity, perhaps in future editions of this lexicon. Sometimes used ironically as a form of protest against the recent spate of software and algorithm patents and look and feel' lawsuits. See also {UN*X}. -oid: [from android'] suff. Used to form faintly derisory terms for classes of people. This has recently (as of 1991) gone mainstream (most notably in the term trendoid' for victims of terminal hipness), probably under the influence of the term droid' in Star Wars' and its sequels. However, coinages of this form have been common in science fiction for at least fifty years, and hackers (who are often science-fiction fans) have probably been making -oid' jargon for almost that long [though GLS and I can personally only confirm that the construction was already common in the mid-1970s --- ESR]. See {droid}. This suffix is expecially used to indicate a poor imitation, counterfeit, or otherwise slightly bogus resemblance: "He's a nerdoid" means someone who superficially resembles a nerd but can't make the grade; a modemoid' might be a 300-baud box (Real Modems run at 9600), a computeroid' might be any {bitty box}, etc. The word keyboid' could be used to describe a {chiclet keyboard}, but would have to be written; spoken, it would confuse the listener as to the speaker's city of origin. -ware: [from software'] suff. Commonly used to form jargon terms for classes of software. For examples, see {careware}, {crippleware}, {crudware}, {freeware}, {fritterware}, {guiltware}, {liveware}, {meatware}, {payware}, {psychedelicware}, {shareware}, {shelfware}, {vaporware}, {wetware}. /dev/null: /dev-nuhl/ [from the UNIX null device, used as a data sink] n. A notional black hole' in any information space being discussed, used or referred to. A controversial posting, for example, might end "Kudos to rasputin@kremlin.org, flames to /dev/null". See {bit bucket}, {null device}. 120 reset: [from 120 volts, U.S. wall current] n. To cycle power on a machine in order to reset or unjam it. Compare {Big Red Switch}, {power cycle}. 2: infix. In translation software written by hackers, infix 2 often represents the syllable *to* with the connotation translate to'; as in dvi2ps (DVI to PostScript), int2string (integer to string) and texi2roff (Texinfo to [nt]roff). @-party: /at'partee/ [from the @-sign in an Internet address] n. (also @-sign party' /at'sien partee/) Semi-closed parties thrown at science-fiction conventions (esp. the annual Worldcon) for hackers; one must have a {network address} to get in, or at least be in company with someone who does. One of the most reliable opportunities for hackers to meet face to face with people who might otherwise be represented by mere phosphor dots on their screens. Compare {boink}. @Begin: // [primarily CMU] n. Equivalent of {\begin} in the Scribe text formatting language; used as an idiom by Scribe users. \begin: // [from the LaTeX command] With \end, used humorously in writing to indicate a context or to remark on the surrounded text. For example: \begin{flame} Predicate logic is the only good programming language. Anyone who would use anything else is an idiot. Also, computers should be tredecimal instead of binary. \end{flame} The Scribe users at CMU and elsewhere used to use @Begin/@End in an identical way. On USENET, this construct would more frequently be rendered as "<FLAME ON>" and "<FLAME OFF>". = A = ===== abbrev: /*'breev/, /*'brev/ n. Common abbreviation for abbreviation'. abend: [ABnormal END] /ab'end/ n. Abnormal termination (of software); {crash}; {lossage}. Derives from an error message on the IBM 360; used jokingly by hackers but seriously mainly by {code grinder}s. accumulator: n. Archaic term for a register. Cited here because on-line use of it is a fairly reliable indication that the user has been around for quite a while and/or that the architecture under discussion is quite old. The term in full is almost never used of microprocessor registers, for example, though symbolic names for arithmetic registers beginning in A' derive from historical use of accumulator' (and not, actually, from arithmetic'!). Confusingly, though, an a' register name prefix may also stand for address', as for example on the Motorola 680x0 family. ACK: /ak/ interj. 1. [from the ASCII mnemonic for #b0000110] Acknowledge. Used to register one's presence (compare mainstream *Yo!*). An appropriate response to {ping} or {ENQ}. 2. [prob. from the Bloom County comic strip] An exclamation of surprised disgust, esp. in "Oop ack!". Semi-humorous. Generally this sense is distinguished by a following exclamation point. 3. Used to politely interrupt someone to tell them you understand their point. See {NAK}. Thus, for example, you might cut off an overly long explanation with "Ack. Ack. Ack. I get it now". See also {NAK}. There is also a usage "ACK?" (from sense #1) meaning "Are you there?", often used in email when earlier mail has produced no reply, or during a lull in {talk mode} to see if the person has gone away (the standard humorous response is of course {NAK} (sense #2), i.e., "I'm not here"). ad-hockery: /ad-hok'*r-ee/ [Purdue] n. 1. Gratuitous assumptions made inside certain programs, esp. expert systems, which lead to the appearance of semi-intelligent behavior, but are in fact entirely arbitrary. 2. Special-case code to cope with some awkward input which would otherwise cause a program to {choke}, presuming normal inputs are dealt with in some cleaner and more regular way. Also called ad-hackery', ad-hocity' (/ad-hos'*-tee/). Ada:: n. A {{Pascal}}-descended language that has been made mandatory for Department of Defense software projects by the Pentagon. Hackers are nearly unanimous in observing that, technically, it is precisely what one might expect given that kind of endorsement by fiat; designed by committee, crockish, difficult to use, and overall a disastrous, multi-billion-dollar boondoggle (one common description is "The PL/I of the 1980s"). Hackers find Ada's exception-handling and inter-process communication features particularly hilarious. Ada Lovelace (the daughter of Lord Byron who became the world's first programmer while cooperating with Babbage on the design of his mechanical computing engines in the mid-1800s) would almost certainly blanch at the use her name has been latterly put to; the kindest thing that has been said about it is that there is probably a good small language screaming to get out from inside its vast, {elephantine} bulk. adger: /adj'r/ [UCLA] vt. To make a bonehead move with consequences that could have been foreseen with a slight amount of mental effort. E.g., "He started removing files and promptly adgered the whole project." Compare {dumbass attack}. admin: /ad-min'/ n. Short for administrator'; very commonly used in speech or on-line to refer to the systems person in charge on a computer. Common constructions on this include sysadmin' and site admin' (emphasizing the administrator's role as a site contact for email and news) or newsadmin' (focusing on the latter). Compare {postmaster}, {sysop}, {system mangler}. ADVENT: /ad'vent/ n. The prototypical computer adventure game, first implemented on the {PDP-10} by Will Crowther as an attempt at computer-refereed fantasy gaming, and expanded into a puzzle-oriented game by Don Woods. Now better known as Adventure, but the {TOPS-10} operating system only permitted 6-letter filenames. See also {vadding}. This game defined the terse, dryly humorous style now expected in text adventure games, and popularized several tag lines that have become fixtures of hacker-speak. "A huge green fierce snake bars the way!" "I see no X here." (for some noun X). "You are in a maze of twisty little passages, all alike." "You are in a little maze of twisty passages, all different." The "magic words" {xyzzy} and {plugh} also derive from this game. Crowther, by the way, participated in the exploration of the Mammoth/Flint Ridge cave system; it actually *has* a Colossal Cave' and a Bedquilt' as in the game, and the Y2' that also turns up is cavers' jargon for a map reference to a secondary entrance. AI-complete: [MIT, Stanford, by analogy with NP-complete'] adj. Used to describe problems or subproblems in AI, to indicate that the solution presupposes a solution to the strong AI problem' (that is, the synthesis of a human-level intelligence). A problem that is AI-complete is, in other words, just too hard. Examples of AI-complete problems are The Vision Problem', building a system that can see as well as a human, and The Natural Language Problem', building a system that can understand and speak a natural language as well as a human. These may appear to be modular, but all attempts so far (1991) to solve them have foundered on the amount of context information and intelligence' they seem to require. AI koans: pl.n. A series of pastiches of Zen teaching riddles created by Danny Hillis at the MIT AI Lab around various major figures of the Lab's culture. A selection are included in Appendix A. See also {ha ha only serious} and {{Humor, Hacker}}. AIDS: /aydz/ n. Short for A* Infected Disk Syndrome ("A*" matches, but not limited to, Apple), this condition is the quite often the result of practicing unsafe {SEX}. See {virus}, {worm}, {Trojan horse}, {virgin}. airplane rule: n. "Complexity increases the possibility of failure; a twin-engine airplane has twice as many engine problems as a single-engine airplane." By analogy, in both software and electronics, the rule that simplicity increases robustness (see also {KISS Principle}). It is correspondingly argued that the right way to build reliable systems is to design to put all your eggs in one basket, after making sure that you've built a *really good* basket. aliasing bug: n. A class of subtle programming errors which can arise in code that does dynamic allocation, esp. via malloc(3)' or equivalent. If more than one pointer addresses (aliases for') a given hunk of storage, it may happen that the storage is freed through one alias and then referenced through another, leading to subtle (and possibly intermittent) lossage depending on the state and the allocation history of the malloc {arena}. Avoidable by use of allocation strategies that never alias allocated core. Also avoidable by use of higher-level languages such as {LISP} which employ a garbage collector (see {GC}). Also called a {stale pointer bug}. See also {precedence lossage}, {smash the stack}, {fandango on core}, {memory leak}, {overrun screw}, {spam}. Historical note: Though this term is nowadays associated with C programming, it was already in use in a very similar sense in the Algol-60 and FORTRAN communities in the 1960s. all-elbows: adj. Of a TSR (terminate-and-stay-resident) IBM PC program, such as the N pop-up calendar and calculator utilities that circulate on {BBS} systems: unsociable. Used to describe a program that rudely steals the resources that it needs without considering that other TSRs may also be resident. One particularly common form of rudeness is lock-up due to programs fighting over the keyboard interrupt. See also {mess-dos}. ALT: /awlt/ 1. n. The ALT shift key on an IBM PC or {clone}. 2. [possibly lowercased] n. The clover' or Command' key on a Macintosh; use of this term usually reveals that the speaker hacked PCs before coming to the Mac (see also {command key}). Some Mac hackers, confusingly, reserve ALT' for the Option key. 3. n.obs. [PDP-10] Alternate name for the ASCII ESC character, after the keycap labeling on some older terminals. Also ALTMODE'. This character was almost never pronounced "escape" on an ITS system, in {TECO}, or under TOPS-10 --- always ALT, as in "Type ALT ALT to end a TECO command" or "ALT U onto the system" (for "log onto the [ITS] system"). This was probably because ALT is more convenient to say than "escape", especially when followed by another ALT or a character (or another ALT *and* a character, for that matter!). alt bit: /awlt bit/ [from alternate] adj. See {meta bit}. Aluminum Book: [MIT] n. Common Lisp: The Language', by Guy L. Steele Jr., Digital Press, first edition, 1984, second edition 1990. Strictly speaking, only the first edition is the aluminum book, since the second edition has a yucky pale green cover. See also {{book titles}}. amoeba: /*-mee'b*/ n. Humorous term for the Commodore Amiga personal computer. amp off: [Purdue] vt. To run in {background}. From the UNIX shell &' operator. angle brackets: n. Either of the characters <' and >' (ASCII less-than or greater-than signs). The {Real World} angle brackets used by typographers are actually taller than a less-than or greater-than sign. See {broket}, {{ASCII}}. angry fruit salad: n. A bad interface design that uses too many colors. AOS: 1. /aws/ (East coast), /ay-os/ (West coast) [based on a PDP-10 increment instruction] vt.,obs. To increase the amount of something. "Aos the campfire." Usage: considered silly, and now obsolete. See {SOS}. Now largely supplanted by {bump}. 2. A crufty {Multics}-derived OS supported at one time by Data General. This was pronounced /ay-oh-ess/ or /ay-os/, the latter being prevalent internally at DG. A spoof of the standard AOS system administrator's manual (How to load and generate your AOS system') was created, issued a part number, and allegedly released. It was called How to goad and levitate your chaos system'. Historical note: AOS in sense #1 was the name of a {PDP-10} instruction that took any memory location in the computer and added one to it; AOS meant Add One and do not Skip'. Why, you may ask, does the S' stand for do not Skip' rather than for Skip'? Ah, here was a beloved piece of PDP-10 folklore. There were eight such instructions: AOSE added one and then skipped the next instruction if the result was Equal to zero; AOSG added one and then skipped if the result was Greater than zero; AOSN added one and then skipped if the result was Not zero; AOSA added one and then skipped Always; and so on. Just plain AOS didn't say when to skip, so it never skipped. For similar reasons, AOJ meant Add One and do not Jump'. Even more bizarre, SKIP meant Do not SKIP'! If you wanted to skip the next instruction, you had to say SKIPA'. Likewise, JUMP means Do not JUMP'; the unconditional form was JUMPA. However, hackers never did this. By some quirk of the 10's design, the {JRST} (Jump and Restore Flag with no flag specified) was actually faster, and so was invariably used. Such were the perverse mysteries of assembler programming. app: /ap/ n. Short for application program', as opposed to a systems program. What systems vendors are forever chasing developers to do for their environments so they can sell more boxes. Hackers tend not to think of the things they themselves run as apps; thus, in hacker parlance the term excludes compilers, program editors, games, and messaging systems, though a user would consider all those apps. Oppose {tool}, {operating system}. arc: [primarily MSDOS] vt. To create a compressed archive from a group of files using the SEA ARC, PKWare PKARC, or compatible program. Rapidly becoming obsolete as the ARC compression method is falling into disuse, having been replaced by newer compression techniques. See {tar and feather}, {zip}. arc wars: [primarily MSDOS] n. {holy wars} over which archiving program one should use. The first arc war was sparked when System Enhancement Associates (SEA) sued PKWare for copyright and trademark infringement on its ARC program. PKWare's PKARC outperformed ARC on both compression and speed while largely retaining compatibility (it introduced a new compression type which could be disabled for backward-compatibility). PKWare settled out of court to avoid enormous legal costs (both SEA and PKWare are small companies); as part of the settlement, the name of PKARC was changed to PKPAK. The public backlash against SEA for bringing suit helped to hasten the demise of ARC as a standard when PKWare and others introduced new, incompatible archivers with better compression algorithms. archive: n. 1. A collection of several files bundled into one file with a program such as ar(1)', tar(1)', cpio(1)', or {arc} for shipment or archiving (sense #2). See also {tar and feather}. 2. A collection of files or archives (sense #1) made available from an archive site' via {FTP} or an email server. arena: [UNIX] n. The area of memory attached to a process by brk(2)' and sbrk(2)' and used by malloc(3)' as dynamic storage. So named from a semi-mythical malloc: corrupt arena' message supposedly emitted when some early versions became terminally confused. See {overrun screw}, {aliasing bug}, {memory leak}, {smash the stack}. arg: /arg/ n. Abbreviation for argument' (to a function), used so often as to have become a new word (like piano' from pianoforte'). "The sine function takes one arg, but the arc-tangent function can take either one or two args". Compare {param}, {parm}, {var}. armor-plated: n. Syn. for {bulletproof}. asbestos: adj. Used as a modifier to anything intended to protect one from {flame}s. Important cases of this include {asbestos longjohns} and {asbestos cork award}, but it is used more generally. asbestos cork award: n. Once, long ago at MIT, there was a {flamer} so consistently obnoxious that another hacker designed, had made, and distributed posters announcing that said flamer had been nominated for the asbestos cork award'. Persons in any doubt as to the intended application of the cork should consult the etymology under {flame}. Since then, it is agreed that only a select few have risen to the heights of bombast required to earn this dubious dignity --- but there's no agreement on *which* few. asbestos longjohns: n. Notional garments often donned by {USENET} posters just before emitting a remark they expect will elicit {flamage}. This is the most common of the {asbestos} coinages. Also asbestos underwear', asbestos overcoat', etc. ASCII:: [American Standard Code for Information Interchange] /as'kee/ n. The predominant character set encoding of present-day computers. Uses 7 bits for each character, whereas most earlier codes (including one version of ASCII) used fewer. This change allowed the inclusion of lowercase letters, a major {win} --- but it did not provide for accented letters or any other letterforms not used in English (such as the German sharp-S and the ae-ligature which is a letter in, for example, Norwegian). It could be worse, though. It could be much worse. See {{EBCDIC}} to understand how. Computers are much less flexible and pickier about spelling than humans; thus, hackers need to be very precise when talking about characters, and have developed a considerable amount of verbal shorthand for talking about characters. Every character has one or more names; some formal, some concise, some silly. Common jargon names for ASCII characters are collected here. See also individual entries for {bang}, {excl}, {open}, {ques}, {semi}, {shriek}, {splat}, {twiddle}, and {Yu-Shiang Whole Fish}. This list derives from revision 2.2 of the USENET ASCII pronunciation guide. Single characters are listed in ASCII order; character pairs are sorted in by first member. For each character, common names are given in rough order of popularity followed by names which are reported but rarely seen; official ANSI/CCITT names are parenthesized. Square brackets mark the particularly silly names introduced by {INTERCAL}. ! Common: {bang}, pling, excl, shriek, (exclamation mark). Rare: factorial, exclam, smash, cuss, boing, yell, wow, hey, wham, [spot-spark], soldier. " Common: double quote, quote. Rare: literal mark, double-glitch, (quotation marks), (dieresis), dirk, [rabbit-ears]. # Common: (number sign), pound, pound sign, hash, sharp, {crunch}, hex, [mesh], octothorpe. Rare: flash, crosshatch, grid, pig-pen, tictactoe, scratchmark, thud, thump, {splat}.$
Common: dollar, (dollar sign).  Rare: currency symbol, buck,
cash, string (from BASIC), escape (when used as the echo of
ASCII ESC), ding, cache, [big money].

%
Common: percent, (percent sign), mod, grapes.  Rare:
[double-oh-seven].

&
Common: (ampersand), amper, and.  Rare: address (from C),
reference (from C++), andpersand, bitand, background (from
sh(1)'), pretzel, amp. [INTERCAL called this ampersand';
what could be sillier?]

'
Common: single quote, quote, (apostrophe).  Rare: prime,
glitch, tick, irk, pop, [spark], (closing single quotation
mark), (acute accent).

()
Common: left/right paren, left/right parenthesis, left/right,
paren/thesis, open/close paren, open/close, open/close
parenthesis, left/right banana.  Rare: lparen/rparen,
left/right ear, parenthisey/unparenthisey, open/close round
bracket.

*
Common: star, {splat}, (asterisk).  Rare: wildcard, gear,
dingle, mult, spider, aster, times, twinkle, glob (see
{glob}), {Nathan Hale}.  [INTERCAL called this splat']

+
Common: (plus), add.  Rare: cross, [intersection].

,
Common: (comma).  Rare: (cedilla), [tail].

-
Common: dash, (hyphen), (minus).  Rare: [worm], option, dak,
bithorpe.

.
Common: dot, point, (period), (decimal point).  Rare: radix
point, full stop, [spot].

/
Common: slash, stroke, (slant), forward slash.  Rare:
diagonal, solidus, over, slak, virgule, [slat].

:
Common: (colon).  Rare: [two-spot].

;
Common: (semicolon), semi.  Rare: weenie, [hybrid].

<>
Common: (less/greater than), left/right angle bracket,
bra/ket, left/right broket.  Rare: from/{into,towards}, read
from/write to, suck/blow, comes-from/gozinta, in/out,
crunch/zap (all from UNIX), [angle/right angle].

=
Common: (equals), gets, takes.  Rare: quadrathorpe,
[half-mesh].

?
Common: query, (question mark), {ques}.  Rare: whatmark,
[what], wildchar, huh, hook, buttonhook, hunchback.

@
Common: at sign, at, strudel.  Rare: each, vortex, whorl,
[whirlpool], cyclone, snail, ape, cat, rose, cabbage,
(commercial at).

V
Rare: vee, [book].

[]
Common: left/right square bracket, (opening/closing bracket),
bracket/unbracket, left/right bracket.  Rare: square/unsquare,
[U turn/U turn back].

\
Common: backslash, escape (from C/UNIX), reverse slash, slosh,
backslant, backwhack.  Rare: bash, (reverse slant), reversed
virgule, [backslat].

^
Common: hat, control, uparrow, caret, (circumflex).  Rare:
chevron, [shark (or shark-fin)], to the (to the power of'),
fang.

_
Common: (underline), underscore, underbar, under.  Rare:
score, backarrow (from the ASCII-1963 graphic), [flatworm].

Common: backquote, left quote, left single quote, open quote,
(grave accent), grave.  Rare: backprime, [backspark],
unapostrophe, birk, blugle, back tick, back glitch, push,
(opening single quotation mark), quasiquote.

{}

Common: open/close brace, left/right brace, left/right
squiggly, left/right squiggly bracket/brace, left/right curly
bracket/brace, (opening/closing brace).  Rare: brace/unbrace,
left/right squirrelly, curly/uncurly, leftit/rytit,
[embrace/bracelet].

|
Common: bar, or, or-bar, v-bar, pipe, vertical bar.  Rare:
(vertical line), gozinta, thru, pipesinta (last three ones
from UNIX), [spike].

~
Common: (tilde), squiggle, {twiddle}, not.  Rare: approx,
wiggle, swung dash, enyay, [sqiggle (sic)].

The pronunciation of #' as pound' is common in the U.S. but
a bad idea; {{Commonwealth Hackish}} has its own rather more apposite
use of pound sign' (confusingly, on British keyboards the pound
graphic happens to replace #'; thus Britishers sometimes call #'
on a US-ASCII keyboard pound', compounding the American error).
The U.S. usage derives from an old-fashioned commercial practice of
using a #' suffix to tag pound weights on bills of lading.
The character is usually pronounced hash' outside the U.S.

Also note that the swung dash' or approximation' sign is not
quite the same as tilde in typeset material
but the ASCII tilde serves for both (compare {angle
brackets}).

Some other common usages cause odd overlaps.  The #',
$', >', and &' chars, for example, are all pronounced "hex" in different communities because various assemblers use them as a prefix tag for hexadecimal constants (in particular, $' in the 6502 world, >' at Texas
Instruments, and &' on the Sinclair and some other Z80
machines).

The inability of ASCII text to correctly represent any of the
world's other major languages makes the designers' choice of 7 bits
look more and more like a serious {misfeature} as the use of
international networks continues to increase (see {software
rot}).  Hardware and software from the US still tends to embody the
assumption that ASCII is the *universal* character set; this
is a now a major irritant to people who want to use a character set
suited to their own language.

attoparsec: n. atto-' is the official SI prefix for
multiplication by 10 ^ -18', a parsec (parallax-second) is 3.26
light-years; an attoparsec is thus 3.26e-18 light years, or about
3.1 cm (thus, 1 attoparsec/{microfortnight} equals about 1
inch/sec).  This unit is reported to be in use (though probably not
very seriously) among hackers in Great Britain.  See {micro-}

autobogotiphobia: /aw'to-boh-got'*-fohbee-uh/ n. See {bogotify}.

Automatically, but in a way which, for some reason (typically
because it is too complicated, or too ugly, or perhaps even too
trivial), the speaker doesn't feel like explaining to you.  See
{magic}.  "The C-INTERCAL compiler generates C, then automagically
invokes cc(1)' to produce an executable."

avatar: [CMU, Textronix] n. Syn. {root}, {superuser}.  There
are quite a few UNIX machines on which the name of the superuser
account is avatar' rather than root'.  This quirk was originated
by a CMU hacker who disliked the term superuser' and propagated
through an ex-CMU hacker at Textronix.

awk: 1. n. [UNIX techspeak] An interpreted language developed by
Aho, Weinberg, and Kernighan (the name is from their initials).  It
is characterized by: C-like syntax, a BASIC-like approach to
variable typing and declarations, associative arrays, and
Editing term for an expression awkward to manipulate through normal
regular expression facilities.  3. vt. To process data using
awk(1)'.

= B =
=====

back door: n. A hole in the security of a system deliberately left in
place by designers or maintainers.  The motivation for this is not
always sinister; some operating systems, for example, come out of
the box with privileged accounts intended for use by field service
or the vendor's maintenance programmers.

Historically, back doors have often lurked in systems longer than
anyone expected or planned, and a few have become widely known.
The infamous {RTM} worm of late 1988, for example, used a back door
in the {BSD} UNIX sendmail(8)' utility.

Ken Thompson's 1983 Turing Award lecture to the ACM revealed the
existence of a back door in early UNIX versions that may have
qualified as the most fiendishly clever security hack of all time.
The binaries of the C compiler had code in them which would
automatically patch itself into the output executable whenever the
compiler itself was being recompiled, and also patch the
login' command, when *it* was being recompiled, to
accept a password that gave Thompson entry to the computer whether
or not an account had been created for him!  Thompson describes
this hack as a {Trojan horse}.  This talk was published as
Reflections on Trusting Trust', Communications of the ACM
27,8 (August 1984) pp. 761--763.  Although Thompson didn't say
whether the hacked version ever made it off site, it is commonly
believed that this back door was in fact propagated through
hundreds of machines without any clue to it ever showing up in
source.

Syn. {trap door}; may also be called a wormhole'.  See also
{iron box}, {cracker}, {worm}, {logic bomb}.

backbone cabal: n. A group of large-site administrators who pushed
through the {Great Renaming} and reined in the chaos of {USENET}
during most of the 1980s.  The cabal {mailing list} disbanded in late
1988 after a bitter internal catfight, but the net hardly noticed.

backbone site: n. A key USENET and email site; one which processes
a large amount of third-party traffic, especially if it's the home
site of any of the regional coordinators for the USENET maps.
Notable backbone sites as of early 1991 include uunet' and the
mail machines at Rutgers University, UC Berkeley, DEC's Western
Research Laboratories, Ohio State University, and the University of
Texas.  Compare {rib site}, {leaf site}.

backgammon:: See {bignum}, {moby}, and {pseudoprime}.

is detached from the terminal where it was started (and often
running at a lower priority); oppose {foreground}.  Nowadays this
term is primarily associated with {UNIX}, but it appears first to
have been used in this sense on OS/360.  2. By extension, to do a
task in background' is to do it whenever {foreground}
matters are not claiming your undivided attention, and to
background' something means to relegate it to a lower priority.
Note that this implies ongoing activity but at a reduced level or
in spare time, in contrast to mainstream back burner' which
connotes benign neglect until some future resumption of activity.
Some people prefer to use the term for processing that they've
queued up for their unconscious minds (a tack that one can often
fruitfully take when encountering an obstacle in creative work).
Compare {amp off}, {slopsucker}.

backspace and overstrike: interj. Whoa!  Back up.  Used to suggest
that someone just said or did something wrong.  Common among
APL programmers.

backward combatability: /bak'w*rd k*m-bat'*-bil'*-tee/ [corruption
of "backward compatibility"] adj. A property pertaining to
hardware or software in which all previous protocols, formats, and
layouts are discarded in favor of the new and improved'
protocols, formats, and layouts.  Occurs usually when making the
transition between major releases.  When the change is so drastic
that the old formats are not retained in the new version, it is
said to be backward combatable'.  See {flag day}.

which is {bogus} due to bad design and misfeatures rather than
due to bugginess.  See {working as designed}.

Bad Thing: [from the 1930 Sellars & Yeatman parody 1066 And
all that'] n. Something which can't possibly result in improvement
of the subject.  This term is always capitalized, as in "Replacing
all of the 9600 baud modems with bicycle couriers would be a Bad
Thing."  Oppose {Good Thing}.  British correspondents confirm
that {Bad Thing} and {Good Thing} (and prob. therefore {Right
Thing} and {Wrong Thing}) come from the book referenced in the
etymology, which discusses rulers who were Good Kings, but Bad
Things.  This has apparently created a mainstream idiom on the
British side of the pond.

bagbiter: /bag'biet-*r/ n.  1. Something, such as a program or a
computer, that fails to work, or works in a remarkably clumsy
manner.  Example: "This text editor won't let me make a file with
a line longer than 80 characters!  What a bagbiter!"  2. A person
who has caused you some trouble, inadvertently or otherwise,
typically by failing to program the computer properly.  Synonyms:
{loser}, {cretin}, {chomper}.  3. adj. bagbiting'
Having the quality of a bagbiter.  "This bagbiting system won't
let me compute the factorial of a negative number."  Compare
{losing}, {cretinous}, {bletcherous}, barfucious' (under
{barfulous}) and chomping' (under {chomp}).  4. bite
the bag' vi. To fail in some manner.  "The computer keeps crashing
every five minutes."  "Yes, the disk controller is really biting
undoubtedly obscene, possibly referring to the scrotum, but in
their current usage they have become almost completely sanitized.

A program on the old MIT-AI PDP-10 called Lexiphage would first
draw, on a selected victim's bitmapped terminal, the words "THE
BAG" in gothic letters and then a pair of jaws biting pieces of it
off.  This is the the first known example of a program
*intended* to be a bagbiter.

bamf: /bamf/ 1. [from old X-Men comics] interj. Notional sound made
by a person or object teleporting in or out of the hearer's
vicinity.  Often used in {virtual reality} (esp. {MUD})
electronic fora when a character wishes to make a dramatic entrance
or exit.  2. The sound of magical transformation, used in virtual
reality fora like sense #1.  3. [from Don Washington's
Survival Guide'] n. Acronym for Bad-Ass Mother Fucker', used to
refer to one of the handful of nastiest monsters on an LPMUD or
similar MUD.

banana label: n. The labels often used on the sides of {macrotape}
reels, so called because they're shaped roughly like blunt-ended
bananas.  This term, like macrotapes themselves, is still current

banana problem: n. [from the story of the little girl who said "I
know how to spell banana', but I don't know when to stop"].  Not
knowing where or when to bring a production to a close (compare
{fencepost error}).  One may say there is a banana problem of an
algorithm with poorly defined or incorrect termination conditions,
or in discussing the evolution of a design that may be succumbing

bandwidth: n. 1. Used by hackers in a generalization of its
technical meaning as the volume of information per unit time that a
computer, person or transmission medium can handle.  "Those are
amazing graphics but I missed some of the detail --- not enough
bandwidth, I guess."  Compare {low-bandwidth}.  2. Attention
span.  3. On {USENET}, a measure of network capacity that is
often wasted by people complaining about how network news items
posted by others are a waste of bandwidth.

bang: 1. n. Common spoken name for !' (ASCII #b0100001),
especially when used in pronouncing a {bang path} in spoken
hackish.  In elder days this was considered a CMUish usage, with
MIT and Stanford hackers preferring {excl} or {shriek}; but the
spread of UNIX has carried {bang} with it (esp. via the term
{bang path}) and it is now certainly the most common spoken name
for !'.  Note that it is used exclusively for non-emphatic
written !'; one would not say "Congratulations bang"
(except possibly for humorous purposes), but if one wanted to
specify the exact characters FOO!', one would speak "Eff oh oh
bang".  See {shriek}, {{ASCII}}.  2. interj. An exclamation
signifying roughly "I have achieved enlightenment!", or "The
dynamite has cleared out my brain!".  Often used to acknowledge
that one has perpetrated a {thinko} immediately after one has
been called on it.

bang on: vt. To stress-test a piece of hardware or software, as in
"Pete, I banged on the new version of the simulator all day
yesterday and it didn't crash once.  I guess it is ready to
release."  The term {pound on} is synonymous.

bang path: n. An old-style UUCP electronic-mail address specifying
hops to get from some assumed-reachable location to the addressee,
so called because each {hop} is signified by a {bang} sign.  Thus
the path ...!bigsite!foovax!barbox!me' directs correspondents
to route their mail to machine bigsite' (presumably a well-known
location accessible to everybody) and from there through the
machine foovax' to the account of user me' on barbox'.

In the bad old days of not so long ago, before autorouting mailers
became commonplace, people often published compound bang addresses
using the { } convention (see {glob}) to give paths from
*several* big machines, in the hopes that one's correspondent
might be able to get mail to one of them reliably (example:
...!{seismo, ut-sally, gatech}!rice!beta!gamma!me).  Bang paths
of 8 to 10 hops were not uncommon in 1981.  Late night dial-up
uucp links would cause week-long transmission times.  Bang paths
were often selected by both transmission time and reliability, as
messages would often get lost.  See {{Internet address}},
{network, the}, and {sitename}.

banner: n. 1. The title page added to printouts by most print
spoolers see {spool}.  Typically includes user or account ID
information in very large character-graphics capitals.  2. A
similar printout generated (typically on multiple pages of fan-fold
paper) from user-specified text, e.g. by a program such as UNIX's
banner([16])'.  3. On interactive software, a first screen
containing a logo and/or author credits and/or copyright notice.

bar: /bar/ n. 1. The second metasyntactic variable, after {foo}
and before {baz}.  "Suppose we have two functions FOO and BAR.
FOO calls BAR...."  2. Often appended to {foo} to produce
{foobar}.

bare metal: n. 1. New computer hardware, unadorned with such
snares and delusions as an {operating system}, {HLL}, or even
assembler.  Commonly in the phrase programming on the bare metal',
which refers to the arduous work of {bit bashing} needed to
create these basic tools for a new machine.  Real bare-metal
programming involves things like building boot proms and BIOS
chips, implementing basic monitors used to test device drivers, and
writing the assemblers that will be used to write the compiler back
ends that will give the new machine a real development environment.
2. The same phrase is also used to describe a style of
{hand-hacking} that relies on bit-level peculiarities of a
particular hardware design, esp. tricks for speed and space
optimization that rely on crocks such as overlapping instructions
(or, as in the famous case described in Appendix A, interleaving of
opcodes on a magnetic drum to minimize fetch delays due to the
device's rotational latency).  This sort of thing has become less
common as the relative costs of programming time and machine
resources have changed, but is still found in heavily constrained
environments like industrial embedded systems.  See {real
programmer}.

In the personal computing world, bare metal programming (especially
in sense #1 but sometimes also in sense #2) is often considered a
{Good Thing}, or at least a necessary thing (because these
machines have frequently been sufficiently slow and poorly designed
to make it necessary; see {ill-behaved}).  There, the term
usually refers to bypassing the BIOS or OS interface and writing
the application to directly access device registers and machine
addresses.  "To get 19.2 on the serial port, you need to get down
to the bare metal."  People who can do this sort of thing are held in
high regard.

barf: /barf/ [from mainstream slang meaning vomit'] 1. interj.
Term of disgust.  This is the closest hackish equivalent of the
Valspeak gag me with a spoon' (Like, euwww!).  See {bletch}.
2. To say "Barf!" or emit some similar expression of disgust. "I
showed him my latest hack and he barfed" means only that he
complained about it, not that he literally vomited.  3. vi. To fail
to work because of unacceptable input.  May mean to give an error
message.  Examples: "The division operation barfs if you try to
divide by zero."  (That is, the division operation checks for an
attempt to divide by zero, and if one is encountered it causes the
operation to fail in some unspecified, but generally obvious,
manner) "The text editor barfs if you try to read in a new file
before writing out the old one."  See {choke}, {gag}.  Note
that in Commonwealth hackish, barf' is generally replaced by
puke' or vom'.  {barf} is sometimes also used as a
metasyntactic variable like {foo} or {bar}.

barfulation: interj. Variation of {barf} used around the Stanford
area.  An exclamation, expressing disgust.  On seeing some
particularly bad code one might exclaim, "Barfulation!  Who wrote
this, Quux?"

barfulous: adj. (also barfucious') Said of something which would
make anyone barf, if only for esthetic reasons.

baroque: adj. Feature-encrusted; complex; gaudy; verging on
excessive.  Said of hardware or (esp.) software designs, this has
many of the connotations of {elephantine} or {monstrosity} but is

BartleMUD: /bar'tl-muhd/ n. Any of the MUDs which are derived from
the original MUD game (see {MUD}) or use the same software
drivers.  BartleMUDs are noted for their (usually slightly offbeat)
humor, dry but friendly syntax, and lack of adjectives in object
descriptions, so a player is likely to come across brand172', for
instance (see {brand brand brand}).  Some mudders intensely
dislike Bartle and this term, preferring to speak of MUD-1'.

batch: adj. Non-interactive.  Hackers use this somewhat more
loosely than the traditional technical definitions justify; in
particular, switches on a normally interactive program that prepare
it to receive non-interactive command input are often referred to
as batch mode' switches.  A batch file' is a series of
instructions written to be handed to an interactive program running
in batch mode.

bathtub curve: n. Common term for the curve (resembling an
end-to-end section of one of those claw-footed antique bathtubs)
that describes the expected failure rate of electronics with time:
initially high, dropping to near zero for most of the system's
lifetime, then rising again as it tires out'.  See also {burn-in
period}, {infant mortality}.

baud: /bawd/ [simplified from its technical meaning] n. Bits per
second.  Hence kilobaud or Kbaud, thousand bits per second.  The
technical meaning is level transitions per second'; this coincides
with bps only for two-level modulation with no framing or stop
bits.  Hackers are generally aware of these nuances but blithely
ignore them.

baud barf: /bawd barf/ n. The garbage one gets on the monitor when
using a modem connection with some protocol setting (esp. line
speed) incorrect, or when someone picks up a voice extension on the
same line, or when really bad line noise disrupts the connection.
Baud barf is not completely {random}, by the way; hackers with a
lot of serial-line experience can usually tell whether the device
at the other end is expecting a higher or lower speed than the
terminal is set to.  *Really* experienced ones can identify
particular speeds.

baz: /baz/ [Stanford corruption of {bar}] n. 1. The third
metasyntactic variable, after {foo} and {bar} and before
{quux} (or, occasionally, qux'; or local idiosyncracies like
rag', zowie', etc.).  "Suppose we have three
functions FOO, BAR, and BAZ.  FOO calls BAR, which calls
BAZ...."  2. interj. A term of mild annoyance.  In this usage
the term is often drawn out for two or three seconds, producing an
effect not unlike the bleating of a sheep; /baaaaaaz/.
3. Occasionally appended to {foo} to produce foobaz'.

bboard: /bee'bord/ [contraction of bulletin board'] n.
1. Any electronic bulletin board; esp. used of {BBS} systems
running on personal micros, less frequently of a USENET
{newsgroup} (in fact, use of the term for a newsgroup generally
marks one either as a {newbie} fresh in from the BBS world or as
a real old-timer predating USENET).  2. At CMU and other colleges
with similar facilities, refers to campus-wide electronic bulletin
boards.  3. The term physical bboard' is sometimes used to
refer to a old-fashioned, non-electronic cork memo board.  At CMU,
it refers to a particular one outside the CS Lounge.

In either of senses 1 or 2, the term is usually prefixed by the
name of the intended board (the Moonlight Casino bboard' or
market bboard'); however, if the context is clear, the better-read
bboards may be referred to by name alone, as in [at CMU] "Don't

BBS: [acronym, Bulletin Board System] n. An electronic bulletin
board system; that is, a message database where people can log in
and leave broadcast messages for others grouped (typically) into
topic areas.  Thousands of local BBS systems are in operation
throughout the U.S., typically run by amateurs for fun out of their
homes on MS-DOS boxes with a single modem line each.  Fans of
USENET and Internet or the big commercial timesharing bboards like
CompuServe or GEnie tend to consider local BBSes the low-rent
district of the hacker culture, but they serve a valuable function
by knitting together lots of hackers and users in the
personal-micro world who would otherwise be unable to exchange code
at all.

beam: [from Star Trek Classic's "Beam me up, Scotty!"] vt. To
transfer {softcopy} of a file electronically; most often in
combining forms such as beam me a copy' or beam that over to
his site'.  Compare {blast}, {snarf}, {BLT}.

beep: n.,v. Syn. {feep}.  This term seems to be preferred among micro
hobbyists.

beige toaster: n. A Macintosh. See {toaster}; compare
{Macintrash}, {maggotbox}.

bells and whistles: [by analogy with the toyboxes on theater
organs] n. Features added to a program or system to make it more
{flavorful} from a hacker's point of view, without necessarily
adding to its utility for its primary function.  Distinguished from
{chrome}, which is intended to attract users.  "Now that we've
got the basic program working, let's go back and add some bells and
whistles."  However, no one seems to know what distinguishes a
bell from a whistle.

bells, whistles, and gongs: n. A standard elaborated form of
{bells and whistles}; typically said with a pronounced and ironic
accent on the gongs'.

benchmark: [techspeak] n. An inaccurate measure of computer
performance.  "In the computer industry, there are three kinds of
lies: lies, damn lies, and benchmarks."  Well-known ones include
Whetstone, Dhrystone, the Gabriel LISP benchmarks (see
{gabriel}), Rhealstone (see {h}), the SPECmark suite and

Berkeley Quality Software: adj. (often abbreviated BQS') Term used
in a pejorative sense to refer to software which was apparently
created by rather spaced-out hackers late at night to solve some
unique problem.  It usually has nonexistent, incomplete, or
incorrect documentation, has been tested on at least two examples,
and core dumps when anyone else attempts to use it.  This term was
frequently applied to early versions of the dbx(1)' debugger.

berklix: /ber'kliks/ n.,adj. [contraction of Berkeley UNIX'] See
{BSD}.  Not used at Berkeley itself.  May be more common among
{suit}s attempting to sound like cognoscenti than among hackers,
who usually just say BSD'.

berserking: vi. A {MUD} term meaning to gain points *only*
by killing other players and mobiles (non-player characters).
Hence a Berserker-Wizard is a player character that has achieved
enough points to become a wizard, but only by killing other
characters.  Berserking is sometimes frowned upon because of its
inherently antisocial nature, but some MUDs have a berserker
mode' in which a player becomes *permanently* berserk, can
never flee out of a fight, cannot use magic, gets no score for
treasure, but *does* get double kill points.  "Berserker
wizards can seriously damage your elf!"

Berzerkeley: [from "berserk"] /b*r-zer'klee/ [from the name of
a now-deceased record label] n. Humorous distortion of Berkeley'
used esp. to refer to the practices or products of the {BSD}
UNIX hackers.  See {software bloat}, {Missed'em-five},
{Berkeley Quality Software}.

Mainstream use of this term in reference to the cultural and
political peculiarities of UC Berkeley as a whole has been reported
from as far back as the 1960s.

beta: /be't*/, /bay't*/ or (Commonwealth) /bee't*/ n. 1. In the
{Real World}, software often goes through two stages of testing:
Alpha (in-house) and Beta (out-house?).  Software is said to be
in beta'.  2. Anything that is new and experimental is in
beta. "His girlfriend is in beta."  3. Beta software is
notoriously buggy, so in beta' connotes flakiness.

Historical note: More formally, to beta-test is to test a
pre-release (potentially unreliable) version of a piece of software
by making it available to selected customers and users.  This term
derives from early 1960s terminology for product cycle checkpoints,
first used at IBM but later standard throughout the industry.
Alpha Test' was the unit, module, or component test phase; Beta
Test' was initial system test.  These themselves came from earlier
A- and B-tests for hardware.  The A-test was a feasibility and
manufacturability evaluation done before any commitment to design
and development.  The B-test was a demonstration that the
engineering model functioned as specified.  The C-test
(corresponding to today's beta) was the B-test performed on early
samples of the production design.

BFI: n. See {brute force and ignorance}.  Also encountered in the
variant BFMI', brute force and *massive* ignorance'.

bible: n. 1. One of a small number of fundamental source books
such as {Knuth} and {K&R}.  2. The most detailed and
authoritative reference for a particular language, operating
system, or other complex software system.

BiCapitalization: adj. The act said to have been performed on
trademarks such as NeXT, {NeWS}, VisiCalc, FrameMaker, TK!solver,
EasyWriter and others which have been raised above the hoi polloi
of common coinage by nonstandard capitalization.  Too many
{marketroid} types think this sort of thing is really cute, even
the 2,317th time they do it.  Compare {studlycaps}.

BIFF: /bif/ [USENET] n. The most famous {pseudo}, and the
prototypical {newbie}.  Articles from BIFF are characterized by
all upper case letters sprinkled liberally with bangs, typos,
cute' misspellings (EVRY BUDY LUVS GOOD OLD BIFF CUZ HE"S A K00L
DOOD AN HE RITES REEL AWESUM THINGZ IN CAPITULL LETTRS LIKE
THIS!!!), use (and often misuse) of fragments of {talk mode}
abbreviations, a long {sig block} (sometimes even a {doubled
sig}), and unbounded naivete.  BIFF posts articles using his elder
brother's VIC-20.  BIFF's location is a mystery, as his articles
appear to come from a variety of sites.  However, {BITNET} seems to
be the most frequent origin.  The theory that BIFF is a denizen of
BITNET is supported by BIFF's (unfortunately invalid) electronic

biff: /bif/ vt. To notify someone of incoming mail; from the BSD
utility biff(1)' which was in turn named after the
implementor's dog (it barked whenever the mailman came).

Big Grey Wall: n. What greets a {VMS} user searching for
documentation.  A full VMS kit comes on a pallet, the documentation
taking up around 15 feet of shelf space before adding layered
products such as compilers, databases, multivendor networking,
programming tools, etc.  Recent (since VMS V5) DEC documentation
comes with grey binders; under VMS V4 the binders were orange
(big orange wall'), and under V3 they were blue.  See {VMS}.

big iron: n. Large, expensive, ultra-fast computers.  Used generally
of {number-crunching} supercomputers such as Crays, but can include
more conventional big commercial IBMish mainframes.  Term of
approval; compare {heavy metal}, oppose {dinosaur}.

Big Red Switch: [IBM] n. The power switch on a computer, esp. the
Emergency Pull' switch on an IBM {mainframe} or the power switch
on an IBM PC where it really is large and red.  "This !@%$% {bitty box} is hung again; time to hit the Big Red Switch." Sources at IBM report that, in tune with the company's passion for {TLA}s, this is often acronymized as BRS' (this has also become established on FidoNet and in the PC {clone} world). It is alleged that the emergency pull switch on an IBM 360/91 actually fired a non-conducting bolt into the main power feed; the BRSes on more recent machines physically drop a block into place so that they can't be pushed back in. People get fired for pulling them, especially inappropriately (see also {molly-guard}). Compare {power cycle}, {three-finger salute}. big win: n. Serendipity. "Yes, those two physicists discovered high-temperature superconductivity in a batch of ceramic that had been prepared incorrectly according to their experimental schedule. Small mistake; big win!" To win big' (vi.) is to experience serendipity. "I went shopping and won big; there was a two-for-one sale." See {win}. big-endian: [From Swift's Gulliver's Travels' via a famous paper On Holy Wars and a Plea for Peace' by Danny Cohen, USC/ISI IEN 137 dated 1 April 1980] 1. adj. Describes a computer architecture in which, within a given multi-byte numeric representation, the most significant byte comes first (the word is stored big-end-first'). Most processors including the IBM 370 family and the {PDP-10}, and Motorola microprocessor families and most of the various RISC designs current in mid-1991 are big-endian. See {little-endian}, {middle-endian}, {NUXI problem}. 2. adj. An {{Internet address}} the wrong way round. Most of the world follows the Internet standard and writes email addresses starting with the name of the computer and ending up with the name of the country. In the UK the Joint Networking Team decided to do it the other way round; e.g. me@uk.ac.wigan.cs'. Most gateway sites have {ad-hockery} in their mailers to handle this, but can still be confused. In particular the address above could be in the UK (code uk') or Czechoslovakia (code cs'). bignum: /big'nuhm/ [orig. from MIT MacLISP] n. 1. [techspeak] A multiple-precision computer representation for very large integers. More generally, any very large number. "Have you ever looked at the United States Budget? There's bignums for you!" 2. [Stanford] n. In backgammon, large numbers on the dice are called bignums', especially a roll of double fives or double sixes. See also {El Camino Bignum}. Sense #1 may require some explanation. Most computer languages provide a kind of data called integer', but such computer integers are usually very limited in size; usually they must be smaller than 2 ^ 31 (2,147,483,648) or (on a losing {bitty box}) 2 ^ 15 (32,768). If you want to work with numbers larger than that, you have to use floating-point numbers, which are usually accurate to only six or seven decimal places. Computer languages that provide bignums can perform exact calculations on very large numbers, such as 1000! (the factorial of 1000, which is 1000 times 999 times 998 times ... times 2 times 1). For example, this value for 1000! was computed by the MacLISP system using bignums: 40238726007709377354370243392300398571937486421071 46325437999104299385123986290205920442084869694048 00479988610197196058631666872994808558901323829669 94459099742450408707375991882362772718873251977950 59509952761208749754624970436014182780946464962910 56393887437886487337119181045825783647849977012476 63288983595573543251318532395846307555740911426241 74743493475534286465766116677973966688202912073791 43853719588249808126867838374559731746136085379534 52422158659320192809087829730843139284440328123155 86110369768013573042161687476096758713483120254785 89320767169132448426236131412508780208000261683151 02734182797770478463586817016436502415369139828126 48102130927612448963599287051149649754199093422215 66832572080821333186116811553615836546984046708975 60290095053761647584772842188967964624494516076535 34081989013854424879849599533191017233555566021394 50399736280750137837615307127761926849034352625200 01588853514733161170210396817592151090778801939317 81141945452572238655414610628921879602238389714760 88506276862967146674697562911234082439208160153780 88989396451826324367161676217916890977991190375403 12746222899880051954444142820121873617459926429565 81746628302955570299024324153181617210465832036786 90611726015878352075151628422554026517048330422614 39742869330616908979684825901254583271682264580665 26769958652682272807075781391858178889652208164348 34482599326604336766017699961283186078838615027946 59551311565520360939881806121385586003014356945272 24206344631797460594682573103790084024432438465657 24501440282188525247093519062092902313649327349756 55139587205596542287497740114133469627154228458623 77387538230483865688976461927383814900140767310446 64025989949022222176590433990188601856652648506179 97023561938970178600408118897299183110211712298459 01641921068884387121855646124960798722908519296819 37238864261483965738229112312502418664935314397013 74285319266498753372189406942814341185201580141233 44828015051399694290153483077644569099073152433278 28826986460278986432113908350621709500259738986355 42771967428222487575867657523442202075736305694988 25087968928162753848863396909959826280956121450994 87170124451646126037902930912088908694202851064018 21543994571568059418727489980942547421735824010636 77404595741785160829230135358081840096996372524230 56085590370062427124341690900415369010593398383577 79394109700277534720000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000. bigot: n. A person who is religiously attached to a particular computer, language, operating system, editor or other tool (see {religious issues}). Usually found with a specifier; thus, cray bigot', APL bigot', VMS bigot', EMACS bigot'. True bigots can be distinguished from mere partisans or zealots by the fact that they refuse to learn alternatives even when the march of time and/or technology is threatening to obsolete the favored tool. It is said "You can tell a bigot, but you can't tell him much." Compare {weenie}. bit: [from the mainstream meaning and binary digit'] n. 1. [techspeak] The unit of information; the amount of information obtained by asking a yes-or-no question for which the two outcomes are equally probable 2. [techspeak] A computational quantity that can take on one of two values, such as true and false, or zero and one. 3. A mental flag: a reminder that something should be done eventually. Example: "I have a bit set for you." (I haven't seen you for a while, and I'm supposed to tell or ask you something.) 4. More generally, a (possibly incorrect) mental state of belief. Example: "I have a bit set that says that you were the last guy to hack on EMACS." (Meaning, "I think you were the last guy who hacked on EMACS, and what I am about to say is predicated on this, so please stop me if this isn't true.") "I just need one bit from you" is a polite way of indicating that you intend only a short interruption for a question which can presumably be answered with a yes or no. A bit is said to be set' if its value is true or one, and reset' or clear' if its value is false or zero. One speaks of setting and clearing bits. To toggle' or invert' a bit is to change it, either from zero to one or from one to zero. See also {flag}, {trit}, {mode bit}. bit bang: n. Transmission of data on a serial line, when accomplished by rapidly tweaking a single output bit at the appropriate times (popular on certain early models of Prime computers, presumably when UARTs were too expensive, and on archaic Z80 micros with a Zilog PIO but no SIO). The technique is a simple loop with eight OUT and SHIFT instruction pairs for each byte. Input is more interesting. And full duplex (doing input and output at the same time) is one way to separate the real hackers from the {wannabee}s. bit bashing: n. (also, bit diddling' or {bit twiddling}) Term used to describe any of several kinds of low-level programming characterized by manipulation of {bit}, {flag}, {nybble} and other smaller-than-character-sized pieces of data: these include low-level device control, encryption algorithms, checksum and error-correcting codes, hash functions, some flavors of graphics programming (see {bitblt}), and assembler/compiler code generation. May connote either tedium or a real technical challenge (more usually the former). "The command decoding for the new tape driver looks pretty solid but the bit-bashing for the control registers still has bugs." See also {bit bang}, {mode bit}. bit twiddling: n. 1. (pejorative) An exercise in {tuning} in which incredible amounts of time and effort go to produce little noticeable improvement, with the frequent result that the code has become incomprehensible. 2. aimless small modification to a program, esp. for some pointless goal. 3. Approx. syn. for {bit bashing}; esp. used for the act of frobbing the device control register of a peripheral in an attempt to get it back to a known state. bit bucket: n. 1. The universal data sink (originally, the mythical receptacle used to catch bits when they fall off the end of a register during a shift instruction). Data that is discarded, lost, or destroyed is said to go to the bit bucket'. On {UNIX}, often used for {/dev/null}. Sometimes amplified as the Great Bit Bucket in the Sky'. 2. The place where all lost mail and news messages eventually go. The selection is performed according to {Murphy's Law}; important mail is much more likely to end in the bit bucket than junk mail, which has almost 100% probability of getting delivered. Routing to the bit bucket is automatically performed by the mail transfer agents, news systems and the lower layers of the network. 3. The ideal location for all unwanted mail responses, e.g "Flames about this article to /dev/null." Such a request is guaranteed to overflow one's mailbox with flames. 4. Excuse for all mail that has not been sent. Example: "I mailed you those figures last week, they must have ended in the bit bucket." This term is used purely in jest. It's based on the fanciful notion that bits are objects that are not destroyed, but only misplaced. This appears to have been a mutation of an earlier term bit box', about which the same legend was current; old-time hackers also report that trainees used to be told that when the CPU stored bits into memory it was actually pulling them "out of the bit box". See also {chad box}, {null device}. Another variant of this legend has it that due to the parity preservation law' the number of 1 (one) bits that end into the bit bucket must equal the number of 0 (zero) bits. Any imbalance results in bits filling up the bit bucket. A qualified computer techinician can empty a full bit bucket as part of scheduled maintenance. bit decay: n. See {bit rot}. People with a physics background tend to prefer this one for the analogy with particle decay. See also {computron}, {quantum bogodynamics}. bit rot: n. Also {bit decay}. Hypothetical disease the existence of which has been deduced from the observation that unused programs or features will often stop working after sufficient time has passed, even if nothing has changed'. The theory explains that bits decay as if they were radioactive. As time passes, the contents of a file or the code in a program will become increasingly garbled. There actually are physical processes that produce such effects (alpha particles generated by trace radionuclides in ceramic chip packages, for example, can change the contents of a computer memory unpredictably, and various kinds of subtle media failures can corrupt files in mass storage) but they are quite rare (and computers are built with error-detecting circuitry to compensate for them). The notion long favored among hackers that {cosmic rays} are among the causes of such events turns out however to be a myth; see the {cosmic rays} entry. The term {software rot} is almost synonymous. Software rot is the effect, bit rot the notional cause. bit-paired keyboard: n. obs. A non-standard keyboard layout which seems to have originated with the Teletype ASR-33 and remained common for several years on early computer equipment. The ASR-33 was a mechanical device (see {EOU}), so the only way to generate the character codes from keystrokes was by some physical linkage. The design of the ASR-33 assigned each character key a basic pattern which could be modified by flipping bits if the SHIFT or CTRL key were pressed. In order to avoid making the thing more of a Rube Goldberg kluge than it already was, the design had to group characters which shared the same basic bit pattern on one key. Looking at the ASCII chart, we find: 3 high 4 low bits bits 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 010 space ! " #$    %    &    '    (    )
011        0    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9

That's why the characters !"#$%&'() appear where they do on a Teletype. This was *not* the weirdest variant of the {QWERTY} layout widely seen, by the way; that prize should probably go to one of several (differing) arrangements on IBM's even clunkier 026 and 029 card punches. When electronic terminals became popular in the early 1970s there was no agreement in the industry over how the keyboards should be laid out. Some vendors opted to emulate the Teletype keyboard, while others used the flexibility of electronic circuitry to make their product look like an office typewriter. These alternatives became known as bit-paired' and typewriter-paired' keyboards. To a hacker, the bit-paired keyboard seemed far more logical --- and because most hackers in those days had never learned to touch-type, there was little pressure from the pioneering users to adapt keyboards to the typewriter standard. The doom of the bit-paired keyboard was the large-scale introduction of the computer terminal into the normal office environment, where out-and-out technophobes were expected to use the equipment. The typewriter-paired' standard became universal, bit-paired' hardware was quickly junked or relegated to dusty corners, and both terms passed into disuse. bitblt: /bit'blit/ n. [from {BLT}, q.v.] 1. Any of a closely related family of algorithms for moving and copying rectangles of bits between main and display memory on a bit-mapped device, or between two areas of either main or display memory (the requirement to do the {Right Thing} in the case of overlapping source and destination rectangles is what makes BitBlt tricky). 2. Synonym for {blit} or {BLT}. Both uses are borderline techspeak. BITNET: n. Everybody's least favorite piece of the network (see {network, the}). The BITNET hosts are a collection of IBM dinosaurs that communicate using 80-character {{EBCDIC}} card images; thus, they tend to mangle the headers and text of third-party traffic from the rest of the ASCII/RFC-822 world with annoying regularity. BITNET is also notorious as the apparent home of {BIFF}. bits: n. 1. Information. Examples: "I need some bits about file formats." ("I need to know about file formats.") Compare {core dump}, sense #4. 2. Machine-readable representation of a document, specifically as contrasted with paper. "I have only a photocopy of the Jargon File; does anyone know where I can get the bits?". See {softcopy}, {source of all good bits}. bitty box: /bit'ee boks/ n. 1. A computer sufficiently small, primitive, or incapable as to cause a hacker acute claustrophobia at the thought of developing for it. Especially used of small, obsolescent, single-tasking-only personal machines like the Atari 800, Osborne, Sinclair, VIC-20, TRS-80, or IBM PC. 2. Pejorative. More generally, the opposite of real computer' (see {Get a real computer!}). See also {mess-dos}, {toaster}, and {toy}. bixie: /biks'ee/ n. Variant {emoticon}s used on BIX (the Byte Information Exchange). The smiley' bixie is <@_@>, apparently intending to represent two cartoon eyes and a mouth. A few others have been reported. black art: n. A collection of arcane, unpublished, and (by implication) mostly ad-hoc techniques developed for a particular application or systems area (compare {black magic}). VLSI design and compiler code optimization were (in their beginnings) considered classic examples of black art; as theory developed they became {deep magic}, and once standard textbooks had been written became merely {heavy wizardry}. The huge proliferation of formal and informal channels for spreading around new computer-related technologies during the last twenty years has made both the term black art' and what it describes less common than formerly. See also {voodoo programming}. black hole: n. When a piece of email or netnews disappears mysteriously between its origin and destination sites (that is, without returning a {bounce message}) it is commonly said to have "fallen into a black hole". Similarly, one might say "I think there's a black hole at foovax!" to convey suspicion that site foovax has been dropping a lot of stuff on the floor lately (see {drop on the floor}). The implied metaphor of email as interstellar travel is interesting in itself. Compare {bit bucket}. black magic: n. A technique which works, though nobody really understands why. More obscure than {voodoo programming}, which may be done by cookbook. Compare also {black art}, {deep magic}, and {magic number} (sense #2). blast: 1. vt.,n. Synonym for {BLT}, used esp. for large data sends over a network or comm line. Opposite of {snarf}. Usage: uncommon. The variant blat' has been reported. 2. vt. [HP/Apollo] Synonymous with {nuke} (sense #3). Sometimes the message "Unable to kill all processes. Blast them (y/n)?" would appear in the command window upon logout. blat: n. See {thud}. blazer: n. (also 'blazer') Nickname for the Telebit Trailblazer, an expensive but extremely reliable and effective high-speed modem, popular at UNIX sites that pass large volumes of {email} and {USENET} news. bletch: /blech/ [from Yiddish/German brechen', to vomit, poss. via comic-strip exclamation blech'] interj. Term of disgust. Often in "Ugh, bletch". Compare {barf}. bletcherous: /blech'*-rus/ adj. Disgusting in design or function; esthetically unappealing. This word is seldom used of people. "This keyboard is bletcherous!" (Perhaps the keys don't work very well, or are misplaced). See {losing}, {cretinous}, {bagbiter}, {bogus}, and {random}. The term {bletcherous} applies to the esthetics of the thing so described; similarly for cretinous'. By contrast, something that is losing' or bagbiting' may be failing to meet objective criteria. See also {bogus} and {random}, which have richer and wider shades of meaning than any of the above. blinkenlights: /blink'*n-lietz/ n. Front-panel diagnostic lights on a computer, esp. a {dinosaur}. Derives from the last word of the famous blackletter-Gothic "ACHTUNG! ALLES LOOKENSPEEPERS!" notice in mangled pseudo-German that once graced about half the computer rooms in the English-speaking world. The sign in its entirety ran: ACHTUNG! ALLES LOOKENSPEEPERS Das computermachine ist nicht fuer gefingerpoken und mittengrabben. Ist easy schnappen der springenwerk, blowenfusen und poppencorken mit spitzensparken. Ist nicht fuer gewerken bei das dumpkopfen. Das rubbernecken sichtseeren keepen hans in das pockets muss; relaxen und watchen das blinkenlichten. This silliness dates back at least as far as 1959 at Stanford University and had already gone international by the early '60s, when it was reported at London University's ATLAS computing site. There are several variants of it in circulation, some of which actually do end with the word blinkenlights'. It is reported, by the way, that an analogous travesty in mangled English is posted in German computer laboratories. See also {geef}. blit: /blit/ vt. 1. To copy a large array of bits from one part of a computer's memory to another part, particularly when the memory is being used to determine what is shown on a display screen. "The storage allocator picks through the table and copies the good parts up into high memory, and at the end {blit}s it all back down again." See {bitblt}, {BLT}, {dd}, {cat}, {blast}, {snarf}. More generally, to perform some operation (such as toggling) on a large array of bits while moving them. 2. All-capitalized as BLIT': An early experimental bit-mapped terminal designed by Rob Pike at Bell Labs, later commercialized as the AT&T 5620. The folk etymology from Bell Labs Intelligent Terminal' is incorrect. blitter: n. A special-purpose chip or hardware system built to perform {blit} operations, esp. used for fast implementation of bit-mapped graphics. The Commodore Amiga and a few other micros have these, but in 1991 the trend is away from them (however, see {cycle of reincarnation}). Syn. {raster blaster}. blivet: [allegedly from a World War II military term meaning "ten pounds of manure in a five-pound bag"] n. 1. An intractable problem. 2. A crucial piece of hardware which can't be fixed or replaced if it breaks. 3. A tool that has been hacked over by so many incompetent programmers that it has become an unmaintainable tissue of hacks. 4. An out-of-control but unkillable development effort. 5. An embaressing bug that pops up during a customer demo. This term has other meanings in other technical cultures; in particular, among experimental physicists and hardware engineers of various kinds it seems to mean any random object of unknown purpose (similar to hackish use of {frob}). It has also been used to describe an amusing trick-the-eye drawing resembling a three-pronged fork which appears to depict a three-dimensional object until one realizes that the parts fit together in an impossible way. block: [from process scheduling terminology in OS theory] 1. vi. To delay or sit idle while waiting for something. "We're blocking until everyone gets here." Compare {busy-wait}. 2. block on' vt. To block, waiting for (something). "Lunch is blocked on Phil's arrival." block transfer computations: n. From the Dr. Who television series: in the show, it referred to computations so fiendishly subtle and complex that they could not be performed by machines. Used to refer to any task that should be expressible as an algorithm in theory, but isn't. blow an EPROM: v. To program a read-only memory, e.g. for use with an embedded system. This term arises because the programming process for the Programmable Read-Only Memories (PROMs) that preceded present-day Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memories (EPROMs) involved intentionally blowing tiny electrical fuses on the chip. Thus, one was said to "blow a PROM" and the terminology carried over even though the write process on EPROMs is nondestructive. blow away: vt. To remove files and directories from permanent storage with extreme prejudice, generally by accident. Oppose {nuke}. blow out: vi. Of software, to fail spectacularly; almost as serious as {crash and burn}. See {blow past}. blow past: vt. To {blow out} despite a safeguard. "The server blew past the 5K reserve buffer." blow up: vi. [scientific computation] To become unstable. Suggests that the computation is diverging so rapidly that it will soon overflow or at least go {nonlinear}. BLT: /bee ell tee/, /bl*t/ or (rarely) /belt/ n.,vt. Synonym for {blit}. This is the original form of {blit} and the ancestor of {bitblt}. It referred to any large bit-field copy or move operation (one resource intensive memory-shuffling operation done on pre-paged versions of ITS, WAITS, and TOPS- 10 was sardonically referred to as The Big BLT'). The jargon usage has outlasted the {PDP-10} BLock Transfer instruction from which {BLT} derives; nowadays, the assembler mnemonic {BLT} almost always means Branch if Less Than zero'. Blue Book: n. 1. Informal name for one of the three standard references on the page-layout and graphics-control language PostScript (PostScript Language Tutorial and Cookbook', Adobe Systems, Addison-Wesley 1985, QA76.73.P67P68, ISBN 0-201-10179-3); the other two official guides are known as the {Green Book} and {Red Book}. 2. Informal name for one of the three standard references on Smalltalk: Smalltalk-80: The Language and its Implementation', David Robson, Addison-Wesley 1983, QA76.8.S635G64, ISBN 0-201-11371-63 (this is also associated with green and red books). 3. Any of the 1988 standards issues by the CCITT 9th plenary assembly. Until now, they have changed color each review cycle (1984 was {Red Book}, 1992 would be {Green Book}); however, it is rumored that this convention is going to be dropped before 1992. These include, among other things, the X.400 email spec and the Group 1 through 4 fax standards. See also {{book titles}}. Blue Glue: [IBM] n. IBM's SNA (Systems Network Architecture) an incredibly {losing} and {bletcherous} protocol suite widely favored at commercial shops that don't know any better. The official IBM definition is "That which binds blue boxes together." See {fear and loathing}. It may not be irrelevant that {Blue Glue} is the trade name of a 3M product that is commonly used to hold down the carpet squares to the removable panel floors so common in computer installations. A correspondent at U. Minn. reports that the CS dept. there has about 80 bottles of Blue Glue hanging about, so they often refer to any messy work to be done as using the blue glue'. blue goo: n. Term for police' {nanobot}s intended to prevent {gray goo}, denature hazardous waste, destroy pollution, put ozone back into the stratosphere, prevent halitosis, and to promote truth, justice, and the American way, etc., etc. See {{nanotechnology}}. BNF: /bee-en-ef/ n. 1. [techspeak] Acronym for Backus-Naur Form', a metasyntactic notation used to specify the syntax of programming languages, command sets and the like. Widely used for language descriptions but seldom documented anywhere, so that it must usually be learned by osmosis from other hackers. Consider this BNF for a postal address: <postal-address> ::= <name-part> <street-address> <zip-part> <name-part> ::= <first-name> [<middle-part>] <last-name> <EOL> <middle-part> ::= <middle-name> | <middle-initial> "." <street-address> ::= [<apt>] <street-number> <street-name> <EOL> <zip-part> ::= <town-name> "," <state-code> <zip-code> <EOL> This translates into English as: A postal-address consists of a name-part, followed by a street-address part, followed by a zip-code part. A name-part consists of a first-name followed by an optional middle-part followed by a last-name. A middle-part consists of either a middle name or a middle initial followed by a dot. A street address consists of an optional apartment specifier followed by a street number, followed by a street name. A zip-part consts of a town-name, followed by a state code, followed by a zip-code. Note that many things such as the format of a first-name, apartment specifier, or zip-code are left unspecified. These are presumed to be obvious from context or detailed somewhere nearby. See also {parse}. A major reason BNF is listed here is that the term is also used loosely for any number of variants and extensions, possibly containing some or all of the {glob} wildcards. In fact the example above isn't the pure form invented for the Algol-60 report; it uses [], which was introduced a few years later in IBM's PL/I definition but is now universally recognized. 2. In {{Science-Fiction Fandom}}, BNF expands to Big Name Fan' (someone famous or notorious). Years ago a fan started handing out black-on-green BNF buttons at SF conventions. This confused the hacker contingent terribly. boa: [IBM] n. Any one of the fat cables that lurk under the floor in a {dinosaur pen}. Possibly so called because they display a ferocious life of their own when you try to lay them straight and flat after they have been coiled for some time. It is rumored within IBM that 370 channel cables are limited to 200 feet because beyond that length the boas get dangerous ... and it is worth noting that one of the major cable makers uses the trademark Anaconda'. board: n. 1. In-context synonym for {bboard}; sometimes used even for USENET newsgroups. 2. An electronic circuit board (compare {card}). boat anchor: n. 1. Like {doorstop} but more severe; implies that the offending hardware is irreversibly dead or useless. 2. Also used of people who just take up space. bogo-sort: n. The archetypical perversely awful algorithm (as opposed to {bubble sort}, which is merely the generic *bad* algorithm). Bogo-sort is equivalent to throwing a deck of cards in the air, picking them up, then testing whether they are in order. If not, repeat. Used as a sort of canonical example of awfulness. Usage: when one is looking at a program and sees a dumb algorithm, one might say "Oh, I see, this program uses bogo-sort." Compare {bogus}, {brute force}. bogometer: n. See {bogosity}. Compare the wankometer' described in the {wank} entry, also {bogus}. bogon: /boh'gon/ [by analogy with proton/electron/neutron, but doubtless reinforced after 1980 by the similarity to Douglas Adams's Vogons', see Appendix C] n. 1. The elementary particle of bogosity (see {quantum bogodynamics}). For instance, "the Ethernet is emitting bogons again", meaning that it is broken or acting in an erratic or bogus fashion. 2. A query packet sent from a TCP/IP domain resolver to a root server, having the reply bit set instead of the query bit. 3. Any bogus or incorrectly formed packet sent on a network. 4. By synecdoche, used to refer to any bogus thing, as in "I'd like to go to lunch with you but I've got to go to the weekly staff bogon." 5. A person who is bogus or who says bogus things. This was historically the original usage, but has been overtaken by its derivative senses 1--4. See also {bogosity}, {bogus}. bogon filter: /boh'gon fil'tr/ n. Any device, software or hardware, which limits or suppresses the flow and/or emission of bogons. Example: "Engineering hacked a bogon filter between the Cray and the VAXen and now we're getting fewer dropped packets." See also {bogosity}, {bogus}. bogosity: /boh-go's*-tee/ n. 1. The degree to which something is {bogus}. At CMU, bogosity is measured with a {bogometer}; typical use: in a seminar, when a speaker says something bogus, a listener might raise his hand and say, "My bogometer just triggered.". More extremely, "You just pinned my bogometer." means you just said or did something so outrageously bogus that it is off the scale, pinning the bogometer needle at the highest possible reading (one might also say "You just redlined my bogometer."). The agreed-upon unit of bogosity is the microLenat (uL). The consensus is that this is the largest unit practical for everyday use. 2. The potential field generated by a bogon flux; see {quantum bogodynamics}. See also {bogosity}, {bogus}. [Historical note: microLenat was invented as a attack against noted computer scientist Doug Lenat by a {tenured graduate student}. Doug had failed him on the AI Qual after the student gave "AI is bogus" as his answer to the questions. The slur is generally considered unmerited, but it has become a running gag nevertheless. Some of Doug's friends argue that of course' a microLenat is bogus, since it's only one millionth of a Lenat. Others have suggested that the unit should be re-designated after the grad student, as the microReid.] bogotify: /boh-go't*-fie/ vt. To make or become bogus. A program that has been changed so many times as to become completely disorganized has become bogotified. If you tighten a nut too hard and strip the threads on the bolt, the bolt has become bogotified and you'd better not use it any more. This coinage led to the notional autobogotiphobia' /aw'to-boh-got'*-fohbee-uh/ n., defined as the fear of becoming bogotified; but is not clear that the latter has ever been live' jargon rather than a self-conscious joke in jargon about jargon. See also {bogosity}, {bogus}. bogue out: /bohg owt/ vi. To become bogus, suddenly and unexpectedly. "His talk was relatively sane until somebody asked him a trick question; then he bogued out and did nothing but {flame} afterwards." See also {bogosity}, {bogus}. bogus: adj. 1. Non-functional. "Your patches are bogus." 2. Useless. "OPCON is a bogus program." 3. False. "Your arguments are bogus." 4. Incorrect. "That algorithm is bogus." 5. Unbelievable. "You claim to have solved the halting problem for Turing Machines? That's totally bogus." 6. Silly. "Stop writing those bogus sagas." Astrology is bogus. So is a bolt that is obviously about to break. So is someone who makes blatantly false claims to have solved a scientific problem. (This word seems to have some, but not all, of the connotations of {random}.) It is claimed that bogus' was originally used in the hackish sense at Princeton, in the late 1960s. It was spread to CMU and Yale by Michal Shamos, a migratory Princeton alumnus. A glossary of bogus words was compiled at Yale when the word was first popularized (see {autobogotiphobia} under {bogotify}). The word spread into hackerdom from CMU and MIT. By the early 1980s, it was also current in something like the hackish sense in West Coast teen slang, and it had gone mainstream by 1985. A correspondent at Cambridge reports, by contrast, that these uses of bogus' grate on British nerves; in Britain the word means rather specifically counterfeit' as in "a bogus pound note". Bohr bug: /bohr buhg/ [from quantum physics] n. A repeatable {bug}; one which manifests reliably under a possibly unknown but well-defined set of conditions. Antonym of {heisenbug}. boink: /boynk/ [USENET, perh. from the TV series Cheers' and Moonlighting'] 1. To have sex with; compare {bounce}, sense #3. (This is mainstream slang.) In Commonwealth hackish the variant bonk' is more common. 2. After the original Peter Korn Boinkon' {USENET} parties, used for almost any net social gathering, e.g. Miniboink, a small boink held by Nancy Gillett in 1988; Minniboink, a Boinkcon in Minnesota in 1989; Humpdayboinks, Wednesday get-togethers held in the San Francisco Bay Area. Compare {@-party}. bomb: 1. v. General synonym for {crash} (sense #1), esp. used of software or OS failures. "Don't run Empire with less than 32K stack, it'll bomb out." 2. n.,v. Atari ST and Macintosh equivalents of a UNIX panic' or Amiga {guru} (sense 2), where icons of little black-powder bombs or mushroom clouds are displayed indicating the system has died. On the Mac, this may be accompanied by a decimal (or occasionally hexadecimal) number indicating what went wrong, similar to the Amiga GURU MEDITATION number (see {guru}). {MS-DOS} machines tend to get {locked up} in this situation. bondage-and-discipline language: A language such as Pascal, Ada, APL, or Prolog that, though ostensibly general-purpose, is designed so as to enforce an author's theory of right programming' even though said theory is demonstrably inadequate for systems hacking or even vanilla general-purpose programming. Often abbreviated B&D'; thus, one may speak of things "having the B&D nature", etc. See {{Pascal}}; oppose {languages of choice}. bonk/oif: /bonk/, /oyf/ interj. In the {MUD} community, it has become traditional to express pique or censure by bonking' the offending person. There is a convention that one should acknowledge a bonk by saying oif!' and a myth to the effect that failing to do so upsets the cosmic bonk/oif balance, causing much trouble in the universe. Some MUDs have implemented special commands for bonking and oifing. See also {talk mode}, {posing}. book titles:: There is a tradition in hackerdom of informally tagging important textbooks and standards documents with the dominant color of their covers or with some other conspicuous feature of the cover. Many of these are described in this lexicon under their own entries. See also {Blue Book}, {Red Book}, {Green Book}, {Silver Book}, {Purple Book}, {Orange Book}, {White Book}, {Yellow Book}, {Pink-Shirt Book}, {Aluminum Book}, {Dragon Book}, {Wizard Book}, {Cinderella Book}. boot: [techspeak; from by one's bootstraps'] v.,n. To load and initialize the operating system on a machine. This usage is no longer jargon but has given rise to some derivatives which still are. The derivative reboot' implies that the machine hasn't been down for long, even that the boot is a {bounce} intended to clear some state of {wedgitude}. This is sometimes used of human thought processes, as in the following exchange: "You've lost me." "O.K., reboot. Here's the theory...." Also found in the variants cold boot' (from power-off condition) and warm boot' (with the CPU and all devices already powered up, as after a hardware reset or software crash). Another variant: soft boot', re-initialization of only part of a system, under control of other software that's still running: "If you're running the {mess-dos} emulator, control-alt-insert will cause a soft-boot of the emulator, while leaving the rest of the system running." Opposed to this there is hard boot', which connotes hostility towards or frustration with the machine being booted. "I'll have to hard-boot this losing Sun" or "I recommend booting it hard." Historical note: this term derives from bootstrap loader', a short program which was read in from cards or paper tape, or toggled in from the front panel switches. This program was always very short (great efforts were expended on making it short in order to minimize the labor and chance of error involved in toggling it in), but was just smart enough to read in a slightly more complex program (usually from a card or paper tape reader), to which it handed control; this program in turn was smart enough to read the application or operating system from a magnetic tape drive or disk drive. Thus, in successive steps, the computer "pulled itself up by its bootstraps" to a useful operating state. Nowadays the bootstrap is usually found in ROM or EPROM, and reads the first stage in from a fixed location on the disk, called the boot block'. When this program gains control, it is powerful enough to load the actual OS and hand control over to it. bottom-up implementation: n. Hackish opposite of the techspeak term top-down design'. It is now received wisdom in most programming cultures that it is best to design from higher levels of abstraction down to lower, specifying sequences of action in increasing detail until you get to actual code. Hackers often find (especially in exploratory designs which cannot be closely specified in advance) that it works best to build' things in the opposite order, by writing and testing a clean set of primitive operations and then knitting them together. bounce: v. 1. [UNIX, perhaps from the image of a thrown ball bouncing off a wall] An electronic mail message which is undeliverable and returns an error notification to the sender is said to bounce'. See also {bounce message}. 2. [Stanford] To play volleyball. At the now-demolished DC Power building used by the Stanford AI Lab in the 1970's there was a volleyball court on the front lawn. From 5:00 PM to 7:00 PM was the scheduled maintenance time for the computer, so every afternoon at 5:00 the computer would become unavailable, and over the intercom a voice would cry , "Now hear this: bounce, bounce!" followed by Brian McCune loudly bouncing a volleyball on the floor outside the offices of known volleyballers. 3. To engage in sexual intercourse; prob. from the expression bouncing the mattress', but influenced by Piglet's psychosexually loaded "Bounce on me too, Tigger!" from the Winnie-the-Pooh books. Compare {boink}. 4. To casually reboot a system in order to clear up a transient problem. Reported primarily among {VMS} users. 5. [IBM] To {power cycle} a peripheral in order to reset it. bounce message: [UNIX] n. Notification message returned to sender by a site unable to relay {email} to the intended {{Internet address}} recipient or the next link in a {bang path} (see {bounce}). Reasons might include a nonexistent or misspelled username or a down relay site. Bounce messages can themselves fail, with occasionally ugly results; see {sorcerer's apprentice mode}. The collective bounce mail' is also common. box: n. 1. A computer; esp. in the construction "foo box" where foo is some functional qualifier, like graphics', or the name of an OS (thus, UNIX box', MS-DOS box', etc. 2. [within IBM] Without qualification but within an SNA-using site (see {Blue Glue}), this refers specifically to an IBM front-end processor or FEP /eff-ee-pee/. An FEP is a small computer necessary to enable an IBM {mainframe} to communicate beyond the limits of the {dinosaur pen}. Typically used in expressions like the cry that goes up when an SNA network goes down, "Looks like the {box} has fallen over." (see {fall over}.) See also {IBM}, {fear and loathing}, {fepped out}, {Blue Glue}. boxed comments: n. Comments (explanatory notes in code) which occupy several lines by themselves; so called because in assembler and C code they are often surrounded by a box in a style something like this: /************************************************* * * This is a boxed comment in C style * *************************************************/ Common variants of this style omit the asterisks in column two or add a matching row of asterisks closing the right end of the box. The sparest variant omits all but the comment delimiters at the extreme left; the box' is implied. Oppose {winged comments}. boxen: /bok'sn/ [by analogy with {VAXen}] pl.n. Fanciful plural of {box} often encountered in the phrase UNIX boxen', used to describe commodity {UNIX} hardware. The connotation is that any two UNIX boxen are interchangeable. boxology: /bok-sol'*-jee/ n. 1. The fine art of drawing diagrams using the box' characters (mainly, |', -', and +') in ASCII-monospace fonts. Also known as character graphics' or ASCII graphics'. 2. Boxological drawings. "His report has a lot of boxology in it". Compare {macrology}. bozotic: /boh-zoh'tik/ [from a TV clown even more losing than Ronald McDonald] adj. Resembling or having the quality of a bozo; that is, clownish, ludicrously wrong, unintentionally humorous. Compare {wonky}, {demented}. Note that the noun bozo' occurs in slang, but the mainstream adjectival form would be bozo-like' or (in New England) bozoish'; the formation bozotic' is hackish. BQS: /bee-kyoo-ess/ adj. Syn. {Berkeley Quality Software}. brain dump: n. The act of telling someone everything one knows about a particular topic or project. Typically used when someone is going to let a new party maintain a piece of code. Conceptually analogous to an operating system {core dump} in that it saves a lot of useful {state} before an exit. Example: "You'll have to give me a brain dump on FOOBAR, before you start your new job at HackerCorp." See {core dump} (sense #4). At Sun, this is also known as TOI' (transfer of information). brain-damaged: [generalization of Honeywell Brain Damage' (HBD), a theoretical disease invented to explain certain utter cretinisms in Honeywell {Multics}] adj. Obviously wrong; {cretinous}; {demented}. There is an implication that the person responsible must have suffered brain damage, because he should have known better. Calling something brain-damaged is really bad; it also implies it is unusable, and that its failure to work is due to poor design rather than some accident. brain-dead: adj. Brain-damaged in the extreme. Not quite like mainstream use, as it tends to imply terminal design failure rather than malfunction or simple stupidity. braino: /bray'no/ n. Syn. for {thinko}. branch to Fishkill: [IBM, from the location of one of their facilities] n. Any unexpected jump in a program that produces catastrophic or just plain weird results. See {jump off into never-never land}, {hyperspace}. brand brand brand: n. Humorous catch-phrase from {BartleMUD}s, in which players were described carrying a list of objects, the most common of which would usually be a brand. Often used as a joke in {talk mode} as in "Fred the wizard is here, carrying brand ruby brand brand brand kettle broadsword flamethrower". Prob. influenced by the infamous Monty Python Spam' skit. break: 1. vt. To cause to be broken (in any sense). "Your latest patch to the editor broke the paragraph commands." 2. v. (of a program) To stop temporarily, so that it may debugged. The place where it stops is a "breakpoint". 3. [techspeak] vi. To send an RS-232 break (125 msec. of line high) over a serial comm line. 4. [UNIX] vi. To strike whatever key currently causes the tty driver to send SIGINT to the current process. Normally break (sense 3) or delete does this. breakage: 1. Brokenness and the consequent mess. 2. [IBM] n. The extra people that must be added to an organization because its master plan has changed; used esp. of software and hardware development teams. breath-of-life packet: [XEROX PARC] n. An Ethernet packet that contained bootstrap code, periodically sent out from a working computer to infuse the breath of life' into any computer on the network that had happened to crash. The machines had hardware or firmware that would wait for such a packet after a catastrophic error. bring X to its knees: v. Of a machine, operating system, piece of software, or algorithm; to present it with a load so extreme or pathological that it grinds virtually to a halt. "To bring a MicroVAX to its knees, try twenty users running {vi} --- or four running {EMACS}." Compare {hog}. brittle: adj. Said of software that's functional but easily broken by changes in operating environment or configuration, or by any minor tweak to the software itself. Also, any system which responds inappropriately and disastrously to expected external stimuli, e.g., a file system that is usually totally scrambled by a power failure is said to be brittle. This term is often used to describe the results of a research effort that were never intended to be robust, but can be applied to commercially developed software. Oppose {robust}. broadcast storm: n. An incorrect packet broadcast on a network that causes most hosts to respond all at once, typically with wrong answers that start the process over again. See {network meltdown}. broken: adj. 1. Not working properly (of programs). 2. Behaving strangely; especially, (when used of people) exhibiting extreme depression. broket: /broh'k*t/ or /broh'ket/ [by analogy with bracket': a broken bracket'] n. Either of the characters <' and >', when used as paired enclosing delimiters. This word originated as a contraction of the phrase broken bracket', that is, a bracket that is bent in the middle. (At MIT, and apparently in the {Real World} as well, these are usually called {angle brackets}.) Brooks's Law: prov. "Adding manpower to a late software project makes it later" --- a result of the fact that the advantage from splitting work between N programmers is O(N), but the complexity and communications cost associated with coordinating and then merging their work is O(N^2). The quote is from Fred Brooks, a manager of IBM's OS/360 project and author of The Mythical Man-Month' (Addison-Wesley, 1975, ISBN, 0-201-00650-2), an excellent early book on software engineering; the myth in question has been most tersely expressed as "Programmer time is fungible", and Brooks established conclusively that it is not. Hackers have never forgotten his advice; too often, {management} does. BRS: n. Syn. {Big Red Switch}. This abbreviation is fairly common on-line. brute force: adj. Describes a certain kind of primitive programming style; broadly speaking, one in which the programmer relies on the computer's processing power instead of using his/her own intelligence to simplify the problem, often ignoring problems of scale and applying naive methods suited to small problems directly to large ones. The {canonical} example of a brute force algorithm is associated with the Travelling salesman problem' (TSP), a classical NP-hard problem: suppose a person is in Boston and wishes to drive to N other cities. In what order should he/she visit them in order to minimize the distance travelled? The brute force method is to simply generate all possible routes and compare the distances; while guaranteed to work and simple to implement, this algorithm is clearly very stupid' in that it considers even obviously absurd routes (like going from Boston to Houston via San Francisco and New York, in that order). For small N it works well, but it rapidly becomes absurdly inefficient when N increases (for N=15, there are already 1,307,674,368,000 possible routes to consider, and for N=1000...well, see {bignum}). See also {NP-}. A more simple-minded example of brute-force programming is finding the smallest number in a large list by first using an existing program to sort the list in ascending order, and then picking the first number off the front. Note that whether brute-force programming should be considered stupid or not depends on the context; if the problem isn't too big, the extra CPU time spent on a brute-force solution may cost less than the programmer time it would take to develop a more intelligent' algorithm. Alternatively, a more intelligent algorithm may imply more long-term complexity cost and bug-chasing than are justified by the speed improvement. Ken Thompson, co-inventor of UNIX, is reported to have uttered the epigram "When in doubt, use brute force". He probably intended this as a {ha ha only serious}, but the original UNIX kernel's preference for simple, robust, and portable algorithms over fragile smart' ones does seem to have been a significant factor in the success of that OS. Like so many other tradeoffs in software design, the choice between brute force and complex, finely-tuned cleverness is often a difficult one that requires both engineering savvy and delicate esthetic judgement. brute force and ignorance: n. A popular design technique at many software houses --- {brute force} coding unrelieved by any knowledge of how problems have been previously solved in elegant ways. Dogmatic adherence to design methodologies tends to encourage it. Characteristic of early {larval stage} programming; unfortunately, many never outgrow it. Often abbreviated BFI, as in: "Gak, they used a bubble sort! That's strictly from BFI." Compare {bogosity}. BSD: /bee-ess-dee/ n. [acronym for Berkeley System Distribution] a family of {UNIX} versions for the DEC {VAX} developed by Bill Joy and others at University of California at Berkeley starting around 1980, incorporating paged virtual memory, TCP/IP networking enhancements and many other features. The BSD versions (4.1, 4.2, and 4.3) and commercial versions derived from them (SunOS, ULTRIX, and Mt. Xinu) held the technical lead in the UNIX world until AT&T's successful standardization efforts after about 1986, and are still widely popular. See {UNIX}, {USG UNIX}. bubble sort: n. Techspeak for a particular sorting technique. Because it is not very good compared to other methods, and is the one typically stumbled on by {naive} and untutored programmers, hackers consider it the canonical example of a naive algorithm. The canonical example of a really *bad* algorithm is {bogo-sort}. A bubble sort might be used out of ignorance, but any use of bogo-sort could issue only from brain-damage or willful perversity. bucky bits: /buh'kee bits/ n. 1. obs. The bits produced by the CONTROL and META shift keys, on a SAIL keyboard, resulting in a 9-bit keyboard character set. The MIT-AI TV (Knight) keyboards extended this with TOP and separate left and right CONTROL and META keys, resulting in a 12-bit character set; later, Lisp Machines added such keys as SUPER, HYPER, and GREEK (see {space-cadet keyboard}). 2. By extension, bits associated with extra' shift keys on any keyboard, e.g. the ALT on an IBM PC or command and option keys on a Macintosh. It is rumored that bucky bits' were named for Buckminster Fuller during a period when he was consulting at Stanford. Actually, Bucky' was Niklaus Wirth's nickname when *he* was at Stanford; he first suggested the idea of an EDIT key to set the 8th bit of an otherwise 7-bit ASCII character. This was used in a number of editors written at Stanford or environs (TV-EDIT and NLS being the most well-known). The term spread to MIT and CMU early and is now in general use. See {double bucky}, {quadruple bucky}. buffer overflow: n. What happens when you try to stuff more data into a buffer (holding area) than it can handle. This may be due to a mismatch in the processing rates of the producing and consuming processes (see {overrun}), or because the buffer is simply too small to hold all the data that needs to accumulate before a piece of it can be processed. For example, in a text processing tool that crunches newline-terminated lines, a short line buffer can result in {lossage} as input from a long line overflows the buffer and trashes data beyond it. See also {spam}, {overrun screw}. bug: n. An unwanted and unintended property of a program or hardware, esp. one which causes it to malfunction. Antonym of {feature}. Examples: "There's a bug in the editor: it writes things out backwards." "The system crashed because of a hardware bug." "Fred is a winner, but he has a few bugs." (i.e., Fred is a good guy, but he has a few personality problems.) Some have said this term came from telephone company usage, in which "bugs in a telephone cable" were blamed for noisy lines, but this appears to be an incorrect folk etymology. Admiral Grace Hopper (an early computing pioneer better known for inventing {COBOL}) liked to tell a story in which a technician solved a persistent {glitch} in the Harvard Mark II machine by pulling an actual physical bug out from between the contacts of one of its relays, and she subsequently promulgated {bug} in its hackish sense as a joke about the incident (though, as she was careful to admit, she was not there when it happened). For many years the logbook associated with the incident and the actual bug in question (a moth) sat in a display case at the Naval Surface Warfare Center; it now resides in the Smithsonian. The entire story, with a picture of the logbook and the moth taped into it, is recorded in the Annals of the History of Computing, Volume 3, Number 3 (July 1981), on pages 285--286. Interestingly, the text of the log entry (from September 9th, 1945), which reads "1545 Relay #70 Panel F (moth) in relay. First actual case of bug being found", seems to establish that the term was already in use at the time. Indeed, the use of bug' to mean an industrial defect was already established in Thomas Edison's time, and bug' in the sense of an disruptive event goes back to Shakespeare! In the First Edition of Johnson's Dictionary one meaning of bug' is "A frightful object; a walking spectre"; this is traced to bugbear', a Welsh term for a variety of mythological monster which (to complete the circle) has recently been reintroduced into the popular lexicon through fantasy role-playing games. In any case, in jargon the word almost never refers to insects. Here is a plausible conversation that never actually happened: "There is a bug in this ant-farm!" "What do you mean? I don't see any ants in it." "That's the bug." bug-compatible: n. Said of a design or revision the design of which has been badly compromised by a requirement to be compatible with {fossil}s or {misfeature}s in other programs or (esp.) previous releases of itself. bug-for-bug compatible: n. Same as {bug-compatible}, with the additional implication that much tedious effort went into ensuring that each (known) bug was replicated. buglix: n. Pejorative term referring to DEC's ULTRIX operating system in its earlier *severely* buggy versions. Still used to describe ULTRIX but without venom. Compare {HP-SUX}. bulletproof: adj. Used of an algorithm or implementation considered extremely {robust}; lossage-resistant; capable of correctly recovering from any imaginable exception condition. This is a rare and valued quality. Syn. {armor-plated}. bum: 1. vt. To make highly efficient, either in time or space, often at the expense of clarity. "I managed to bum three more instructions out of that code." "I spent half the night bumming the interrupt code." 2. To squeeze out excess; to remove something in order to improve whatever it was removed from (without changing function; this distinguishes the process from a featurectomy). 3. n. A small change to an algorithm, program, or hardware device to make it more efficient. "This hardware bum makes the jump instruction faster." Usage: now uncommon, largely superseded by v. {tune} (and n. {tweak}, {hack}), though none of these exactly capture sense #2. Note that all these uses are rare in Commonwealth hackish, because in the parent dialects of English bum' is interpreted as a rude synonym for buttocks'. bump: vt. Synonym for increment. Has the same meaning as C's ++ operator. Used esp. of counter variables, pointers, and index dummies in for', while', and do-while' loops. burble: vi. Like {flame}, but connotes that the source is truly clueless and ineffectual (mere flamers can be competent). A term of deep contempt. buried treasure: n. A surprising piece of code found in some program. While usually not wrong, it tends to vary from {crufty} to {bletcherous}, and has lain undiscovered only because it was functionally correct, however horrible it is. Used sarcastically, because what is found is anything *but* treasure. Buried treasure almost always needs to be dug up and removed. "I just found that the scheduler sorts it queue using {bubble sort}! Buried Treasure!" burn-in period: n. 1. A factory test designed to catch systems with {marginal} components before they get out the door; the theory is that burn-in will protect customers by outwaiting the steepest part of the {bathtub curve} (see {infant mortality}). 2. A period of indeterminate length in which a person using a computer is so intensely involved in his project that he forgets basic needs such as food, drink, sleep, sex, etc. See {hack mode}, {larval stage}. busy-wait: vi. 1. [techspeak] To wait on an event by {spin}ning through a tight or timed-delay loop that polls for the event on each pass, as opposed to setting up an interrupt handler and continuing execution on another part of the task. A wasteful technique, best avoided on time-sharing systems where a busy-waiting program may hog the processor. 2. May be used of human behavior to convey that one is busy waiting for someone or something and that one intends to move instantly as soon as it shows up (for example, if one is waiting at the office door of a person in conference); thus that one cannot do anything else at the moment. buzz: vi. 1. Of a program, to run with no indication of progress and perhaps without guarantee of ever finishing; esp. said of programs thought to be executing tight loops of code. A program which is buzzing appears to be {catatonic}, but you never get out of catatonia, while a buzzing loop may eventually end of its own accord. Example: "The program buzzes for about ten seconds trying to sort all the names into order." See {spin}; see also {grovel}. 2. [ETA Systems] To test a wire or printed circuit trace for continuity by applying an AC signal as opposed to applying a DC signal. Some wire faults will pass DC tests but fail a buzz test. BWQ: /bee duhb'l-yoo kyoo/ [IBM; acronym, Buzz Word Quotient] The percentage of buzzwords in a speech or documents. Usually roughly proportional to {bogosity}. See {TLA}. by hand: adv. Said of an operation (especially a repetitive, trivial and/or tedious one) which ought to be performed automatically by the computer, but which a hacker instead has to step tediously through. "My mailer doesn't have a command to include the text of the message I'm replying to, so I have to do it by hand". Compare {eyeball search}. byte:: /biet/ [techspeak] n. A unit of memory or data equal to the amount used to represent one character; on modern architectures this is usually 8 bits, but may be 9 on 36-bit machines. Some older architectures used byte' for quantities of six or seven bits, and the PDP-10 supported bytes' which were actually bitfields of 1 to 36 bits! These usages are now obsolete, and even 9-bit bytes have become rare in the general trend power-of-two word sizes. The term originated in 1956 during the early design phase for the IBM Stretch computer; originally it was described as one to six bits (typical I/O equipment of the period used 6-bit chunks of information). The move to an 8-bit byte happened in late 1956, and this size was later adopted and promulgated as a standard by the System/360. The term byte' was coined by mutating the word bite' so it would not be accidentally misspelt as {bit}. See also {nybble}. bytesexual: /biet-seks'u-*l/ adj. Said of hardware, denotes willingness to compute or pass data in either {big-endian} or {little-endian} format (depending, presumably, on a {mode bit} somewhere). See also {NUXI problem}. = C = ===== C: n. 1. The third letter of the Latin alphabet. 2. ASCII #b1000011. 3. The name of a programming language designed by Dennis Ritchie during the early 1970s and immediately used to re-implement {UNIX}. So called because many features derived from an earlier interpreter named B' in commemoration of *its* parent, BCPL; before Bjarne Stroustrup settled the question by designing C++, there was a humorous debate over whether C's successor should be named D' or P'. C became immensely popular outside Bell Labs after about 1980 and is now the dominant language in systems and microcomputer applications programming. See also {languages of choice}, {indent style}. C is often described, with a mixture of fondness and disdain varying according to the speaker, as "a language which combines all the elegance and power of assembly language with the readability and maintainability of assembly language". calculator: [Cambridge] n. Syn. for {bitty box}. can: vt. To abort a job on a time-sharing system. Used esp. when the person doing the deed is an operator, as in "canned from the {{console}}". Frequently used in an imperative sense, as in "Can that print job, the LPT just popped a sprocket!". Synonymous with {gun}. It is said that the ASCII character with mnemonic CAN (#b0011000) was used as a kill-job character on some early OSes. canonical: [historically, according to religious law'] adj. The usual or standard state or manner of something. This word has a somewhat more technical meaning in mathematics. For example, one sometimes speaks of a formula as being in canonical form. Two formulas such as 9 + x' and x + 9' are said to be equivalent because they mean the same thing, but the second one is in canonical form because it is written in the usual way, with the highest power of x' first. Usually there are fixed rules you can use to decide whether something is in canonical form. The jargon meaning is a relaxation of the technical meaning (this generalization is actually not confined to hackers, and may be found throughout academia). Compare {vanilla}. A true story: One Bob Sjoberg, new at the MIT AI Lab, expressed some annoyance at the use of jargon. Over his loud objections, GLS and RMS made a point of using it as much as possible in his presence, and eventually it began to sink in. Finally, in one conversation, he used the word canonical' in jargon-like fashion without thinking. Steele: "Aha! We've finally got you talking jargon too!" Stallman: "What did he say?" Steele: "Bob just used canonical' in the canonical way." Of course, canonicality depends on context, but is implicitly defined as the way *hackers* normally expect things to be. Thus, a hacker may claim with a straight face that "according to religious law" is *not* the canonical meaning of canonical'. card: n. 1. An electronic printed-circuit board (see also {tall card}, {short card}. 2. obs. Syn. {{punched card}}. card walloper: n. An EDP programmer who grinds out batch programs that do stupid things like print people's paychecks. Compare {code grinder}. See also {{punched card}}, {eighty-column mind}. careware: n. {Shareware} for which either the author suggests that some payment be made to a nominated charity, or a levy directed to charity is included on top of the distribution charge. Syn. {charityware}. Compare {crippleware}, sense #2. cargo-cult programming: n. A style of (incompetent) programming dominated by ritual inclusion of code or program structures that serve no real purpose. A cargo-cult programmer will usually explain the extra code as a way of working around some bug encountered in the past, but usually neither the bug nor the reason the code avoided the bug were ever fully understood (compare {shotgun debugging}). The term cargo-cult is a reference to aboriginal religions that grew up in the South Pacific after World War II. The practices of these cults center on building elaborate mockups of airplanes and military style landing strips in the hope of bringing the return of the god-like airplanes that brought such marvelous cargo during the war. Hackish usage probably derives from Richard Feynman's characterization of certain practices as "cargo-cult science" in his book Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman' (W. W Norton & Co, New York 1985, ISBN 0-393-01921-7). case and paste: [from cut and paste'] n. 1. The addition of a new {feature} to an existing system by selecting the code from an existing feature and pasting it in with minor changes. Common in telephony circles because most operations in a telephone switch are selected using case statements. Leads to {software bloat}. In some circles of EMACS users this is called programming by Meta-W', because Meta-W is the EMACS command for copying a block of text to a kill buffer in preparation to pasting it in elsewhere. The term is condescending, implying that the programmer is acting mindlessly rather than thinking carefully about what is required to integrate the code for two similar cases. casters-up mode: /cas'trz uhp mohd/ [IBM] n. Yet another synonym for broken' or down'. casting the runes: n. The act of getting a {guru} to run a particular program and type at it because it never works for anyone else; esp. used when nobody can ever see what the guru is doing different from what J. Random Luser does. Compare {incantation}, {runes}, {examining the entrails}; also see the AI koan about Tom Knight in Appendix A. cat: [from catenate' via {UNIX} cat(1)'] vt. 1. [techspeak] To spew an entire file to the screen or some other output sink without pause. 2. By extension, to dump large amounts of data at an unprepared target or with no intention of browsing it carefully. Usage: considered silly. Rare outside UNIX sites. See also {dd}, {BLT}. Among UNIX-haters, cat(1)' is considered the {canonical} example of poor user-interface design. This because it is more often used to {blast} a file to standard output than to concatenate two files. The name cat' for the former operation is just as unintuitive as, say, LISP's {cdr}. catatonic: adj. Describes a condition of suspended animation in which something is so {wedged} or {hung} that it makes no response. For example, if you are typing on a terminal and suddenly the computer doesn't even echo the letters back to the screen as you type, let alone do what you're asking it to do, then the computer is suffering from catatonia (possibly because it has crashed). Compare {buzz}. cdr: /ku'dr/ or /kuh'dr/ [from LISP] vt. To skip past the first item from a list of things (generalized from the LISP operation on binary tree structures). In the form cdr down', to trace down a list of elements. "Shall we cdr down the agenda?" Usage: silly. See also {loop through}. Historical note: the instruction format of the IBM 7090 that hosted the original LISP implementation featured two 15-bit fields called the address' and decrement' parts. The term cdr' was originally Contents of Decrement part of Register'. Similarly, car' stood for Contents of Address part of Register'. The cdr' and car' operations have since become bases for formation of compound metaphors in non-LISP contexts. GLS recalls, for example, a programming project in which strings were represented as linked lists; the get-character and skip-character operations were of course called CHAR and CHDR. chad: /chad/ n. 1. The perforated edge strips on printer paper, after they have been separated from the printed portion. Also called {selvage} and {perf}. 2. obs. The confetti-like paper bits punched out of cards or paper tape; this was also called chaff', computer confetti', and keypunch droppings'. Historical note: one correspondent believes chad' (sense #2) derives from the Chadless keypunch (named for its inventor), which cut little u-shaped tabs in the card to make a hole when the tab folded back, rather than punching out a circle/rectangle; it was clear that if the Chadless' keypunch didn't make them, then the stuff that other keypunches made had to be chad'. chad box: n. {Iron Age} card punches contained boxes inside them, about the size of a lunchbox (or in some models a large wastebasket), that held the {chad} (squares of paper punched out of punch cards). You had to open the covers of the card punch periodically and empty the chad box. The {bit bucket} was notionally the equivalent device in the CPU enclosure, which was typically across the room in another great grey-and-blue box. chain: [orig. from BASIC's CHAIN statement] vi. When used of programming languages, refers to a statement that allows a parent executable to hand off execution to a child or successor without going through the {OS} command interpreter. The state of the parent program is lost and there is no returning to it. Though this facility used to be common on memory-limited micros and is still widely supported for backward compatibility, the jargon usage is semi-obsolescent; in particular, most UNIX programmers will think of this as an {exec}. Oppose the more modern {subshell}. char: /keir/ or /char/; rarely, /kar/ n. Shorthand for character'. Esp. used by C programmers, as char' is C's typename for character data. charityware: n. Syn. {careware}. chase pointers: 1. vi. To go through multiple levels of indirection, as in traversing a linked list or graph structure. Used esp. by programmers in C, where explicit pointers are a very common data type. This is almost techspeak, but remains jargon when used of human networks. "I'm chasing pointers. Bob said you could tell me who to talk to about...." 2. [Cambridge] pointer chase' or pointer hunt': the process of going through a dump (interactively or on a large piece of paper printed with hex {runes}) following dynamic data-structures. Only used in a debugging context. chemist: [Cambridge] n. Someone who wastes computer time on {number-crunching} when you'd far rather the machine were doing something more productive, such as working out anagrams of your name or printing Snoopy calendars or running {life} patterns. May or may not refer to someone who actually studies chemistry. Chernobyl packet: /cher-noh'b*l pak'*t/ n. A network packet that induces {network meltdown} (the result of a {broadcast storm}), in memory of the 1987 nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. The typical case of this is an IP Ethernet datagram that passes through a gateway with both source and destination Ether and IP address set as the respective broadcast addresses for the subnetworks being gated between. Compare {Christmas tree packet}. chicken head: [Commodore] n. The Commodore Business Machines logo, which strongly resembles a poultry part. Rendered in ASCII as C='. chiclet keyboard: n. A keyboard with small rectangular or lozenge-shaped rubber or plastic keys that look like pieces of chewing gum (Chiclet is a brand-name and also the Spanish common noun for the stuff). Used esp. to describe the original IBM PCjr keyboard. Vendors unanimously liked these because they were cheap, and a lot of early portable and laptop products got launched using them. Customers rejected the idea with almost equal unanimity, and chiclets are not often seen on anything larger than a digital watch any more. chine nual: /sheen'yu*l/ [MIT] n.,obs. The Lisp Machine Manual, so called because the title was wrapped around the cover so only those letters show. Chinese Army technique: n. Syn. {Mongolian Hordes technique}. choke: vt. To reject input, often ungracefully. "I tried building an {EMACS} binary to use {X}, but cpp(1)' choked on all those #define's." See {barf}, {gag}, {vi}. chomp: vt. To lose; specifically, to chew on something of which more was bitten off than one can. Probably related to gnashing of teeth. See {bagbiter}. A hand gesture commonly accompanies this, consisting of the four fingers held together as if in a mitten or hand puppet, and the fingers and thumb open and close rapidly to illustrate a biting action (much like what the PacMan does in the classic video game, though this pantomime seems to predate that). The gesture alone means "chomp chomp" (see Verb Doubling). The hand may be pointed at the object of complaint, and for real emphasis you can use both hands at once. For example, to do this to a person is equivalent to saying "You chomper!" If you point the gesture at yourself, it is a humble but humorous admission of some failure. You might do this if someone told you that a program you had written had failed in some surprising way and you felt dumb for not having anticipated it. chomper: n. Someone or something that is chomping; a loser. See {loser}, {bagbiter}, {chomp}. Christmas tree: n. A kind of RS-232 line tester or breakout box featuring rows of blinking red and green LEDs like Christmas lights. Christmas tree packet: n. A packet with every single option set for whatever protocol is in use. See {kamikaze packet}, {Chernobyl packet}. chug: vi. To run slowly; to {grind} or {grovel}. "The disk is chugging like crazy." chrome: [from automotive slang via wargaming] n. Showy features added to attract users but which contribute little or nothing to the power of a system. "The 3D icons in Motif are just chrome, but they certainly are pretty' chrome!" Distinguished from {bells and whistles} by the fact that the latter are usually added to gratify developers' own desires for featurefulness. Often used as a term of contempt. Church of the Sub-Genius: n. A mutant offshoot of {Discordianism} launched in 1981 as a spoof of fundamentalist Christianity by the Reverend' Ivan Stang, a brilliant satirist with a gift for promotion. Popular among hackers as a rich source of bizarre imagery and references such as: Bob' the divine drilling-equipment salesman, the Benevolent Space Xists, and the Stark Fist of Removal. Much Sub-Genius theory is concerned with the acquisition of the mystical substance or quality of slack'. See also {ha ha only serious}. Cinderella Book: [CMU] n. Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation', by John Hopcroft and Jeffrey Ullman, Addison-Wesley, 1979. So-called because the cover depicts a girl (putatively Cinderella) sitting in front of a Rube Goldberg device and holding a rope from that device. The back cover depicts the girl with the Rube Goldberg in shambles after having pulled on the rope. See also {{book titles}}. CI$: // n. Hackerism for CIS', Compuserve Information Service.
The dollar refers to CompuServe's rather steep line charges.  Often
used in {sig block}s just before a CompuServe address.

Classic C: /klas'ik see/ [a play on Classic Coke'] n. The C
programming language as defined in the first edition of {K&R},
with some small additions.  It is also known as K&R C'.  The
name came into use during the standardization process for C by the
ANSI X3J11 committee.  Also C Classic'.  This is sometimes
applied elsewhere: thus, X Classic' where X = Star Trek (referring
to the original TV series), or X = PC (referring to IBM's ISA-bus
machines as opposed to the PS/2 series).  This construction is
especially used of product series in which the newer versions are
considered serious losers relative to the older ones.

clean: 1. adj. Used of hardware or software designs, implies
elegance in the small', that is, a design or implementation which
may not hold any surprises but does things in a way that is
reasonably intuitive and relatively easy to comprehend from the
outside.  The antonym is grungy' or {crufty}.  2. v. To remove
unneeded or undesired files in a effort to reduce clutter.  "I'm
cleaning up my account", or "I cleaned up the garbage and now have
100 Meg free on that partition."

CLM: /see el em/ [Sun, Career Limiting Move'] 1. n. An action
endangering one's future prospects of getting plum projects and
raises, also possibly one's job.  "He used a {bubble sort}!
What a CLM!"  2. adj. Denotes extreme severity of a bug,
discovered by a customer and obviously due to poor testing:
"That's a CLM bug!"

clobber: vt. To overwrite; usually unintentionally.  As in "I
walked off the end of the array and clobbered the stack."  Compare
{mung}, {scribble}, {trash}, and {smash the stack}.

clocks: n. Processor logic cycles, so called because each generally
corresponds to one clock pulse in the processor's timing.  The
relative execution times of instructions on a machine are usually
discussed in clocks rather than absolute fractions of a second.
Compare {cycle}.

clone: n. 1. An exact duplicate, as in "Our product is a clone of
their product."  Implies a legal re-implementation from
documentation or by reverse-engineering.  Also connotes lower
price.  2. A shoddy, spurious copy, as in "Their product is a
clone of our product."  3. A blatant ripoff, most likely violating
product is a clone of my product."  This usage implies legal
action is pending.  4. A PC clone'; a PC-BUS/ISA or
EISA-compatible 80x86 based microcomputer (this use is sometimes
spelled klone' or PClone').  These invariably have much
more bang for the buck than the IBM archetypes they resemble.
5. In the construction UNIX clone': An OS designed to deliver
a UNIX-lookalike environment sans UNIX license fees, or with
additional mission-critical' features such as support for
real-time programming.  6. v. To make an exact copy of something.
"Let me clone that" might mean "I want to borrow that paper so I
can make a photocopy" or "Let me get a copy of that file before
you {mung} it".

clustergeeking: /kluh'ster-geeking/ [CMU] n. An activity defined by
spending more time at a computer cluster doing CS homework than
most people spend breathing.

COBOL: [COmmon Business-Oriented Language] n. Synonymous with
{evil} --- a weak, verbose, and flabby language used by {card
walloper}s to do boring mindless things on {dinosaur} mainframes.
Hackers believe all COBOL programmers are {suit}s or {code
grinder}s, and no self-respecting hacker will ever admit to having
learned the language.  Its very name is seldom uttered without
loathing}, {software rot}.

COBOL fingers: /koh'bol fing'grs/ n. Reported from Sweden, a
(hypothetical) disease one might get from programming in COBOL.
The language requires code verbose beyond all reason.  Programming
too much in COBOL causes the fingers to wear down (by endless
typing), until short stubs remain.  This malformity is called
COBOL fingers'.  "I refuse to type in all that source code
again; it would give me COBOL fingers!"

code grinder: n. 1. A {suit}-wearing minion of the sort hired in
legion strength by banks and insurance companies to implement
payroll packages in RPG and other such unspeakable horrors.  In his
native habitat, the code grinder often removes the suit jacket to
reveal an underplumage consisting of button-down shirt (starch
optional) and a tie.  In times of dire stress, the sleeves (if
long) may be rolled up and the tie loosened about half an inch.  It
seldom helps.  The {code grinder}'s milieu is about as far from
hackerdom as you can get and still touch a computer; the term
connotes pity.  See {Real World}, {suit}.  2. Used of or to a
hacker, a really serious slur on the person's creative ability;
connotes a design style characterized by primitive technique,
rule-boundedness, and utter lack of imagination.  Compare {card
walloper}.

code police: [by analogy with thought police'] n. A mythical team
of Gestapo-like storm troopers that might burst into one's office
and arrest one for violating style rules.  May be used either
seriously, to underline a claim that a particular style violation
is dangerous, or ironically, to suggest that the practice under
discussion is condemned mainly by anal-retentive weenies.  The
ironic usage is perhaps more common.

codewalker: n. A program component that traverses other programs for
a living.  Compilers have codewalkers in their front ends; so do
cross-reference generators and some database front-ends.  Other
utility programs that try to do too much with source code may turn
into codewalkers.  As in "This new vgrind' feature would require a
codewalker to implement."

coefficient of x: n. Hackish speech makes rather heavy use of
pseudo-mathematical metaphors.  Four particularly important ones
involve the terms coefficient', factor', index' and
quotient'.  They are often loosely applied to things you
cannot really be quantitative about, but there are subtle
distinctions between them that convey information about the way the
speaker mentally models whatever he or she is describing.

Foo factor' and foo quotient' tend to describe something
for which the issue is one of presence or absence.  The canonical
example is {fudge factor}.  It's not important how much you're
fudging; the term simply acknowledges that some fudging is needed.
You might talk of liking a movie for its silliness factor.
Quotient tends to imply that the property is a ratio of two
opposing factors: "I would have won except for my luck quotient."
This could also be, "I would have won except for the luck factor",
but using *quotient* emphasizes that it was bad luck
overpowering good luck.

Foo index' and coefficient of foo' both tend to imply
that foo is, if not strictly measurable, at least something that
can be larger or smaller.  Thus, you might refer to a paper or
person as having a high bogosity index', whereas you would be less
likely to speak of a high bogosity factor'.  Foo index' suggests
that foo is a condensation of many quantities, as in the mundane
cost-of-living index; coefficient of foo' suggests that foo is a
fundamental quantity, as in a coefficient of friction.  The choice
between these terms is often one of personal preference; e.g., some
people might feel that bogosity is a fundamental attribute and thus
say "coefficient of bogosity", whereas others might feel it is a
combination of factors and thus say "bogosity index".

cokebottle: /kohk'bot-l/ n. Any very unusual character,
particularly one that isn't on your keyboard so you can't type it.
MIT people used to complain about the control-meta-cokebottle'
commands at SAIL, and SAIL people complained right back about the
altmode-altmode-cokebottle' commands at MIT.  After the demise of
usage, but was often invoked humorously to describe an
(unspecified) weird or non-intuitive keystroke command.  It may be
due for a second inning, however.  The OSF/Motif window manager,
mwm, has a reserved keystroke for switching to the default set of
keybindings and behavior.  This keystroke is (believe it or not)
control-meta-bang' (see {bang}).  Since the exclamation point
looks a lot like an upside down coke bottle, Motif hackers have

COME FROM: n. A semi-mythical language construct dual to the go
to'; COME FROM <label> would cause the referenced label to act as a
sort of trapdoor, so that if the program ever reached it control
would quietly and {automagically} be transferred to the statement
following the COME FROM.  COME FROM was first proposed in a
{Datamation} article of December 1973 (reprinted in the April
1984 issue of Communications of the ACM) that parodied the
then-raging structured programming' {holy wars} (see
{considered harmful}).  Mythically, some variants are the
assigned come from', and the computed come from'
(parodying some nasty control constructs in FORTRAN and some
extended BASICs).  Obviously, multi-tasking (or non-determinism)
could be implemented by having more than one COME FROM statement
coming from the same label.

In some ways the FORTRAN DO looks like a COME FROM statement.
After the terminating label/CONTINUE is reached, control continues
at the statement following the DO.  Some generous FORTRANs would
allow arbitrary statements (other than CONTINUE) for the
label, leading to examples like this

DO 10 I=1,LIMIT
C imagine many lines of code here, leaving the original DO
C statement lost in the spaghetti...
WRITE(6,10) I,FROB(I)
10   FORMAT(1X,I5,G10.4)

in which the trapdoor is just after the statement labelled 10.

While sufficiently astonishing to the unsuspecting reader, this
form of COME FROM statement isn't completely general.  After all,
control will eventually pass to the following statement.  The
implementation of the general form was left to Univac FORTRAN,
ca.1975.  The statement AT 100' would perform a COME
FROM 100'.  It was intended strictly as a debugging aid, with dire
consequences promised to anyone so deranged as to use it in
in production languages, however; doubters need only contemplate
COBOL's ALTER' verb.

COME FROM was supported under its own name for the first time
fifteen years later, in C-INTERCAL (see {INTERCAL},
{retrocomputing}); knowledgeable observers are still reeling from
shock.

comm mode: /kom mohd/ [from the ITS feature supporting on-line
chat, spelled with one or two Ms] Syn. for {talk mode}.

command key: [Mac users] n. The Macintosh key with the cloverleaf
graphic on its keytop; sometimes referred to as flower',
clover', propeller', or beanie' (an apparent reference to the
propeller on a beanie).  The Mac's equivalent to an {ALT} key.

comment out: vt. To surround a section of code with comment
delimiters or to prefix every line in the section with a comment
marker; this prevents it from being compiled or interpreted.  Often
done when the code is redundant or obsolete, but you want to leave
it in the source to make the intent of the active code clearer;
also when the code in that section is broken and you want to bypass
it in order to debug some other part of the code.  Compare
{condition out}, usually the preferred technique in languages
(like {C}) that make it possible.

Commonwealth Hackish:: n. Hacker jargon as spoken outside the
U.S., esp. in the British Commonwealth.  It is reported that
Commonwealth speakers are more likely to pronounce char', soc',
etc. as spelled (/char/, /sok/) as opposed to American /keir/ or
/sohsh/.  Dots in {newsgroup} names tend to be pronounced more
often (so soc.wibble is /sok dot wi'bble/ rather than /sohsh
wib'ble/).  The prefix {meta} may be pronounced /mee't*-/;
similarly, Greek letter beta is often /bee't*/, zeta is often
/zee't*/ and so forth.  Preferred metasyntactic variables include
EEK, OOK, FRODO, and BILBO; WIBBLE, WOBBLE, and in emergencies
WUBBLE; BANANA, WOMBAT, FROG, {fish}, and so on and on (see
{foo}, sense #4).

Alternatives to verb doubling include suffixes -o-rama',
frenzy' (as in feeding frenzy) and city' (as in "barf
city!" "hack-o-rama!" "core dump frenzy!").  Finally, note
that the American terms parens', brackets', and braces' for (),
[], and {} are uncommon; Commonwealth hackish prefers
brackets', square brackets', and curly brackets'.  Also, the
use of pling' for {bang} is common outside the United States.

jockey}, {fish}, {grunge}, {hakspek}, {heavy metal},
{leaky heap}, {lord high fixer}, {noddy},
{psychedelicware}, {plingnet}, {raster blaster}, {seggie},
{terminal junkie}, {tick-list features}, {weeble},
{weasel}, {YABA}, and notes or definitions under {Bad Thing},
{barf}, {bogus}, {bum}, {chase pointers}, {cosmic rays},
{crippleware}, {crunch}, {dodgy}, {gonk}, {mess-dos},
{nybble}, {proglet}, {root}, {tweak}, and {xyzzy}.

compact: adj. Of a design, describes the valuable property that it
can all be apprehended at once in one's head.  This generally means
the thing created from the design can be used with greater facility
and fewer errors than an equivalent tool that is not compact.  Note
that compactness does not imply triviality or lack of power; for
example, C is compact and FORTRAN is not, but C is more powerful
than FORTRAN.  Designs become non-compact through accreting
{feature}s and {cruft} that don't merge cleanly into the overall
design scheme.

compress: [UNIX] vt. When used without a qualifier, generally
refers to {crunch}ing of a file using a particular C
implementation of Lempel-Ziv compression by James A. Woods et al. and
widely circulated via {USENET}.  Use of {crunch} itself in this
sense is rare among UNIX hackers.

computer confetti: n. Syn. {chad}.  Though this term is common,
this use of the punched-card chad is not a good idea, as the pieces
are stiff and have sharp corners that could injure the eyes.  GLS
reports that he once attended a wedding at MIT during which he and
groom later grumbled that he and his bride had spent most of the
evening trying to get the stuff out of their hair.

computer geek: n. One who eats (computer) bugs for a living.  One
who fulfills all of the dreariest negative stereotypes about
hackers: an asocial, malodorous, pasty-faced monomaniac with all
the personality of a cheese grater.  Cannot be used by outsiders
without implied insult to all hackers; compare black-on-black usage
of nigger'.  A computer geek may be either a fundamentally
clueless individual or a proto-hacker in {larval stage}.  Also
called turbo nerd', turbo geek'.  See also
{clustergeeking}, {wannabee}, {terminal junkie}.

computron: /kom'pyoo-tron/ n. 1. A notional unit of computing power
combining instruction speed and storage capacity, dimensioned
roughly in instructions-per-second times megabytes-of-main-store times
megabytes-of-mass-storage.  "That machine can't run GNU EMACS, it
doesn't have enough computrons!"  This usage is usually found in
metaphors that treat computing power as a fungible commodity good
like a crop yield or diesel horsepower.  See {bitty box}, {Get a
real computer!}, {toy}, {crank}.  2. A mythical subatomic particle
that bears the unit quantity of computation or information, in much
the same way that an electron bears one unit of electric charge
(see {bogon}).  An elaborate pseudo-scientific theory of computrons
has been worked out based on the physical fact that the molecules
in a solid object move more rapidly as it is heated.  It is argued
that an object melts because the molecules have lost their
information about where they are supposed to be (that is, they have
emitted computrons).  This explains why computers get so hot and
require air conditioning; they use up computrons.  Conversely, you
should be able to cool down an object by placing it in the path of
a computron beam.  It is believed that this may also explain why
machines that work at the factory fail in the computer room ---
because the computrons there have been all used up by your other
hardware.  (This may owe something to the group of fantasy stories
by Larry Niven, beginning with What Good is a Glass Dagger?',
in which magic is fueled by an exhaustible natural resource called
mana').

condition out: vt. To prevent a section of code from being compiled
by surrounding it with a conditional-compilation directive whose
condition is always false.  The {canonical} example is
#if 0' and #endif' in C.  Compare {comment out}.

condom: n. The protective plastic baggy that accompanies 3.5-inch
microfloppy diskettes.  Rarely, used of (paper) disk envelopes.
Unlike the write protect, the condom (when left on) not only
impedes the practice of {SEX}, it has been shown to have a high
failure rate as drive mechanisms attempt to access the disk --- and
can even fatally frustrate insertion!

connector conspiracy: [probably came into prominence with the
appearance of the KL-10, none of whose connectors matched anything
else] n. The tendency of manufacturers (or, by extension,
programmers or purveyors of anything) to come up with new products
which don't fit together with the old stuff, thereby making you buy
either all new stuff or expensive interface devices.  The KL-10
Massbus connector was actually *patented* by DEC, which is
reputed to have refused to license the design and thus effectively
locked third parties out of competition for the lucrative Massbus
peripherals market.  This is a source of never-ending frustration
for the die-hards who maintain older PDP-10 or VAX systems.
Their CPUs work fine, but they're stuck with dying, obsolescent
disk and tape drives with low capacity and high power requirements.

In these latter days of open-systems computing this term has fallen
somewhat into disuse, to be replaced by the observation that
"Standards are great!  There are so *many* of them."  Compare
{backward combatability}.

cons: /konz/ or /kons/ [from LISP] 1. v. To add a new element to a
list, esp. at the top.  2. cons up': vt. To synthesize from
smaller pieces: "to cons up an example".

considered harmful: adj. Edsger W. Dijkstra's infamous March 1968
Communications of the ACM note, Goto Statement Considered
Harmful', fired the first salvo in the structured programming'
wars.  Amusingly, the ACM considered the resulting acrimony
sufficiently harmful that they will (by policy) no longer print an
article which takes up that assertive a position against a coding
practice.  In the ensuing decades, a large number of both serious
papers and parodies have borne titles of the form X considered Y'.
The structured programming' wars eventually blew over with the
realization that both sides were wrong, but use of such titles has
remained as a persistent minor in-joke (the considered silly'
found at various places in this lexicon is related).

console:: n. 1. The operator's station of a {mainframe}.  In times
past, this was a privileged location which conveyed godlike powers
to him (almost invariably a him') with his fingers on the keys.  Under
UNIX and other modern timesharing OSes, such privileges are
guarded by passwords, and the console is just the {tty} the system
was booted from.  Some of the mystique remains, however, and it is
/dev/console.  2. On microcomputer UNIX boxes: the main screen and
keyboard (as opposed to character-only terminals talking to a
serial port).  Typically only the console can do real graphics or

console jockey: n. See {terminal junkie}.

content-free: adj. Ironic analogy with context-free', used of a
message that adds nothing to the recipient's knowledge.  Though
this adjective is sometimes applied to {flamage}, it more usually
connotes derision for communication styles which exalt form over
substance, or are centered on concerns irrelevant to the subject
ostensibly at hand.  Perhaps most used with reference to speeches
by company presidents and like animals.  "Content-free?
{four-color glossies}.

control-c: vi. "Stop whatever you are doing."  From the interrupt
character used on many operating systems to abort a running
program.  Considered silly.

control-o: vi. "Stop talking."  From the character used on many
operating systems to abort output but allow the program to keep on
running.  Generally means that you are not interested in hearing
anything more from that person, at least on that topic; a standard
respond to someone who is flaming.  Considered silly.

control-s: vi. "Stop talking for a second."  From the ASCII XOFF
character (this is also pronounced XOFF /eks'off/).  Control-s
differs from {control-o} in that the person is asked to stop
talking (perhaps because you are on the phone) but will be allowed
to continue when you're ready to listen to him, as opposed to
control-o which has more of the meaning of "Shut up."  Considered
silly.

Conway's Law: prov. The rule that the organization of the software and
the organization of the software team will be congruent; originally
stated as "If you have four groups working on a compiler, you'll
get a four-pass compiler."

This was originally promulgated by Melvin Conway, an early
proto-hacker who wrote an assembler for the Burroughs 220 called
SAVE.  The name SAVE' didn't stand for anything; it was just that
you lost fewer decks and listings because they all had SAVE written
on top of them.

cookie: n. A handle, transaction ID, or other token of agreement
between cooperating programs.  "I give him a packet, he gives me

that facilitates retrieval by a fortune program.  There are several
different ones in public distribution, and site admins often
assemble their own from various sources including this lexicon.

cookie monster: [from Sesame Street'] n. Any of a family of
early (1970s) hacks reported on {TOPS-10}, {ITS}, {Multics},
and elsewhere that would lock up either the victim's terminal (on a
time-sharing machine) or the {{console}} (on a batch
{mainframe}), repeatedly demanding "I WANT A COOKIE".  The
required responses ranged in complexity from "COOKIE" through

copper: n. Conventional electron-carrying network cable, which uses
copper as a core conductor --- or aluminum!  Opposed to {light
pipe} or, say, a short-range microwave link.

copy protection: n. A class of clever methods for preventing
incompetent pirates from stealing software and legitimate customers
from using it.  Considered silly.

instance of a copy-protected program which has been broken'; that
is, a copy with the copy-protection scheme disabled.  Syn.
{copywronged}.

copyleft: /kop'ee-left/ [play on copyright'] n. 1. The
copyright notice (General Public License') carried by {GNU}
{EMACS} and other Free Software Foundation software, granting re-use
Public Virus}).  2. By extension, any copyright notice intended to
achieve similar aims.

core: n. Main storage or RAM.  Dates from the days of ferrite-core
memory; now archaic most places outside IBM, but also still used in
the UNIX community and by old-time hackers or those who would sound
like same.  Some derived idioms are quite current; in core',
for example, means in memory' (as opposed to on disk'), and both
{core dump} and the core image' or core file' produced
by one are terms in favors.  Commonwealth hackish prefers {store}.

core dump: n. [common {Iron Age} jargon, preserved by UNIX] 1. A
copy of the contents of {core} produced when a process is aborted
by certain kinds of internal error.  2. By extension, used for
humans passing out, vomiting, or registering extreme shock.  "He
dumped core.  All over the floor.  What a mess." "He heard about
... and dumped core."  3. Occasionally used for a human
rambling on pointlessly at great length; esp. in apology: "Sorry I
dumped core on you".  4. A recapitulation of knowledge (compare
{bits}, sense 1).  Hence, spewing all one knows about a topic,
esp. in a lecture or answer to an exam question.  "Short, concise
answers are better than core dumps." (from the instructions to a
qual exam at Columbia; compare {brain dump}).  See
{core}.

core leak: n. Syn. {memory leak}.

Core Wars: n. A game between assembler' programs in a simulated
machine, where the objective is to kill your opponent's program by
overwriting it.  This was popularized by A. K. Dewdney's column
in Scientific American' magazine, but is said to have been
first devised by Victor Vyssotsky as a PDP-1 hack, during the early
'60s at Bell Labs.  It is rumored that the game is a civilized
version of an amusement called DARWIN common on multitasking
{core}.

corge: /korj/ [originally, the name of a cat] n. Yet another
meta-syntactic variable, invented by Mike Gallaher and propagated
by the Gosmacs documentation.  See {grault}.

cosmic rays: n. Notionally, the cause of {bit rot}.  However, this is
a semi-independent usage which may be invoked as a humorous way to
{handwave} away any minor {randomness} that doesn't seem worth the
bother of investigating.  "Hey, Eric --- I just got a burst of
garbage on my {tube}, where did that come from?"  "Cosmic rays, I
guess." Compare {sunspots}, {phase of the moon}.  The British seem
to prefer the usage cosmic showers'; alpha particles' is also
heard, because stray alpha particles passing through a memory chip
can cause single-bit errors (this becomes increasingly more likely
as memory sizes and densities increase).

Factual note: alpha particles cause bit rot, cosmic rays do not
(except occasionally in spaceborne computers).  Intel could not
explain random bit drops in their early chips, and one hypothesis
was cosmic rays.  So they created the World's Largest Lead Safe, 25
tons of lead, and used two identical boards for testing.  One was
placed in the safe, one outside.  The hypothesis was that if cosmic
rays were causing the bit drops, they should see a statistically
significant difference between the error rates on the two boards.
They did not observe such a difference.  Further investigation
demonstrated conclusively that the bit drops were due to alpha
particle emission from thorium (and to a much lesser degree
uranium) in the encapsulation material.  Since it is impossible to
eliminate these radioactives (they are uniformly distributed
through the earth's crust, with the statistically insignificant
exception of uranium mines) it became obvious that you have to
design memories to withstand these hits.

cough and die: v. Syn. {barf}.  Connotes that the program is
throwing its hands up by design rather than because of a bug or
oversight.

cowboy: [Sun, from William Gibson's {cyberpunk} SF] n. Synonym for
{hacker}.  It is reported that, at Sun, this is often said with
reverence.

CP/M: /see-pee-em/ n. [Control Program for Microcomputers] An
early microcomputer {OS} written by hacker Gary Kildall for 8080-
and Z80-based machines, very popular in the late 1970s until
virtually wiped out by MS-DOS after the release of the IBM PC in
1981 (legend has it that Kildall's company blew their chance to
write the OS for the IBM PC because Kildall decided to spend the
day IBM's reps wanted to meet with him enjoying the perfect flying
weather in his private plane).  Many of its features and
conventions strongly resemble those of early DEC operating systems
such as {TOPS-10}, OS/8, RSTS, and RSX-11.  See {MS-DOS},
{operating system}.

CPU Wars: /see-pee-yoo worz/ n. A 1979 large-format comic by Chas
Andres chronicling the attempts of the brainwashed androids of
IPM' (Impossible to Program Machines) to conquer and destroy the
peaceful denizens of HEC (Human Engineered Computers).  This rather
transparent allegory featured many references to {ADVENT} and the
immortal line "Eat flaming death, minicomputer mongrels!"
(uttered, of course, by an IPM stormtrooper).  It is alleged that
the author subsequently received a letter of appreciation on IBM
company stationery from the then-head of IBM's Thomas J. Watson
research laboratories (then, as now, one of the few islands of true
hackerdom in the IBM archipelago).  The lower loop of the B' in
the IBM logo, it is said, had been carefully whited out.  See
{eat flaming death}.

cracker: n. One who breaks security on a system.  Coined ca.1985 by
hackers in defense against journalistic misuse of {hacker} (q.v.,
sense #7).  There had been an earlier attempt to establish worm'
in this sense around 1981--1982 on USENET; this largely failed.

crank: [from automotive slang] vt. Verb used to describe the
performance of a machine, especially sustained performance.  "This
box cranks (or, cranks at) about 6 megaflops, with a burst mode of
twice that on vectorized operations."

crash: 1. n. A sudden, usually drastic failure.  Most often said of
the {system} (q.v., sense #1), sometimes of magnetic disk drives.
"Three {luser}s lost their files in last night's disk crash."
surface of the disks and scraping off the oxide may also be
referred to as a head crash', whereas the term system
crash' usually, though not always, implies that the operating
system or other software was at fault.  2. vi. To fail suddenly.
"Has the system just crashed?"  See {down}.  Also used
transitively to indicate the cause of the crash (usually a person
or a program, or both).  "Those idiots playing {SPACEWAR}
crashed the system."  3. vi. Sometimes said of people hitting the
sack after a long {hacking run}; see {gronk} (sense #4).

crash and burn: vi.,n. A spectacular crash, in the mode of the
conclusion of the car chase scene from the movie Bullitt' and
many subsequent imitators.  Sun-3 monitors losing the flyback
transformer and lightning strikes on VAX-11/780 backplanes are
notable crash and burn generators.  The construction
crash-and-burn machine' is reported for a computer used
exclusively for alpha or {beta} testing, or reproducing bugs
(i.e., not for development).  The implication is that it wouldn't
be such a disaster if that machine crashed, since only the testers
would be inconvenienced.

crawling horror: n. Ancient crufty hardware or software that forces
beyond the control of the hackers at a site refuse to let die.
Like {dusty deck} or {gonkulator}, but connotes that the thing
described is not just an irritation but an active menace to health
and sanity.  "Mostly we code new stuff in C, but they pay us to
maintain one big FORTRAN II application from nineteen-sixty-X
that's a real crawling horror...."  Compare {WOMBAT}.

cray: /kray/ n. 1. (properly, capitalized) One of the line of
supercomputers designed by Cray Research.  2. Any supercomputer at
all.  3. The {canonical} {number-crunching} machine.

The term is actually the lowercased last name of Seymour Cray, a
noted computer architect and co-founder of the company.  Numerous
vivid legends surround him, some true and some admittedly invented
by Cray Research brass to shape their corporate culture and image.

cray instability: n. A shortcoming of a program or algorithm which
manifests itself only when running a large problem on a powerful
machine.  Generally more subtle than bugs that can be detected in
smaller problems running on a workstation or mini.

crayola: n. A super-mini or -micro computer that provides some
reasonable percentage of supercomputer performance for an
unreasonably low price.  Might also be a {killer micro}.

crayon: n. 1. Someone who works on Cray supercomputers.  More
specifically implies a programmer, probably of the CDC ilk,
probably male, and almost certainly wearing a tie (irrespective of
gender).  Unicos systems types who have a UNIX background tend not
to be described as crayons.  2. A {computron} that participates
only in {number-crunching}.  3. A unit of computational power
equal to that of a single Cray-1.  There is a standard joke about
this that derives from an old Crayola crayon promotional gimmick:
when you buy 64 crayons you get a free sharpener.

creationism: n. The (false) belief that large, innovative designs
can be completely specified in advance and then painlessly magicked
out of the void by the normal efforts of a team of normally
talented programmers.  In fact, experience has shown repeatedly
that good designs arise only from evolutionary, exploratory
interaction between one (or at most a small handful of)
exceptionally able designer(s) and an active user population ---
and that the first try at a big new idea is always wrong.
Unfortunately, because these truths don't fit the planning models
beloved of {management}, they are generally ignored.

creeping elegance: n. Describes a tendency for parts of a design to
become {elegant} past the point of diminishing return.  This often
happens at the expense of the less interesting parts of the design,
schedule, and other things deemed important in the {Real World}.

creeping featurism: /kree'ping fee'chr-izm/ n. 1. Describes a
systematic tendency to load more {chrome} and {feature}s onto
systems at the expense of whatever elegance they may have possessed
know, the main problem with {BSD} UNIX has always been creeping
featurism."  2. More generally, the tendency for anything
complicated to become even more complicated because people keep
saying, "Gee, it would be even better if it had this feature
too."  (See {feature}.)  The result is usually a patchwork
because it grew one ad-hoc step at a time, rather than being
planned.  Planning is a lot of work, but it's easy to add just one
extra little feature to help someone... and then another...
and another....  When creeping featurism gets out of hand, it's
like a cancer.  Usually this term is used to describe computer
programs, but it could also be said of the federal government, the
IRS 1040 form, and new cars.  A similar phenomenon sometimes
afflicts conscious redesigns; see {second-system effect}.  See
also {creeping elegance}.

creeping featuritis: /kree'ping fee'-chr-iet*s/ n. Variant of
{creeping featurism}, with its own Spoonerization as feeping
creaturitis'.  Some people like to reserve this form for the
disease as it actually manifests in software or hardware, as
opposed to the lurking general tendency in designers' minds.  After
all, -ism means condition' or pursuit of', whereas -itis usually
means inflammation of'.)

cretin: /kre'tn/ or /kree'tn/ n. Congenital {loser}; an obnoxious
person; someone who can't do anything right.  It has been observed
that many American hackers tend to favor the British pronunciation
/kre'tn/ over standard American /kree'tn/; it is thought this may
be due to the insidious phonetic influence of Monty Python's Flying
Circus.

cretinous: /kre't*n-uhs/ or /kree't*n-uhs/ adj. Wrong;
non-functional; very poorly designed.  Also used pejoratively of
people.  Synonyms: {bletcherous}, bagbiting' (see
{bagbiter}), {losing}, {brain-damaged}.

crippleware: n. 1. Software that has some important functionality
deliberately removed, so as to entice potential users to pay for a
{guiltware} that exhorts you to donate to some charity (compare
{careware}).

critical mass: n. In physics, the minimum amount of fissionable
material required to sustain a chain reaction.  Of a software
product, describes a condition of the software such that fixing one
bug introduces one plus {epsilon} bugs.  When software achieves
critical mass, it can only be discarded and rewritten.

crlf: /ker'l*f/, sometimes /kru'l*f/ or /see-ar-el-eff/ n. (often
capitalized as CRLF') A carriage return (CR) followed by a line
feed (LF).  More loosely, whatever it takes to get you from the end
of one line of text to the beginning of the next line.  See
{newline}, {terpri}.  Under {UNIX} influence this usage has
become less common (UNIX uses a bare line feed as its CRLF').

crock: [from the obvious mainstream scatologism] n. 1. An awkward
feature or programming technique that ought to be made cleaner.
Example: Using small integers to represent error codes without the
program interpreting them to the user (as in, for example, UNIX
make(1)', which returns code 139 for a process that dies due
to {segfault}).  2. A technique that works acceptably, but which
is quite prone to failure if disturbed in the least, for example
depending on the machine opcodes having particular bit patterns so
that you can use instructions as data words too; a tightly woven,
almost completely unmodifiable structure.  See {kluge},
{brittle}.  Also in the adjectives crockish' and
crocky', and the noun crockitude'.

cross-post: [USENET] vi. To post a single article directed to
several newsgroups.  Distinguished from posting the article
repeatedly, once to each newsgroup, which causes people to see it
multiple times (this is very bad form).  Cross-posting without a
Followup line directing responses to a single followup group is
frowned upon, as it tends to cause {followup} articles to go to
inappropriate newsgroups as people respond to only one part of the
original posting.

crudware: /kruhd'weir/ n. Pejorative term for the hundreds of
megabytes of low-quality {freeware} circulated by user's groups
and BBS systems in the micro-hobbyist world.  "Yet *another*
set of disk catalog utilities for {MS-DOS}?  What crudware!"
The related usage fuckware' is reported for software so bad it
some similar fiasco.

cruft: /kruhft/ 1. [back-formation from {crufty}] 1. n. An
unpleasant substance.  The dust that gathers under your bed is
cruft; the TMRC dictionary correctly noted that attacking it with a
broom only produces more.  2. n.  The results of shoddy
construction.  3. vt. [from hand cruft, pun on hand craft] to
write assembler code for something normally (and better) done by a
compiler (see {hand-hacking}).  4. n. Excess; superfluous junk.
Esp. used of redundant or superseded code.

cruft together: vt. (also cruft up') To throw together
something ugly but temporarily workable.  Like vt. {kluge up},
but more pejorative.  "There isn't any program now to reverse all
the lines of a file, but I can probably cruft one together in about
ten minutes."  See {hack together}, {hack up}, {kluge up},
{crufty}.

cruftsmanship: /kruhfts'man-ship / n. [from {cruft}] The
antithesis of craftsmanship.

crufty: /kruhf'tee/ [origin unknown; poss. from crusty' or
cruddy'] adj. 1. Poorly built, possibly overly complex.  The
{canonical} example is "This is standard old crufty DEC
software."  In fact, one fanciful theory of the origin of crufty'
holds that was originally a mutation of crusty' applied to DEC
software so old that the S characters were tall and skinny, looking
more like f' characters.  2. Unpleasant, especially to the touch,
often with encrusted junk.  Like spilled coffee smeared with peanut
butter and catsup.  3. Generally unpleasant.  4. (sometimes spelled
cruftie') n. A small crufty object (see {frob}); often one
that doesn't fit well into the scheme of things.  "A LISP property
list is a good place to store crufties (or, collectively,
{random} cruft)."

crumb: n. Two binary digits; a {quad}.  Larger than a {bit},
smaller than a {nybble}.  Syn. {tayste}.

crunch: 1. vi. To process, usually in a time-consuming or
complicated way.  Connotes an essentially trivial operation that is
nonetheless painful to perform.  The pain may be due to the
triviality being embedded in a loop from 1 to 1,000,000,000.
"FORTRAN programs do mostly {number-crunching}."  2. vt. To
reduce the size of a file by a complicated scheme that produces bit
configurations completely unrelated to the original data, such as
by a Huffman code.  (The file ends up looking like a paper document
would if somebody crunched the paper into a wad.)  Since such
compression usually takes more computations than simpler methods
such as run-length encoding, the term is doubly appropriate.  (This
meaning is usually used in the construction file crunch(ing)' to
distinguish it from {number-crunching}.)  See {compress}.
3. n. The character #'.  Usage: used at XEROX and CMU, among
other places.  See {{ASCII}}.  4. vt. To squeeze program source
into a minimum-size representation that will still compile or
execute.  The term came into being specifically for a famous
program on the BBC that crunched BASIC source in order to make it
run more quickly (it was a wholly interpretive BASIC).
{Obfuscated C Contest} entries are often crunched; see the first
example under that entry.

cruncha cruncha cruncha: /kruhn'ch* kruhn'ch* kruhn'ch*/ interj.
An encouragement sometimes muttered to a machine bogged down in a
serious {grovel}.  Also describes a notional sound made by
grovelling hardware.  See {wugga wugga}, {grind} (sense #3).

cryppie: /krip'ee/ n. A cryptographer.  One who hacks or implements
cryptographic software or hardware.

CTSS: /see-tee-ess-ess/ n. Compatible Time-Sharing System.  An early
(1963) experiment in the design of interactive time-sharing
operating systems.  Cited here because it was ancestral to
{Multics}, {UNIX}, and {ITS}.  The name {ITS} ("Incompatible
Time-sharing System") was a hack on CTSS, meant both as a joke and
to express some basic differences in philosophy about the way I/O
services should be presented to user programs.

CTY: /sit'ee/ or /see tee wie/ n. [MIT] The terminal physically
associated with a computer's system {{console}}.  The term is a
contraction of Console {tty}', that is, Console TeleTYpe'.
This {ITS}- and {TOPS-10}-associated term has become less common
than formerly, as most UNIX hackers simply refer to the CTY as the
console'.

cube: n. 1. [short for cubicle'] A module in the open-plan
offices used at many programming shops.  "I've got the manuals in
my cube".  2. A NeXT machine.

cubing: [parallel with tubing'] vi. 1. Hacking on an IPSC (Intel
Personal SuperComputer) hypercube.  "Louella's gone cubing
*again*!!"  2. Hacking Rubik's Cube or related puzzles,
either physically or mathematically.  3. An indescribable form of
self-torture (see sense #1 or #2).

cursor dipped in X: n. There are a couple of metaphors in English
of the form pen dipped in X' (perhaps the most common values of X
are acid', bile' and vitriol').  These map over neatly to this
hackish usage (the cursor being what moves, leaving letters behind,
when one is composing on-line).

cuspy: /kuhs'pee/ [coined at WPI from the DEC acronym CUSP, for
Commonly Used System Program, i.e., a utility program used by many
people] adj. 1. (of a program) Well-written.  2. Functionally
excellent.  A program that performs well and interfaces well to
users is cuspy.  See {rude}.  3. [NYU] Said of an attractive
woman, especially one regarded as available.  Implies a certain
curvaceousness.

cut a tape: [poss. fr. mainstream cut a check' or from the
recording industry's cut a record'] vi. To write a software or
document distribution on magnetic tape for shipment.  Has nothing
to do with physically cutting the medium!  Though this usage is
quite widespread, one never speaks of analogously cutting a disk'
or anything else in this sense.

cybercrud: /sie'ber-kruhd/ [coined by Ted Nelson] n. Obfuscatory
tech-talk.  Verbiage with a high {MEGO} factor.  The computer
equivalent of bureaucratese.

cyberpunk: /sie'ber-puhnk/ [orig. by SF writer Bruce Bethke and/or
editor Gardner Dozois] n.,adj. A subgenre of SF launched in 1982
by William Gibson's epoch-making novel Neuromancer' (though
its roots go back through Vernor Vinge's True Names' (see
Appendix C) to John Brunner's 1975 novel, The Shockwave
Rider').  Gibson's near-total ignorance of computers and the
present-day hacker culture enabled him to speculate about the role
of computers and hackers in the future in ways hackers have since
found both irritatingly naive and tremendously stimulating.
Gibson's work was widely imitated, in particular by the short-lived
but innovative Max Headroom' TV series.  See {cyberspace},
{ice}, {go flatline}.

cyberspace: /sie'ber-spays/ n. 1. Notional information-space'
loaded with visual cues and navigable with brain-computer
interfaces called cyberspace decks'; a characteristic prop of
{cyberpunk} SF.  At time of writing (mid-1991), serious efforts to
construct {virtual reality} interfaces modelled explicitly on
Gibsonian cyberspace are already under way, using more conventional
devices such as glove sensors and binocular TV headsets.  Few
hackers are prepared to outright deny the possibility of a
cyberspace someday evolving out of the network (see {network,
the}).  2. Occasionally, the metaphoric location of the mind of a
person in {hack mode}.  Some hackers report experiencing strong
eidetic imagery when in hack mode; interestingly, independent
reports from multiple sources suggest that there are common
features to the experience.  In particular, the dominant colors of
this subjective cyberspace' are often gray and silver, and the
imagery often involves constellations of marching dots, elaborate
shifting patterns of lines and angles, or moire patterns.

cycle: n. The basic unit of computation.  What every hacker wants
more of (noted hacker Bill Gosper used to describe himself as a
"cycle junky").  One might think that single machine instructions
would be the measure of computation, and indeed computers are often
compared by how many instructions they can process per second, but
some instructions take longer than others.  Nearly all computers
have an internal clock, though, and you can describe an instruction
as taking so many clock cycles'.  Frequently the computer can
access its memory once on every clock cycle, and so one speaks also
of memory cycles'.  These are technical meanings of {cycle}.
The jargon meaning comes from the observation that there are only
so many cycles per second, and when you are sharing a computer, the
cycles get divided up among the users.  The more cycles the
computer spends working on your program rather than someone else's,
the faster your program will run.  That's why every hacker wants
more cycles: so he can spend less time waiting for the computer to
respond.

cycle crunch: n. The situation where the number of people trying to
use the computer simultaneously has reached the point where no one
can get enough cycles because they are spread too thin.  This is an
inevitable result of Parkinson's Law applied to timesharing.
Usually the only solution is to buy more computer.  Happily, this
has rapidly become easier in recent years, so much so that the very
term cycle crunch' now has a faintly archaic flavor; most
hackers now use workstations or personal computers as opposed to

cycle drought: n. A scarcity of cycles.  It may be due to a {cycle
crunch}, but could also occur because part of the computer is
temporarily not working, leaving fewer cycles to go around.
Example: "The {high moby} is {down}, so we're running with only
half the usual amount of memory.  There will be a cycle drought
until it's fixed."

cycle of reincarnation: [coined by Ivan Sutherland ca.1970] n. Term
used to refer to a well-known effect whereby function in a
computing system family is migrated out to special-purpose
peripheral hardware for speed, then the peripheral evolves towards
more computing power as it does its job, then somebody notices that
it's inefficient to support two asymmetrical processors in the
architecture and folds the function back into the main CPU, at
which point the cycle begins again.  Several iterations of this
cycle have been observed in graphics processor design, and at least
one or two in communications and floating-point processors.  Also
known as the Wheel of Life', the Wheel of Samsara', and
other variations of the basic Hindu/Buddhist theological idea.

cycle server: n. A powerful machine that exists primarily for
running large batch jobs.  Implies that interactive tasks such as
editing are done on other machines on the network, such as
workstations.

= D =
=====

daemon: /day'm*n/ or /dee'm*n/ [from the mythological
meaning, later rationalized as the acronym Disk And Execution
MONitor'] n. A program which is not invoked explicitly, but which
lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to occur.  The idea is
that the perpetrator of the condition need not be aware that a
daemon is lurking (though often a program will commit an action
only because it knows that it will implicitly invoke a daemon).
For example, under {ITS} writing a file on the {LPT} spooler's
directory would invoke the spooling daemon, which would then print
the file.  The advantage is that programs which want (in this
They simply enter their implicit requests and let the daemon decide
what to do with them.  Daemons are usually spawned automatically by
the system, and may either live forever or be regenerated at
intervals.  Usage: daemon and {demon} are often used
interchangeably, but seem to have distinct connotations.  The term
daemon' was introduced to computing by {CTSS} people (who
pronounced it /dee'mon/) and used it to refer to what ITS called
a {dragon}.  While the meaning and pronunciation have drifted, we
think this glossary reflects current (1991) usage.

dangling pointer: n. A reference that doesn't actually lead
anywhere (in C and some other languages, a pointer that doesn't
actually point at anything valid).  Usually this is because it
formerly pointed to something which has moved or disappeared.  Used
as jargon in a generalization of its techspeak meaning; a local
phone number for a person who's since moved to the other coast, for
example.

Datamation: n. A magazine that many hackers assume all {suit}s
read.  Used to question an unbelieved quote, as in "Did you read
that in Datamation?"  It used to publish something hackishly
funny every once in a while, like the original paper on {COME
FROM} in 1973; but since then it's become much more exclusively
{suit}-oriented.

day mode: n. See {phase} (sense #1).  Used of people only.

D. C. Power Lab: n.  The former site of the {SAIL}.  Hackers
thought this was very funny because the obvious connection to
electrical engineering was nonexistent --- the lab was named for a
Donald C. Power.  Compare {Marginal Hacks}.

dd: /dee-dee/ [from IBM {JCL}] vt. Equivalent to {cat} or
{BLT}.  This was originally the name of a UNIX copy command with
special options suitable for block-oriented devices.  Often used in
heavy-handed system abuse, as in "Let's dd the root partition onto
a tape, then use the boot PROM to load it back on to a new disk".
The UNIX dd(1)' was designed with a weird, distinctly
non-UNIXy keyword option syntax reminiscent of IBM System/360 JCL
(which had a similar DD command); though the command filled a need,
the design choice looks like somebody's idea of a joke.  The jargon
usage is now very rare outside UNIX sites and now nearly obsolete
even there, as dd(1)' has been {deprecated} for a long time
(though it has no replacement).  Replaced by {BLT} or simple
English copy'.

DDT: /dee-dee-tee/ n. 1. Generic term for a program that helps you
to debug other programs by showing individual machine instructions
in a readable symbolic form and letting the user change them.  In
this sense the term DDT is now archaic, having been widely
displaced by debugger' or names of individual programs like
dbx', adb', or sdb'.  2. [ITS] Under MIT's fabled
{ITS} operating system, DDT (running under the alias HACTRN) was
also used as the {shell} or top level command language used to
execute other programs.  3. Any one of several specific DDTs (sense
#1) supported on early DEC hardware.  The DEC PDP-10 Reference
Handbook (1969) contained a footnote on the first page of the
documentation for DDT which illuminates the origin of the
term:

Historical footnote: DDT was developed at MIT for the PDP-1
computer in 1961.  At that time DDT stood for "DEC Debugging
Tape".  Since then, the idea of an on-line debugging program
has propagated throughout the computer industry.  DDT programs
are now available for all DEC computers.  Since media other
than tape are now frequently used, the more descriptive name
"Dynamic Debugging Technique" has been adopted, retaining
the DDT acronym.  Confusion between DDT-10 and another well
known pesticide, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane
(C14-H9-Cl5) should be minimal since each attacks a different,
and apparently mutually exclusive, class of bugs.

Sadly, this quotation was removed from later editions of the
handbook after the {suit}s took over and DEC became much more

de-rezz: /dee-rez'/ [from the movie Tron'; poss. related to
hi-res' used for a graphics mode on early Apples] (also derez')
1. vi. To disappear or dissolve; the image that goes with it is of
an object breaking up into raster lines and static and then
dissolving.  Occasionally used of a person who seems to have
suddenly fuzzed out' mentally rather than physically.  Usage:
extremely silly, also rare.  This verb was actually invented as
*fictional* hacker jargon, and adopted in a spirit of irony by
real hackers years after the fact.  2. vt. On a Macintosh, many
program structures (including the code itself) are managed in small
segments of the program file known as resources'. The standard
resource compiler is Rez.  The standard resource decompiler is
DeRez.  Thus decompiling a resource is derezzing'.  Usage: very
common.

dead code: n. Routines that can never be accessed because all calls
to them have been removed, or code which cannot be reached because
it is guarded by a control structure which provably must always
transfer control somewhere else.  The presence of dead code may
reveal either logical errors due to alterations in the program or
significant changes in the assumptions and environment of the
dead code so a maintainer can think about what it means.  Syn.
{grunge}.

allocated memory under a number of IBM environments, including the
RS/6000.  As in "Your program is...";  if you start from an odd
half-word boundary, of course, you have BEEFDEAD.

deadlock: n. 1. [techspeak] A situation wherein two or more
processes are unable to proceed because each is waiting for one of
the other to do something.  A common example is a program
communicating to a server, which may find itself waiting for output
from the server before sending anything more to it, while the
server is similarly waiting for more input from the controlling
program before outputting anything.  (It is reported that this
particular flavor of deadlock is sometimes called a starvation
deadlock', though the term starvation' is more properly used for
situations where a program can never run simply because it never
gets high enough priority.  Another common flavor is
constipation', where each process is trying to send stuff to
the other, but all buffers are full because nobody is reading
anything.)  See {deadly embrace}.  2. Also used of
deadlock-like interactions between humans, as when two people meet
in a narrow corridor, and each tries to be polite by moving aside
to let the other pass, but they end up swaying from side to side
without making any progress because they always both move the same
way at the same time.

exactly two processes are involved.  This is the more popular term in
Europe, while {deadlock} predominates in the United States.

death star: [from the movie Star Wars'] The AT&T corporate
logo, which appears on computers sold by AT&T and bears an uncanny
resemblance to the Death Star' in the movie.  This usage is
particularly common among partisans of {BSD} UNIX, who tend to
regard the AT&T versions as inferior and AT&T as a bad guy.  Copies
still circulate of a poster printed by Mt. Xinu showing a starscape
with a space fighter labelled 4.2BSD streaking away from a broken
AT&T logo wreathed in flames.

AT&T's internal magazine, Focus', uses death star' for
an incorrectly done AT&T logo in which the inner circle in the top
left is dark instead of light --- a frequent result of dark-on-light
logo images.

DEC Wars: n. A 1983 {USENET} posting by Alan Hastings and Steve Tarr,
spoofing the Star Wars' movies in hackish terms.  Some years
later, ESR (disappointed by Hastings/Tarr's failure to exploit a
great premise more thoroughly) posted a three-times-longer complete
rewrite called UNIX WARS'; the two are often confused.

DEChead: /dek'hed/ n. 1. A DEC {field servoid}.  Not flattering.

deckle: [from dec- and {nickle}] /dek'l/ n. Two {nickle}s; 10
bits.  Reported among developers for Mattel's GI 1600 (the
Intellivision games processor), a chip with 16-bit-wide RAM but
10-bit-wide ROM.

deep hack mode: n. See {hack mode}.

deep magic: [poss. from C.S. Lewis's Narnia' books.] n. An
awesomely arcane technique central to a program or system, esp. one
not generally published and available to hackers at large (compare
{black art}); one which could only have been composed by a true
{wizard}.  Compiler optimization techniques and many aspects of
{OS} design used to be {deep magic}; many techniques in
cryptography, signal processing, graphics, and AI still are.
Compare {heavy wizardry}.  Esp. found in comments of the form
"Deep magic begins here...".  Compare {voodoo programming}.

deep space: adj. 1. Describes the notional location of any program
which has gone {off the trolley}.  Esp. used of programs which
just sit there silently grinding long after either failure or some
output is expected.  Compare {buzz}, {catatonic},
{hyperspace}.  2. The metaphorical location of a human so dazed
and/or confused or caught up in some esoteric form of {bogosity}
that he/she no longer responds coherently to normal communication.
Compare {page out}.

defenestration: [from the traditional Czechoslovak method of
assassinating prime ministers, via SF fandom] n. 1. Proper karmic
retribution for an incorrigible punster.  "Oh, ghod, that was
*awful*!"  "Quick! Defenestrate him!"  2. The act of
exiting a window system in order to get better response time from a
full-screen program.  This comes from the dictionary meaning of
defenestrate', which is to throw something out a window.  3. Any
non-reversible act of removal, usually applied to worthless
objects, that improves matters having happened.  "I don't have any
disk space left."  "Well, why don't you defenestrate that 100 megs
worth of old core dumps?"  4. [proposed] The requirement to support
a command-line interface.  As: "It has to run on a VT100."
"Curses! I've been defenestrated".

defined as: adj. Currently in the role of, usually in an
off-the-organization-chart sense.  "Pete is currently defined as
bug prioritizer."  Compare {logical}.

dehose: vt. To clear a {hosed} condition.

delint: vt. To modify code to remove problems detected when linting.
See {lint}.

delta: n. 1. [techspeak] A quantitative change, especially a
small or incremental one (this use is general in physics and
engineering).  Example: "I just doubled the speed of my program!"
"What was the delta on program size?"  "About thirty percent."
(He doubled the speed of his program, but increased its size by
only thirty percent.)  2. [UNIX] A {diff}, especially a
{diff} stored under the set of version-control tools called SCCS
(Source Code Control System).  3. n. A small quantity, but not as
small as {epsilon}.  The jargon usage of {delta} and
{epsilon} stems from the traditional use of these letters in
mathematics for very small numerical quantities, particularly in
epsilon-delta' proofs in limit theory (as in the differential
calculus).  The term {delta} is often used once {epsilon} has
been mentioned to mean a quantity that is slightly bigger than
{epsilon} but still very small.  For example, "The cost isn't
epsilon, but it's delta" means that the cost isn't totally
negligible, but it is nevertheless very small.  Compare within
delta of', within epsilon of': that is, close to and even
closer to.

demented: adj. Yet another term of disgust used to describe a
program.  The connotation in this case is that the program works as
designed, but the design is bad.  For example, a program that
generates large numbers of meaningless error messages implying it
is on the point of imminent collapse.  Compare {wonky},
{bozotic}.

demigod: n. Hacker with years of experience, a national reputation,
and a major role in the development of at least one design, tool,
or game used by or known to more than half of the hacker community.
To qualify as a genuine demigod, the person must recognizably
identify with the hacker community and have helped shape it.  Major
demigods include Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie (co-inventors of
{UNIX} and {C}) and Richard M. Stallman (inventor of
{EMACS}).  In their hearts of hearts, most hackers dream of
someday becoming demigods themselves, and more than one major
software project has been driven to completion by the author's

demo: /de'moh/ [short for demonstration'] 1. v. To demonstrate a
product or prototype.  A far more effective way of inducing bugs to
manifest than any number of {test} runs, especially when
important people are watching.  2. n. The act of demoing.

demo mode: [Sun] n. The state of being {heads down} in order to
finish code in time for a {demo}, usually due yesterday.

demon: n. 1. [MIT] A portion of a program which is not invoked
explicitly, but which lies dormant waiting for some condition(s) to
occur.  See {daemon}.  The distinction is that demons are usually
processes within a program, while daemons are usually programs
running on an operating system.  Demons are particularly common in
AI programs.  For example, a knowledge-manipulation program might
implement inference rules as demons.  Whenever a new piece of
knowledge was added, various demons would activate (which demons
depends on the particular piece of data) and would create
additional pieces of knowledge by applying their respective
inference rules to the original piece.  These new pieces could in
turn activate more demons as the inferences filtered down through
chains of logic.  Meanwhile, the main program could continue with
whatever its primary task was.  2. [outside MIT] Often used
equivalently to {daemon}, especially in the {UNIX} world where the
latter spelling and pronunciation is considered mildly archaic.

depeditate: /dee-ped'*-tayt/ [by analogy with decapitate'] vt.
Humorously, to cut off the feet of.  When using some computer-aided
phototypesetting tools, careless placement of text blocks within a
page or above a rule can result in chopped-off letter descenders.
Such letters are said to have been depeditated.

deprecated: n. Said of a program or feature that is considered
obsolescent and in the process of being phased out, usually in
favor of a specified replacement.  Deprecated features can,
unfortunately, linger on for many years.

deserves to lose: adj. Said of someone who willfully does the
{Wrong Thing}; humorously, if one uses a feature known to be
{marginal}.  What is meant is that one deserves the consequences
of one's {losing} actions.  "Boy, anyone who tries to use
{mess-dos} deserves to {lose}!" (ITS fans used to say this of

desk check: n.,v. To {grovel} over hardcopy of source code
mentally simulating the control flow; a method of catching bugs.
No longer common practice in this age of on-screen editing, fast
compiles, and sophisticated debuggers, though some maintain stoutly
that it ought to be.  Compare {eyeball search}, {vdiff},
{vgrep}.

devo: /dee'voh/ [orig. in-house jargon at Symbolics] n. A person in a

dickless workstation: n. Extremely pejorative hackerism for
diskless workstation', a class of botches including the Sun 3/50
and other machines designed exclusively to network with an
expensive central disk server.  These combine all the disadvantages
of time-sharing with all the disadvantages of distributed personal
computers.

diddle: 1. vt. To work with or modify in a not particularly
serious manner.  "I diddled a copy of {ADVENT} so it didn't
double-space all the time."  "Let's diddle this piece of code and
see if the problem goes away."  See {tweak} and {twiddle}.
{twiddle}, {frob}.

diff: n. 1. A change listing, especially giving differences between
(and additions to) source code or documents (the term is often used
in the plural diffs').  "Send me your diffs for the Jargon
File!"  Compare {vdiff}.  2. Specifically, such a listing
produced by the diff(1)' command, esp. when used as
specification input to the patch(1)' utility (which can
actually perform the modifications; see {patch}).  This is a
common method of distributing patches and source updates in the

digit: /dij'it/ n. An employee of Digital Equipment Corporation.
{double DECkers}, {field circus}.

dike: vt. To remove or disable a portion of something, as a wire
from a computer or a subroutine from a program.  A standard slogan
runs: "When in doubt, dike it out."  (The implication is that it
is usually more effective to attack software problems by reducing
complexity rather than increasing it.)  The word dikes' is widely
used among mechanics and engineers to mean diagonal cutters', a
heavy-duty metal-cutting device; to dike something out' means to
use such cutters to remove something.  Indeed, the TMRC Dictionary
defined dike as "to attack with dikes".  Among hackers this term
has been metaphorically extended to informational objects such as
sections of code.

ding: /ding/ n.,vi. 1. Synonym for {feep}.  Usage: rare among
hackers, but commoner in the {Real World}.  2. dinged': what
happens when someone in authority gives you a minor bitching about
something, esp. something you consider trivial.  "I was dinged for
having a messy desk".

dink: adj. Said of a machine which has the {bitty box} nature; a
machine too small to be worth bothering with, sometimes the current
system you're forced to work on.  First heard from an MIT hacker
(BADOB) working on a CP/M system with 64K in reference to any 6502
system, then from fans of 32-bit architectures about 16-bit
machines.  "GNUMACS will never work on that dink machine."
Probably derived from mainstream dinky', which isn't sufficiently
pejorative.

dinosaur: n. 1. Any hardware requiring raised flooring and special
power.  Used especially of old minis and mainframes when contrasted
with newer microprocessor-based machines.  In a famous quote from
the '88 UNIX EXPO, Bill Joy compared the mainframe in the massive
IBM display with a grazing dinosaur, "with a truck outside pumping
its bodily fluids through it".  IBM was not amused.  Compare

dinosaur pen: n. A traditional {mainframe} computer room complete with
raised flooring, special power, its own ultra-heavy-duty air
conditioning, and a side order of Halon fire extinguishers.  See
{boa}.

dinosaurs mating: n. Said to occur when yet another {big iron}
merger or buyout occurs; reflects a perception by hackers that
these signal another stage in the long-drawn-out death throes of
the {mainframe} industry.  In its glory days of the Sixties, it
was IBM and the Seven Dwarves': Burroughs, Control Data, General
Electric, Honeywell, NCR, RCA, and Univac.  RCA and GE sold out
early and it was IBM and the Bunch' (Burroughs, Univac, NCR,
Control Data, and Honeywell) for a while.  Honeywell was bought out
by Bull; Burroughs merged with Univac to form Unisys (in 1984, this
was when the phrase dinosaurs mating' was coined), and at time of
writing AT&T is attempting to recover from a disastrously bad first
six years in the hardware industry by buying NCR.  More such
earth-shaking unions of doomed giants seem inevitable.

dirty power: n. Electrical mains voltage which is unfriendly to
the delicate innards of computers.  Spikes, {drop-outs}, average
voltage significantly higher or lower than nominal, or just plain
noise can all cause problems of varying subtlety and severity.

Discordianism: /dis-kor'di-*n-ism/ n. The veneration of {Eris}, aka
Discordia; widely popular among hackers.  Popularized by Robert
Anton Wilson's Illuminatus!' trilogy as a sort of self-subverting
dada-Zen for Westerners --- it should on no account be taken
seriously but is far more serious than most jokes.  Usually
connected with an elaborate conspiracy theory/joke involving
millennia-long warfare between the anarcho-surrealist partisans of
Eris and a malevolent, authoritarian secret society called the
Illuminati.  See Appendix B, {Church of the Sub-Genius}, and {ha ha
only serious}.

disk farm: n. (also {laundromat}) A large room or rooms filled
with disk drives (esp. {washing machine}s).

display hack: n. A program with the same approximate purpose as a
kaleidoscope: to make pretty pictures.  Famous display hacks
include {munching squares}, {smoking clover}, the BSD UNIX
rain(6)' program, worms(6)' on miscellaneous UNIXes,
and the {X} kaleid program.  Display hacks can also be
implemented without programming by creating text files containing
numerous escape sequences for interpretation by a video terminal;
one notable example displayed, on any VT100, a Christmas tree with
twinkling lights and a toy train circling its base.  The {hack
value} of a display hack is proportional to the esthetic value of
the images times the cleverness of the algorithm divided by the
size of the code.  Syn. {psychedelicware}.

Dissociated Press: n. An algorithm for transforming any text into
potentially humorous garbage, even more efficiently than passing it
through a {marketroid}.  You start by printing any N consecutive
words (or letters) in the text.  Then at every step you search for
any random occurrence in the text of the last N words (or letters)
already printed and then print the next one.  EMACS has a handy
command for this.  Here is a short example of word-based
Dissociated Press applied to this Jargon File:

wart: n. A small, crocky {feature} that sticks out of
an array (C has no checks for this).  This is relatively
benign and easy to spot if the phrase is bent so as to be
not worth paying attention to the medium in question.

Here is a short example of letter-based Dissociated Press applied
to this Jargon File:

window sysIWYG: n. A bit was named aften /bee't*/ prefer
to use the other guy's re, especially in every cast a
chuckle on neithout getting into useful informash speech
makes removing a featuring a move or usage actual
abstractionsidered interj. Indeed spectace logic or problem!

A hackish idle pastime is to apply letter-based Dissociated Press
to a random body of text and {vgrep} the output in hopes of finding
an interesting new word.  (In the preceding example, window
sysIWYG' and informash' show some promise.)  Iterated applications
of Dissociated Press usually yield better results.  Similar
techniques called travesty generators' have been employed with
considerable satirical effect to the utterances of USENET flamers;
see {pseudo}.

distribution: n. 1. A software source tree packaged for
distribution; but see {kit}.  2. A vague term encompassing
mailing lists and USENET newsgroups; any topic-oriented message
channel with multiple recipients.  3. An information-space domain
(usually loosely correlated with geography) to which propagation of
a USENET message is restricted; a much-underutilized feature.

do protocol: [from network protocol programming] vt. To perform an
interaction with somebody or something that follows a clearly
defined procedure.  For example, "Let's do protocol with the
check." at a restaurant means to ask for the check, calculate the
tip and everybody's share, collect money from everybody, generate
change as necessary, and pay the bill.  See {protocol}.

doc: /dok/ n. Common spoken and written shorthand for document'.
Often in the plural docs' and the construction doc file',
documentation available on line.

doco: /do'koh/ [orig. in-house jargon at Symbolics] n. A

documentation:: n. The multiple kilograms of macerated, pounded,
steamed, bleached, and pressed trees that accompany most modern
seldom read paper documentation and (too) often resist writing it;
they prefer theirs to be terse and on-line.  See {drool-proof
paper}, {verbiage}.

dodgy: adj. Syn. with {flaky}.  Preferred outside the U.S.

dogcow: n. See {Moof}.

dogwash: [From a quip in the urgency' field of a very optional
software change request, about 1982.  It was something like,
"Urgency: Wash your dog first."] 1. n. A project of minimal
priority, undertaken as an escape from more serious work.  2. v.
To engage in such a project.  Many games and much {freeware} get
written this way.

a {bang path}) because the part to the right of the @',
specifies a nested series of domains'; for example,
eric@snark.thyrsus.com' specifies the machine called
snark' in the subdomain called thyrsus' within the
top-level domain called com'.  2. Said of a site, mailer or
routing program which knows how to handle domainist addresses.

Don't do that, then!: [from an old doctor's office joke about a
patient with a trivial complaint] interj. Stock response to a user
complaint.  "When I type control-S, the whole system comes to a
halt for thirty seconds."  "Don't do that, then." (or "So don't
do that!").  Compare {RTFM}.

dongle: /dong'gl/ n. 1. A security device for commercial
microcomputer programs consisting of a serialized EPROM and some
drivers in a D-25 connector shell.  Programs that use a dongle
query the port at startup and at programmed intervals thereafter,
and terminate if it does not respond with the dongle's programmed
validation code.  Thus, users can make as many copies of the
program as they want but must pay for each dongle.  The idea was
clever but initially a failure, as users disliked tying up a serial
port this way.  Most dongles on the market today (1991) will pass
data through the port and monitor for magic codes' (and
combinations of status lines) with minimal if any interference with
devices further down the line (this innovation was necessary to
allow daisy-chained dongles for multiple pieces of software).  The
devices are still not widely used, as the industry has moved away
from copy-protection schemes in general.  2. By extension, any
physical electronic key or transferrable ID required for a program
to function.  See {dongle-disk}.

dongle-disk: /don'gl disk/ n. See {dongle}; a dongle-disk' is a
floppy disk with some coding that allows an application to
identify it uniquely.  It can therefore be used as a {dongle}.
Also called a "key disk".

donuts: n. Collective noun for any set of memory bits.  This is
really archaic and may no longer be live jargon; it dates from the
days of ferrite-core memories in which each bit was represented by
a doughnut-shaped magnetic flip-flop.  Compare {core}.

doorstop: n. Used to describe equipment that is non-functional and
halfway expected to remain so, especially obsolete equipment kept
around for political reasons or ostensibly as a backup.  "When we
get another Wyse-50 in here, that ADM3 will turn into a doorstop."
Compare {boat anchor}.

dot file: [UNIX] n. A file that is not visible to normal
directory-browsing tools (on UNIX, files named beginning with a dot
are normally invisible to the directory lister).

double bucky: adj. Using both the CTRL and META keys.  "The
command to burn all LEDs is double bucky F."

This term originated on the Stanford extended-ASCII keyboard, and
was later taken up by users of the {space-cadet keyboard} at MIT.
A typical MIT comment was that the Stanford {bucky bits} (control
and meta shifting keys) were nice, but there weren't enough of
them; you could only type 512 different characters on a Stanford
keyboard.  An obvious thing was simply to add more shifting keys,
and this was eventually done; one problem is that a keyboard with
that many shifting keys is hard on touch-typists, who don't like to
move their hands away from the home position on the keyboard.  It
was half-seriously suggested that the extra shifting keys be
pedals; typing on such a keyboard would be very much like playing a
full pipe organ.  This idea is mentioned below, in a parody of a
very fine song by Jeffrey Moss called Rubber Duckie', which
was published in The Sesame Street Songbook' (Simon and
Schuster 1971, ISBN 671-21036-X).  These lyrics were written on May
27, 1978, in celebration of the Stanford keyboard.

Double Bucky

Double bucky, you're the one!
You make my keyboard lots of fun.
Double bucky, an additional bit or two:
(Vo-vo-de-o!)
Control and meta, side by side,
Augmented ASCII, nine bits wide!
Double bucky!  Half a thousand glyphs, plus a few!
Oh,
I sure wish that I
Bits more!
Perhaps a
Set of pedals to
Make the number of
Bits four:
Double double bucky!
Double bucky, left and right
OR'd together, outta sight!
Double bucky, I'd like a whole word of
Double bucky, I'm happy I heard of
Double bucky, I'd like a whole word of you!

--- The Great Quux (with apologies to Jeffrey Moss)

[This, by the way, is an excellent example of computer {filk} --- ESR]

double DECkers: n. Used to describe married couples in which both
partners work for Digital Equipment Corporation.

doubled sig: [USENET] n. A {sig block} that has been included
twice in a {USENET} article or, less frequently, in an electronic
mail message.  An article or message with a doubled sig can be
caused by improperly configured software.  More often, however, it
reveals the author's lack of experience in electronic
communication.  See {biff}, {pseudo}.

down: 1. adj. Not operating.  "The up escalator is down" is
considered a humorous thing to say, but "The elevator is down"
always means "The elevator isn't working" and never refers to
what floor the elevator is on.  With respect to computers, this
usage has passed into the mainstream; the extension to other kinds
of machine is still hackish.  2. go down' vi. To stop functioning;
usually said of the {system}.  The message every hacker hates to
hear from the operator is, "The system will go down in five
minutes."  3. take down', bring down' vt. To deactivate
purposely, usually for repair work.  "I'm taking the system down to
work on that bug in the tape drive."  See {crash}; oppose {up}.

download: vt. To transfer data or (esp.) code from a larger host'
system (esp. a {mainframe}) over a digital comm link to a smaller
client' system, esp. a microcomputer or specialized peripheral

DP: n. 1. Data Processing.  Listed here because, according to
hackers, use of it marks one immediately as a {suit}.  See
{DPer}.  2. Common abbrev for {Dissociated Press}.

DPB: /d*-pib'/ [from the PDP-10 instruction set] vt. To plop
something down in the middle.  Usage: silly.  Example: "DPB
yourself into that couch, there."  The connotation would be that
the couch is full except for one slot just big enough for you to
sit in.  DPB means DePosit Byte', and was the name of a PDP-10
instruction that inserts some bits into the middle of some other
bits.  This usage has been kept alive by the Common Lisp function
of the same name.

DPer: n. Data Processor.  Hackers are absolutely amazed that {suit}s
use this term self-referentially.  "*Computers* process data,
not people!"  See {DP}.

dragon: n. [MIT] A program similar to a {daemon}, except that it
is not invoked at all, but is instead used by the system to perform
various secondary tasks.  A typical example would be an accounting
program, which keeps track of who is logged in, accumulates
load-average statistics, etc.  Under ITS, many terminals displayed
a list of people logged in, where they were, what they were
running, etc. along with some random picture (such as a unicorn,
Snoopy, or the Enterprise) which was generated by the name
dragon'.  Usage: rare outside MIT --- under UNIX and most other OSes
this would be called a background demon' or {daemon}.  The
best-known UNIX example of a dragon is cron(1)'.  At SAIL,
they called this sort of thing a phantom'.

Dragon Book: n. Aho, Sethi, and Ullman's classic text
Compilers: Principles, Techniques and Tools', so called
because of the cover design depicting a knight slaying a dragon
labelled compiler complexity'.  This actually describes the Red
Dragon Book' (1986); an earlier edition (sans Sethi and titled
Principles Of Compiler Design') was the Green Dragon Book'
(1977).  There is now a third edition of the Dragon Book that has
the knight sitting in front of what, for all the world, looks like
a video-game display of the dragon, with the real dragon behind it.
The term White Dragon Book' has been proposed.  See also
{{book titles}}.

drain: [IBM] v. Syn. for {flush} (sense #2).  Has a connotation
of finality about it; one speaks of draining a device before taking
it offline.

dread high-bit disease: n. A condition endemic to PRIME (a.k.a
PR1ME) minicomputers which results in all the characters having
their high (0x80) bit ON rather than OFF.  This of course makes
transporting files to other systems much more difficult, not to
mention talking to true eight-bit devices.  It is reported that
PRIME adopted the reversed-eight-bit convention in order to save 25
cents per serial line per machine.  This probably qualifies as one
bit}.

DRECNET: /drek'net/ [from Yiddish/German dreck'] n. Deliberate
distortion of DECNET, a networking protocol used in the {VMS}
community.  So called because DEC helped write the Ethernet
specification and then (either stupidly or as a malignant
customer-control tactic) violated that spec in the design of
conspiracy}.

driver: n. 1. The {main loop} of an event-processing program; the
code that gets commands and dispatches them for execution.  2. In
device driver', code designed to handle a particular
peripheral device such as a magnetic disk or tape.

droid: n. A person (esp. a low-level bureaucrat or service-business
employee) exhibiting most of the following characteristics: (a)
Naive trust in the wisdom of the parent organization or the
system'; (b) A propensity to believe obvious nonsense emitted by
authority figures; blind faith; (c) A rule-governed mentality, one
unwilling or unable to look beyond the letter of the law' in
exceptional situations; (d) No interest in fixing that which is
broken; an "It's not my job, man" attitude.  Compare {suit},
{marketroid}; see {-oid}.

drool-proof paper: n. Documentation that has been obsessively dumbed
down, to the point where only a {cretin} could bear to read it, is
said to have succumbed to the drool-proof paper syndrome' or to
have been written on drool-proof paper'.  For example, this is
an actual quote from Apple's LaserWriter manual: "Do not expose
your LaserWriter to open fire or flame."

drop on the floor: vt. To react to an error condition by silently
discarding messages or other valuable data.  Example: "The gateway
ran out of memory, so it just started dropping packets on the
floor."  Also frequently used of faulty mail and netnews relay

drop-ins: [prob. by analogy with {drop-outs}] n. Spurious
characters appearing on a terminal or console due to line noise or
a system malfunction of some sort.  Esp. used when these are
interspersed with your own typed input.  Compare {drop-outs}.

drop-outs: n. 1. A variety of power glitch' (see {glitch});
momentary zero voltage on the electrical mains.  2. Missing
characters in typed input due to software malfunction or system
saturation (this can happen under UNIX, for example, when a bad
connect to a modem swamps the processor with spurious character
interrupts).  3. Mental glitches; used as a way of describing
those occasions when the mind just seems to shut down for a couple
of beats.  See {glitch}, {fried}.

drugged: adj. (also on drugs') 1. Conspicuously stupid,
heading towards {brain-damaged}.  Often accompanied by a
pantomime of toking a joint (but see Appendix B).  2. Of hardware,
very slow relative to normal performance.

drunk mouse syndrome: n. A malady exhibited by the mouse pointing
device of some computers.  The typical symptom is for the mouse
cursor on the screen to move to random directions and not in sync
with the moving of the actual mouse.  Can usually be corrected by
unplugging the mouse and plugging it back again.  Another

At Xerox PARC in the 1970s, most people kept a can of copier
cleaner (isopropyl alcohol) at their desks.  When the steel ball on
the mouse had picked up enough cruft to be unreliable, the mouse
was doused in cleaner, which restored it for a while.  However,
this operation left a fine residue which accelerated the accumulation
of cruft, so the dousings became more and more frequent.  Finally,
the mouse was declared "alcoholic" and sent to the clinic to be
dried out (in a CFC ultrasonic bath).

dumbass attack: /duhm'ass *-tak'/ [Purdue] n. Notional cause of a
running as root under UNIX, e.g. typing rm -r *' or
mkfs' on a mounted file system.  Compare {adger}.

dump: n. 1. An undigested and voluminous mass of information about a
problem or the state of a system, especially one routed to the
slowest available output device (compare {core dump}), and most
especially one consisting or hex and octal {runes} describing the
byte-by-byte state of memory, mass storage, or some file.  In elder
days, debugging was generally done by grovelling over a dump'
(see {grovel}); increasing use of high-level languages and
interactive debuggers has made this uncommon, and the term dump'
now has a faintly archaic flavor.  2. A backup.  This usage is
typical only at large timesharing installations.

dup killer: /d[y]oop killer/ [FidoNet] n. Software which is
supposed to detect and delete duplicates of a message which may
have reached the FidoNet system via different routes.

dup loop: /d[y]oop loop/ (also dupe loop') [FidoNet] n. An
incorrectly configured system or network gateway may propagate
duplicate messages on one or more {echo}s, with different
identification information that renders {dup killer}s
ineffective.  If such a duplicate message eventually reaches a
system which it has already passed through (with the original
identification information), all systems passed on the way back to
that system are said to be involved in a {dup loop}.

dusty deck: n. Old software (especially applications) with which
one is obliged to remain compatible (or to maintain).  The term
implies that the software in question is a holdover from card-punch
days.  Used esp. when referring to old scientific and
{number-crunching} software, much of which was written in FORTRAN and
very poorly documented but is believed to be too expensive to
replace.  See {fossil}.

DWIM: /dwim/ [Do What I Mean] 1. adj. Able to guess, sometimes
even correctly, the result intended when bogus input was provided.
2. n.,obs. The BBNLISP/INTERLISP function that attempted to
accomplish this feat by correcting many of the more common errors.
See {hairy}.  3. Occasionally, an interjection hurled at a
balky computer, esp.  when one senses one might be tripping over
legalisms (see {legalese}).

Warren Teitelman originally wrote DWIM to fix his typos and
spelling errors, so it was somewhat idiosyncratic to his style, and
would often make hash of anyone else's typos if they were
stylistically different.  This led a number of victims of DWIM to
claim the acronym stood for "Damn Warren's Infernal Machine!"

DWIM is often suggested in jest as a desired feature for a complex
program; also, occasionally described as the single instruction the
ideal computer would have.  Back when proofs of program correctness
were in vogue, there were also jokes about DWIMC': Do What I
Mean, Correctly).  A related term, more often seen as a verb, is
DTRT (Do The Right Thing), see {Right Thing}.

dynner: /din'r/ 32 bits, by analogy with {nybble} and {{byte}}.  Usage:

= E =
=====

earthquake: [IBM] n. The ultimate real-world shock test for
computer hardware.  Hackish sources at IBM deny the rumor that the
Bay Area quake of 1989 was initiated by the company to test quality
assurance procedures at its California plants.

Easter egg: n. 1. A message hidden in the object code of a program
as a joke, intended to be found by persons disassembling or
browsing the code.  2. A message, graphic, or sound-effect emitted
by a program (or, on a PC, the BIOS ROM) in response to some
undocumented set of commands or keystrokes, intended as a joke or
to display program credits.  One well-known early Easter egg found
in a couple of OSes caused them to respond to the command make
love' with not war?'.  Many personal computers have much more
elaborate eggs hidden in ROM, including lists of the developers'
names, political exhortations, snatches of music, and (in one case)
graphics images of the entire development team.

Easter egging: [IBM] n. The act of replacing unrelated parts more or
less at random in hopes that a malfunction will go away.  Hackers
consider this the normal operating mode of {field circus} techs and
do not love them for it.  Compare {shotgun debugging}.

eat flaming death: imp. A construction popularized among hackers by
the infamous {CPU Wars} comic; supposed to derive from a famously
turgid line in a WWII-era anti-Nazi propaganda comic which ran
"Eat flaming death, non-Aryan mongrels!" or something of the sort
(however, it is also reported that the Firesign Theater's 1975
album In The Next World, You're On Your Own' included the
phrase "Eat flaming death, fascist media pigs"; this may have been
an influence).  Used in humorously overblown expressions of
hostility. "Eat flaming death, {{EBCDIC}} users!"

EBCDIC:: /eb's*-dik/, /eb'seedik/, or /eb'k*-dik/ [Extended Binary
Coded Decimal Interchange Code] n. An alleged character set used on
IBM {dinosaur}s.  It exists in six mutually incompatible
versions, all featuring such delights as non-contiguous letter
sequences and the absence of several ASCII punctuation characters
fairly important for modern computer languages (exactly which
characters are absent vary according to which version of EBCDIC
you're looking at).  IBM adapted EBCDIC from {{punched card}} code
in the early 1960s and promulgated it as a customer-control tactic
(see {connector conspiracy}), spurning the already established
ASCII standard.  Today, IBM claims to be an open-systems company,
but IBM's own description of the EBCDIC variants and how to convert
between them is still internally classified top-secret,
burn-before-reading.  Hackers blanch at the very *name* of
EBCDIC and consider it a manifestation of purest {evil}.  See
also {fear and loathing}.

echo: [FidoNet] n. A topic group on {FidoNet}'s echomail system.  Compare
{newsgroup}.

eighty-column mind: [IBM] n. The sort said to be employed by
persons for whom the transition from card to tape was traumatic
(nobody has dared tell them about disks yet).  It is said that
these people, like (according to an old joke) the founder of IBM,
will be buried face down, 9-edge first' (the 9-edge is the bottom
of the card).  This directive is inscribed on IBM's 1422 and 1602
card readers, and referenced in a famous bit of doggerel called
The Last Bug', which ends:

He died at the console
Of hunger and thirst.
Next day he was buried,
Face down, 9-edge first.

The eighty-column mind is thought by most hackers to dominate IBM's
customer base, and its thinking.  See {{punched card}}, {IBM},
{fear and loathing}, {card walloper}.

El Camino Bignum: /el' k*-mee'noh big'num/ n. El Camino Real.  El
Camino Real is the name of a street through the San Francisco
peninsula that originally extended (and still appears in places)
all the way down to Mexico City.  Navigation on the San Francisco
peninsula is usually done relative to El Camino Real, which defines
{logical} north and south even though it doesn't really run N/S
many places.  El Camino Real runs right past Stanford University
and so is familiar to hackers.  The Spanish word real' (which has
two syllables /ray-ahl'/) means royal'; El Camino Real is the
royal road'.  In the FORTRAN language, a real' quantity is a
number typically precise to seven significant digits, and a double
precision' quantity is a larger floating-point number, precise to
perhaps fourteen significant digits (other languages have similar
real' types).  When a hacker from MIT visited Stanford in 1976 or
so, he remarked what a long road El Camino Real was.  Making a pun
on real', he started calling it El Camino Double Precision' ---
but when the hacker was told that the road was hundreds of miles
long, he renamed it El Camino Bignum', and that name has stuck.
(See {bignum}.)

elegant: [from mathematical usage] adj. Combining simplicity, power,
and a certain ineffable grace of design.  Higher praise than
clever', winning', or even {cuspy}.

elephantine: adj. Used of programs or systems that are both
conspicuous {hog}s (due perhaps to poor design founded on
{brute force and ignorance}) and exceedingly {hairy} in source
form.  An elephantine program may be functional and even friendly,
but (like the old joke about being in bed with an elephant) it's
tough to have around all the same (and, like a pachyderm, difficult
to maintain).  In extreme cases, hackers have been known to make
trumpeting sounds or perform expressive proboscatory mime at the
mention of the offending program.  Usage: semi-humorous.  Compare
has the elephant nature' and the somewhat more pejorative
{baroque}.

elevator controller: n. Another archetypal dumb embedded-systems
application, like {toaster} (which superseded it).  During one
period (1983--84) in the deliberations of ANSI X3J11, the C
standardization committee, this was the canonical example of its
type.  "You can't require printf(3)' to be part of the
default runtime library --- what if you're targeting an elevator
controller?"  Elevator controllers became important rhetorical
weapons on both sides of several {holy wars}.

EMACS: /ee'maks/ [from Editing MACroS] n. The ne plus ultra of
hacker editors, a program editor with an entire LISP system inside
it.  Originally written by Richard Stallman in {TECO} at the
MIT-AI lab, but the most widely used versions now run under UNIX.
It includes facilities to run compilation subprocesses and send and
receive mail; many hackers spend up to 80% of their {tube time}
inside it.  Some versions running under window managers iconify as
an overflowing kitchen sink, perhaps to suggest the one feature the
editor doesn't include.  Indeed, some hackers find EMACS too
heavyweight and {baroque} for their taste, and expand the name as
Escape Meta Alt Control Shift' to spoof its heavy reliance on
keystrokes decorated with {bucky bits}.  Other spoof expansions
include Eight Megabytes And Constantly Swapping', Eventually
malloc()s All Computer Storage', and EMACS Makes A Computer Slow'

email: /ee'mayl/ 1. n. Electronic mail automatically passed through
computer networks and/or via modems common-carrier lines.  Contrast
{snail-mail}, {paper-net}, {voice-net}.  See {network
address}.  2. vt. To send email to a person.

Oddly enough, the word emailed' is actually listed in the OED; it
means "embossed (with a raised pattern) or arranged in a net work"!
A use from 1480 is given, and the word is derived from French
emmailleure', network.

emoticon: /ee-moh'ti-con/ n. An ASCII glyph used to indicate an
emotional state in email or news.  Hundreds have been proposed, but
only a few are in common use.  These include:

:-) Smiley face (indicates humor, laughter, or friendliness)
:-( Frowney face (indicates sadness, anger, or upset)
;-) Half-smiley ({ha ha only serious})
Also known as "semi-smiley" or "winkey face".
:-/ Wry face

It appears that the emoticon was invented by one Scott Fahlman on
the CMU {bboard} systems around 1980.  He later wrote "I wish I
had saved the original post, or at least recorded the date for
posterity, but I had no idea that I was starting something that
would soon pollute all the world's communication channels."  (GLS
confirms that he remembers this original posting).

Of these, the first two are by far the most frequently encountered.
Hyphenless forms of them are common on CompuServe, GEnie, and BIX;
see also {bixie}.  On {USENET}, smiley' is often used as a
generic synonymous with {emoticon}, as well as specifically for the
happy-face emoticon.

Note for the {newbie}: overuse of the smiley is a mark of
loserhood!  More than one per paragraph is a fairly sure sign that
you've gone over the line.

empire: n. Any of a family of military simulations derived from a
game written by Peter Langston many years ago.  There are 5 or 6
multi-player variants of varying degrees of sophistication, and one
single-player version implemented for both UNIX and VMS which is
even available as MS-DOS freeware.  All are notoriously addictive.

engine: n. 1. A piece of hardware that encapsulates some function
but can't be used without some kind of {front end}.  Today we
have, especially, print engine': the guts of a laser printer.
2. An analogous piece of software; notionally, one that does a lot
of noisy crunching, such as a database engine'.

The hackish senses of engine' are actually close to its original,
pre-Industrial-Revolution sense of a skill, clever device, or
instrument (the word is cognate to ingenuity').  This sense had
not been completely eclipsed by the modern connotation of
power-transducing machinery in Charles Babbage's time, which
explains why he named the stored-program computer that
he designed in 1844 the Analytical Engine'.

English: n.,obs. The source code for a program, which may be in any
language, as opposed to the linkable or executable binary produced
from it by a compiler.  The idea behind the term is that to a real
hacker, a program written in his favorite programming language is
at least as readable as English.  Usage: used mostly by old-time
hackers, though recognizable in context.

enhancement: n. {Marketroid}-speak for a bug {fix}.  This abuse
of language is a popular and time-tested way to turn incompetence
into increased revenue.  A hacker being ironic would instead call
the fix a {feature} --- or perhaps save some effort by declaring
the bug itself to be a feature.

ENQ: /enkw/ [from the ASCII mnemonic ENQuire' for #b0000101] ques.
An on-line convention for querying someone's availability.  After
opening a {talk mode} connection to someone apparently in heavy
hack mode, one might type "SYN SYN ENQ?" (the SYNs representing
notional synchronization bytes) expecting a return of {ACK} or
{NAK} depending on whether or not the person felt interruptible.
Compare {ping}, {finger}, and the usage of "FOO?"  listed
under {talk mode}.

EOF: /ee-oh-ef/ [acronym, End Of File] n. 1. [techspeak]
Refers esp.  to whatever pseudo-character value is returned by C's
sequential character input functions (and their equivalents in
other environments) when the logical end of file has been reached
(this was 0 under V6 UNIX but, is -1' under V7 and all subsequent
versions and all non-UNIX C library implementations).  2. Used by
extension in non-computer contexts when a human is doing something
that can be modelled as a sequential read and can't go further.
"Yeah, I looked for a list of 360 mnemonics to post as a joke, but
I hit EOF pretty fast; all the library had was a {JCL} manual."

EOL: /ee-oh-el/ [End Of Line] n. Syn. for {newline} derived
perhaps from the original CDC6600 Pascal.  Now rare, but widely
recognized and occasionally used because it's shorter.  It's used

EOU: /ee-oh-yoo/ n. The mnemonic of a mythical ASCII control
character (End Of User) that could make a Model 33 Teletype explode
on receipt.  This parodied the numerous obscure delimiter and
control characters left in ASCII from the days when it was more
associated with wire-service teletypes than computers (e.g., FS,
GS, RS, US, EM, SUB, ETX, and esp. EOT).  It is worth remembering
that ASR-33s were big, noisy mechanical beasts with a lot of
clattering parts; the notion that one might explode was nowhere
near as ridiculous as it might seem to someone sitting in front of
a {tube} or flatscreen today.

epoch: [UNIX] [perhaps from astronomical timekeeping] n. The time
and date corresponding to zero in an operating system's clock and
timestamp values.  Under most UNIX versions, 00:00:00 GMT, January
1, 1970.  System time is measured in seconds or {tick}s past the
epoch.  Note that weird problems may ensue when the clock wraps
around (see {wrap around}), and that this is not a necessarily a
rare event; on systems counting 10 ticks per second, a signed
32-bit count of ticks is good only for 6.8 years.  The
1-tick-per-second clock of UNIX is good only until January 18,
{wall time}.

epsilon: [see {delta} for etymology] 1. n. A small quantity of
anything.  "The cost is epsilon."  2. adj. Very small,
negligible; less than {marginal}.  "We can get this feature for
epsilon cost."  3. within epsilon of': close enough to be
indistinguishable for all practical purposes.  This is even closer
than being within delta of'.  Example: "That's not what I asked
for, but it's within epsilon of what I wanted."  Alternatively, it
may mean not close enough, but very little is required to get it
there: "My program is within epsilon of working."

epsilon squared: n. A quantity even smaller than {epsilon}, as
small in comparison to it as it is to something normal; completely
negligible.  If you buy a supercomputer for a million dollars, the
cost of the thousand-dollar terminal to go with it is {epsilon},
and the cost of the ten-dollar cable to connect the two is
{epsilon squared}.  Compare {lost in the underflow}, {lost in
the noise}.

era, the: Syn. {epoch}.  The Webster's Unabridged makes these words
almost synonymous, but era' usually connotes a span of time
rather than a point in time.  The {epoch} usage is recommended.

Eric Conspiracy: n. A shadowy group of mustachioed hackers named
Eric first pinpointed as a sinister conspiracy by an infamous
talk.bizarre posting ca. 1986; this was doubtless influenced by the
numerous Eric' jokes in the Monty Python oeuvre.  There do indeed
seem to be considerably more mustachioed Erics in hackerdom than
the frequency of these three traits can account for unless they are
correlated in some arcane way.  Well-known examples include Eric
Allman (he of the Allman style' described under {indent style}),
and Erik Fair (co-author of NNTP); your editor has heard from about
fourteen others by email, and the organization line Eric
Conspiracy Secret Laboratories' now emanates regularly from more
than one site.

Eris: /e'ris/ pn. The Greek goddess of Chaos, Discord, Confusion,
and Things You Know Not Of; her name was latinized to Discordia and
she was worshiped by that name in Rome.  Not a very friendly deity
in the Classical original, she was re-invented as a more benign
personification of creative anarchy starting in 1959 by the
adherents of {Discordianism} and has since been a semi-serious
subject of veneration in several fringe' cultures, including
hackerdom.  See {Discordianism}, {Church of the Sub-Genius}.

erotics: /ee-ro'tiks/ n. Reported from Scandinavia as
English-language university slang for electronics.  Often used by
hackers, maybe because good electronics makes them warm.

essentials: n. Things necessary to maintain a productive and secure
hacking environment.  "A jug of wine, a loaf of bread, a
20-megahertz 80386 box with 8 meg of core and a 300-megabyte disk
supporting full UNIX with source and X windows and EMACS and UUCP
via a 'blazer to a friendly Internet site, and thou."

evil: adj. As used by hackers, implies that some system, program,
person, or institution is sufficiently maldesigned as to be not
worth the bother of dealing with.  Unlike the adjectives in the
{cretinous}/{losing}/{brain-damaged} series, evil' does not
imply incompetence or bad design, but rather a set of goals or
design criteria fatally incompatible with the speaker's.  This is
more an esthetic and engineering judgement than a moral one in the
interface but decided it was too evil to deal with."  "{TECO}
is neat, but it can be pretty evil if you're prone to typos."
Often pronounced with the first syllable lengthened, as /eeee'vil/.

exa-: /ek's*/ pref. See {{quantifiers}}.

examining the entrails: n. The process of rooting through a core dump
or hex image in the attempt to discover the bug that brought your
program or system down.  Compare {runes}, {incantation}, {black
art}, {desk check}.

EXCH: /eks'ch*/ or /eksch/ vt. To exchange two things, each for the
other; to swap places.  If you point to two people sitting down and
meaning EXCHange, was originally the name of a PDP-10 instruction
that exchanged the contents of a register and a memory location.
exchange operator (which is usually written in lowercase).

excl: /eks'kl/ n. Abbreviation for exclamation point'.  See
{bang}, {shriek}, {{ASCII}}.

EXE: /eks'ee/, /eek'see/ n. An executable binary file.  Some
operating systems (notably MS-DOS, VMS, and TOPS-20/TWENEX) use the
extension .EXE to mark such files.  This usage is also occasionally
found among UNIX programmers even though UNIX executables don't
have any required extension (in fact, the term extension' in this
sense is not part of UNIX jargon).

exec: /eg-zek'/ [shortened from executive' or execute']
vt.,n. 1. [UNIX] Synonym for {chain}, derives from the
exec(2)' call.  2. obs. The command interpreter for an
{OS} (see {shell}); term esp. used on mainframes, and prob.
derived from UNIVAC's archaic EXEC 2 and EXEC 8 operating systems.
3. At IBM, the equivalent of a shell command file (this is among
VM/CMS users).

exercise, left as an: [from technical books] Used to complete a
proof when one doesn't mind a {handwave}, or to avoid one
entirely.  The complete phrase is: "The proof (or the rest) is left as
an exercise for the reader."  This comment *has* occasionally
been attached to unsolved research problems by authors possessed of
either an evil sense of humor or a vast faith in the capabilities
of their audiences.

eyeball search: n. To look for something in a mass of code or data
{by hand}, as opposed to using some sort of pattern matcher like
{grep} or any other automated search tool.  Also called a
{vgrep}; compare {vdiff}, {desk check}.

= F =
=====

fab: /fab/ [from fabricate'] v. 1. To produce chips from a
design that may have been created by someone at another company.
Fabbing chips based on the designs of others is the activity of a
{silicon foundry}.  To a hacker, fab' is practically never short
for fabulous'.  2. fab line': the production system
(lithography, diffusion, etching, etc.) for chips at a chip
manufacturer.  Different fab lines' are run with different
process parameters, die sizes, or technologies, or simply to
provide more manufacturing volume.

face time: n. Time spent interacting with somebody face-to-face (as
opposed to via electronic links).  "Oh, yeah, I spent some face
time with him at the last Usenix."

fall over: [IBM] vi. Yet another synonym for {crash} or {lose}.
Fall over hard' equates to {crash and burn}.

fall through: v. (n. fallthrough', var. fall-through')
1. To exit a loop by exhaustion, i.e. by having fulfilled its exit
condition rather than via a break or exception condition that exits
from the middle of it.  This usage appears to be *really* old,
as in dating from the 1940s and '50s.  It may no longer be live
jargon.  2. To fail a test that would have passed control to a
subroutine or other distant portion of code.  3. In C,
fall-through' occurs when the flow of execution in a
switch statement reaches a case' label other than by jumping
there from the switch header, passing a point where one would
normally expect to find a break'.  A trivial example:

switch (color)
{
case GREEN:
do_green();
break;
case PINK:
do_pink();
/* FALL THROUGH */
case RED:
do_red();
break;
default:
do_blue();
break;
}

The variant spelling /* FALL THRU */' is also common.

The effect of this code is to do_green()' when color is
GREEN', do_red()' when color is RED',
do_blue()' on any other color other than PINK', and
(and this is the important part) do_pink()' *and then*
do_red()' when color is PINK'.  Fall-through is
{considered harmful} by some, though there are contexts such as
the coding of state machines in which it is natural; it is
generally considered good practice to include a comment
highlighting the fallthrough, at the point one would normally
expect a break.

fandango on core: [UNIX/C hackers, from the Mexican dance] n. In C, a
wild pointer that runs out of bounds causing a {core dump}, or
corrupts the malloc(3)' {arena} in such a way as to cause mysterious
failures later on, is sometimes said to have done a fandango on
core'.  On low-end personal machines without an MMU, this can
corrupt the OS itself, causing massive lossage.  Other frenetic
dances such as the rhumba, cha-cha, or watusi may be substituted.
See {aliasing bug}, {precedence lossage}, {smash the stack},
{memory leak}, {overrun screw}, {core}.

FAQ list: /ef-ay-kyoo list/ [Usenix] n. A compendium of accumulated
lore, posted periodically to high-volume newsgroups in an attempt
to forestall Frequently Asked Questions.  This lexicon itself
serves as a good example of a collection of one kind of lore,
although it is far too big for a regular posting.  Several extant
FAQ lists do (or should) make reference to the Jargon File (the
on-line version of this lexicon).  "How do you pronounce char'?"
and "What's that funny name for the #' character?" for
example, are both Frequently Asked Questions.

disk drive are said to do when they plow little furrows in the
magnetic media.  Associated with a {crash}.  Typically used as
follows: "Oh no, the machine has just crashed; I hope the hard
drive hasn't gone {farming} again."

fascist: adj. 1. Said of a computer system with excessive or
annoying security barriers, usage limits, or access policies.  The
implication is that said policies are preventing hackers from
getting interesting work done.  The variant fascistic' seems
to have been preferred at MIT, poss. by analogy with
touristic' (see {tourist}).  2. In the design of languages
and other software tools, the fascist alternative' is the most
restrictive and structured way of capturing a particular function;
the implication is that this may be desirable in order to simplify
the implementation or provide tighter error checking.  Compare
{bondage-and-discipline language}; but that term is global rather
than local.

FAtt: // [FidoNet] n. Abbreviation for {File Attach}.

faulty: adj. Non-functional; buggy.  Same denotation as
{bletcherous}, {losing}, q.v., but the connotation is much
milder.

fd leak: /ef dee leek/ n. A kind of programming bug analogous to a
{core leak}, in which a program fails to close file descriptors
(fd's) after file operations are completed, and thus eventually
runs out.  See {leak}.

fear and loathing: [from Hunter Thompson] n. State inspired by the
prospect of dealing with certain real-world systems and standards
that are totally {brain-damaged} but ubiquitous --- Intel 8086s,
or {COBOL}, or {{EBCDIC}}, or any {IBM} machine except the Rios (aka
the RS/6000).  "Ack!  They want PCs to be able to talk to the AI
machine.  Fear and loathing time!"

feature: n. 1. A good property or behavior (as of a program).
Whether it was intended or not is immaterial.  2. An intended
property or behavior (as of a program).  Whether it is good or not
is immaterial (but if bad, it is also a {misfeature}).  3. A
surprising property or behavior; in particular, one that is
purposely inconsistent because it works better that way --- such an
inconsistency is therefore a {feature} and not a {bug}.  This
kind of feature is sometimes called a {miswart}; see that entry
for a classic example.  4. A property or behavior that is
gratuitous or unnecessary, though perhaps also impressive or cute.
For example, one feature of Common LISP's FORMAT function is the
ability to print numbers in two different Roman-numeral formats
(see {bells, whistles, and gongs}).  5. A property or behavior
that was put in to help someone else but that happens to be in your
way.  6. A bug that has been documented.  To call something a
feature sometimes means the author of the program did not consider
the particular case, and the program responded in a way that was
unexpected, but not strictly incorrect.  A standard joke is that a
bug can be turned into a {feature} simply by documenting it (then
theoretically no one can complain about it because it's in the
manual), or even by simply declaring it to be good.  "That's not a
featurism}, {wart}, {green lightning}.

The relationship between bugs, features, misfeatures, warts, and
miswarts might be clarified by the following exchange between two
hackers on an airplane:

A: "This seat doesn't recline."

B: "That's not a bug, that's a feature.  There is an emergency
exit door built around the window behind you, and the route has to
be kept clear."

A: "Oh.  Then it's a misfeature; they should have increased the
spacing between rows here."

B: "Yes.  But if they'd only increased spacing in one section it
would have been a wart --- they would've had to make
nonstandard-length ceiling panels to fit over the displaced
seats."

A: "A miswart, actually.  If they increased spacing throughout
they'd lose several rows and a chunk out of the profit margin.  So
unequal spacing would actually be the Right Thing."

B: "Indeed."

Finally, note that {undocumented feature} is a common, allegedly
humorous euphemism for a {bug}.

feature creature: [poss. fr. slang creature feature' for a horror
movie] n. One who loves to add features to designs or programs,
perhaps at the expense of coherence, concision, or {taste}.  See
also {feeping creaturism}, {creeping featurism}.

feature shock: [from Alvin Toffler's title Future Shock'] n.
A user's (or programmer's!) confusion when confronted with a
package that has too many features and poor introductory material.

featurectomy: /feech*r-ek'to-mee/ n. The act of removing a feature
from a program.  Featurectomies generally come in two varieties,
the righteous' and the reluctant'.  Righteous featurectomies
are performed because the remover believes the program would be
more elegant without the feature, or there is already an equivalent
and better' way to achieve the same end.  (This is not quite the
same thing as removing a {misfeature}.)  Reluctant featurectomies
are performed to satisfy some external constraint such as code size
or execution speed.

feep: /feep/ 1. n. The soft electronic bell' sound of a
display terminal (except for a VT-52!); a beep (in fact, the
microcomputer world seems to prefer {beep}).  2. vi. To cause
the display to make a feep sound.  ASR 33s (the original TTYs) do
not feep; they have mechanical bells that ring.  Alternate forms:
{beep}, bleep', or just about anything suitably
onomatopoeic.  (Jeff MacNelly, in his comic strip Shoe', uses
the word eep' for sounds made by computer terminals and video
games; this is perhaps the closest written approximation yet.)  The
term breedle' was sometimes heard at SAIL, where the terminal
bleepers are not particularly soft' (they sound more like the
musical equivalent of a raspberry or Bronx cheer; for a close
approximation, imagine the sound of a Star Trek communicator's beep
lasting for five seconds).  The feeper' on a VT-52 has been
compared to the sound of a '52 Chevy stripping its gears.  See also
{ding}.

feeper: /fee'pr/ n. The device in a terminal or workstation (usually
a loudspeaker of some kind) that makes the {feep} sound.

feeping creature: [from {feeping creaturism}] n. An unnecessary
feature; a bit of {chrome} that, in the speaker's judgement, is
the camel's nose for a whole horde of new features.

feeping creaturism: /fee'ping kreech*r-izm/ n. Deliberate
Spoonerism for {creeping featurism}, meant to imply that the
system or program in question has become a misshapen creature of
hacks.  This term isn't really well-defined, but it sounds so neat
that most hackers have said or heard it.  It is probably reinforced
by an image of terminals prowling about in the dark making their
customary noises.

feetch feetch: interj. If someone tells you about some new
improvement to a program, you might respond, "Feetch, feetch!".
The meaning of this depends critically on vocal inflection.  With
enthusiasm, it means something like, "Boy, that's great!  What a
great hack!"  Grudgingly or with obvious doubt, it means "I don't
know; it sounds like just one more unnecessary and complicated
thing."  With a tone of resignation, it means, "Well, I'd rather
keep it simple, but I suppose it has to be done."

fence: n. 1. A sequence of one or more distinguished
({out-of-band}) characters (or other data items), used to delimit
a piece of data intended to be treated as a unit (the computer
science literature calls this a sentinel').  The NUL (ASCII
#b0000000) character that terminates strings in C is a fence.  Hex
FF is probably the most common fence character after NUL.  See
{zigamorph}.  2. (Among users of optimizing compilers) Any
technique, usually exploiting knowledge about the compiler, that
blocks certain optimizations.  Used when explicit mechanisms are
not available, or are overkill (e.g., a single-point optimization
block in an otherwise optimized procedure, program, etc.)
Typically a hack: "I call a dummy procedure there to force a flush
of the optimizer's register-coloring info." can be expressed by
the shorter "That's a fence procedure."

fencepost error: n. 1. The discrete equivalent of a boundary
condition.  Often exhibited in programs by iterative loops.  From
the following problem: "If you build a fence 100 feet long with
posts 10 feet apart, how many posts do you need?"  Either 9 or 11
is a better answer than the obvious 10.  For example, suppose you
have a long list or array of items, and want to process items m
through n; how many items are there?  The obvious answer is n
- m', but that is off by one; the right answer is n - m + 1'.
A program that used the obvious' formula would have a fencepost
error in it.  See also {off-by-one error}, and note that not all
off-by-one errors are fencepost errors.  The game of Musical Chairs
involves a catastrophic off-by-one error where N people try to sit
in N - 1' chairs, but it's not a fencepost error.  Fencepost errors
come from counting things rather than the spaces between them, or
vice versa, or by neglecting to consider whether one should count
one or both ends of a row.  2. Occasionally, an error induced by
unexpectedly regular spacing of inputs, which can (for instance)

fepped out: /fept owt/ adj. The Symbolics 3600 Lisp Machine has a
front-end processor called a FEP' (compare sense #2 of {box}).
When the main processor gets {wedged}, the FEP takes control of
the keyboard and screen.  Such a machine is said to have
fepped out'.

FidoNet: n. A world-wide hobbyist network of personal computers
which exchange mail, discussion groups, and files.  Founded in 1984
and originally consisting only of IBM PCs and compatibles, FidoNet
now includes such diverse machines as Apple ][s, Ataris, Amigas,
and UNIX systems.  Though it is much younger than USENET, FidoNet
is already a significant fraction of {USENET}'s size at some 8000
systems (early 1991).

field circus: [a derogatory pun on field service'] n. The field
service organization of any hardware manufacturer, but especially
DEC.  There is an entire genre of jokes about DEC field circus
engineers:

Q: How can you recognize a DEC field circus engineer with a flat tire?
A: He's changing each tire to see which one is flat.

Q: How can you recognize a DEC field circus engineer who is out of
gas?
A: He's changing each tire to see which one is flat.

field servoid: [play on android'] /fee'ld ser'voyd/ n.
Representative of a Field Service organization (see {field
circus}).  This has many of the implications of {droid}.

Fight-o-net: [FidoNet] n. Deliberate distortion of {FidoNet},
often applied after a flurry of {flamage} in a particular
{echo}, especially the SYSOP echo or Fidonews (see <'Snooze>).

File Attach: [FidoNet] 1. n. A file sent along with a mail message
from one BBS to another.  2. vt. Sending someone a file by using
the File Attach option in the BBS mailer.

File Request: [FidoNet] 1. n. The {FidoNet} equivalent of
{FTP}, in which one BBS system automatically dials another and
{snarf}s one or more files.  Files are often announced as being
"available for {FReq}" in the same way that files are announced
as being "available for/by anonymous FTP" on the Internet.
2. vt. The act of getting a copy of a file by using the File
Request option of the BBS mailer.

filk: /filk/ [from SF fandom, where a typo for folk' was adopted
as a new word] n.,v. A filk' is a popular or folk song with
lyrics revised or completely new lyrics, intended for humorous
effect when read and/or to be sung late at night at SF conventions.
There is a flourishing subgenre of these called computer filks',
written by hackers and often containing technical humor of quite
sophisticated nature.  See {double bucky} for an example.

film at 11: [MIT, in parody of TV newscasters] Used in conversation
to announce ordinary events, with a sarcastic implication that
these events are earth-shattering.  "{ITS} crashes; film at 11."
"Bug found in scheduler; film at 11."

filter: [orig. {UNIX}, now also in {MS-DOS}] n. A program that
processes an input data stream into an output data stream in some
well-defined way, and does no I/O to anywhere else except possibly
on error conditions; one designed to be used as a stage in a
{pipeline}.

fine: [WPI] adj. Good, but not good enough to be {cuspy}.  The word
fine' is used elsewhere, of course, but without the implicit
comparison to the higher level implied by {cuspy}.

finger: [WAITS, via BSD UNIX] 1. n. A program that displays a
particular user or all users logged on the system or a remote
system.  Typically shows full name, last login time, idle time,
terminal line, and terminal location (where applicable).  May also
display a {plan file} left by the user.  2. vt. To apply finger
to a username.  3. vt. By extension, to check a human's current
state by any means.  "Foodp?"  "T!"  "OK, finger Lisa and see
if she's idle.".  4. Any picture (composed of ASCII characters)
depicting the finger'.  Originally a humorous component of one's
plan file to deter the curious fingerer (sense #2), it has entered
the arsenal of some {flamer}s.

finger-pointing syndrome: n. All-too-frequent result of bugs, esp.
in new or experimental configurations.  The hardware vendor points
a finger at the software.  The software vendor points a finger
at the hardware.  All the poor users get is the finger.

firebottle: n. A large, primitive, power-hungry active electrical
device, similar in function to a FET but constructed out of glass,
metal, and vacuum.  Characterized by high cost, low density, low
reliability, high-temperature operation, and high power
dissipation.  Sometimes mistakenly called a tube' in the U.S.
or a valve' in England; another hackish term is {glassfet}.

firefighting: n. 1. What sysadmins have to do to correct sudden
operational problems.  An opposite of hacking.  "Been hacking your
new newsreader?"  "No, a power glitched hosed the network and I spent
the whole afternoon fighting fires."  2. The act of throwing lots
of manpower and late nights at a project, esp. to get it out
technique}; however, the term firefighting' connotes that the
effort is going into chasing bugs rather than adding features.

firewall code: n. The code you put in a system (say, a telephone
switch) to make sure that the users can't do any damage. Since
users always want to be able to do everything but never want to
suffer for any mistakes, the construction of a firewall is not just
a question of defensive coding but of interface presentation, so
that users don't even get curious about those corners of a system
where they can burn themselves.

firewall machine: n. A dedicated gateway machine with special
security precautions on it, used to service outside network
connections and dial-in lines.  The idea is to protect a cluster of
more loosely administered machines hidden' behind it from
{cracker}s.  The typical firewall is an inexpensive micro-based
UNIX box kept clean of critical data, with a bunch of modems and
public network ports on it but just one carefully watched
connection back to the rest of the cluster.  The special
precautions may include threat monitoring, callback, and even a
complete {iron box} keyable to particular incoming IDs or
activity patterns.  Syn. {flytrap}, {Venus flytrap}.

fireworks mode: n. The mode a machine is sometimes said to be in when
it is performing a {crash and burn} operation.

fish: [Adelaide University, Australia] n. Another metasyntactic
variable.  See {foo}.  Derived originally from the Monty Python
skit in the middle of The Meaning of Life' entitled Find the
fish'.

FISH queue: [acronym, by analogy with FIFO (First In, First Out)]
adj. First In, Still Here.  A joking way of pointing out that
processing of a particular sequence of events or requests has
stopped dead.  Also FISH mode' and FISHnet'; the latter
may be applied to any network that is running really slowly or
exhibiting extreme flakiness.

fix: n.,v. What one does when a problem has been reported too many
times to be ignored.

flag: n. A variable or quantity that can take on one of two values; a
bit, particularly one that is used to indicate one of two outcomes
or is used to control which of two things is to be done.  Examples:
"This flag controls whether to clear the screen before printing
the message."  "The program status word contains several flag

flag day: n. A software change which is neither forward- nor
backward-compatible, and which is costly to make and costly to
revert.  "Can we install that without causing a flag day for all
users?"  This term has nothing to do with the use of the word
{flag} to mean a variable that has two values.  It came into use
when a massive change was made to the {Multics} timesharing
system to convert from the old ASCII code to the new one; this was
scheduled for Flag Day (a U.S. holiday), June 14, 1966.  See also
{backward combatability}.

flaky: adj. (var sp. flakey') Subject to frequent {lossage}.
This use is of course related to the common slang use of the word,
to describe a person as eccentric, crazy, or just unreliable.  A
system that is flaky is working, sort of, enough that you are
tempted to try to use it, but it fails frequently enough that the
odds in favor of finishing what you start are low.  Commonwealth
hackish prefers {dodgy} or {wonky}.

flamage: /flay'm*j/ n. High-noise, low-signal postings to {USENET}
or other electronic fora.  Often in the phrase the usual
flamage'.

flame: v. 1. To post an email message intended to insult and
provoke.  2. vi. To speak incessantly and/or rabidly on some
relatively uninteresting subject or with a patently ridiculous
attitude.  When a discussion degenerates into useless controversy,
one might tell the participants, "Now you're just flaming" or
"Stop all that flamage!"  to try to get them to cool down (so to
speak).

USENETter Marc Ramsey, who was at WPI from 1972 to 1976, adds: "I
am 99% certain that the use of flame' originated at WPI.  Those
who made a nuisance of themselves insisting that they needed to use
a TTY for real work' came to be known as flaming asshole lusers'.
Other particularly annoying people became flaming asshole ravers',
which shortened to flaming ravers', and ultimately flamers'.  I
remember someone picking up on the Human Torch pun, but I don't
think flame on/off' was ever much used at WPI."  See also
{asbestos}.

The term may have been independently invented at several different
places; it is also reported that flaming' was in use to mean
something like interminably drawn-out semi-serious discussions'
(late-night bull-sessions) at Carleton College during 1968--1971.

flame bait: n. A posting intended to trigger a {flame war}, or one

flame on: vi.,interj.  1. To begin to {flame}. The punning
reference to Marvel Comics's Human Torch is no longer widely
recognized.  2. To continue to flame.  See {rave}, {burble}.

flame war: n. (var. flamewar') An acrimonious dispute,
especially when conducted on a public electronic forum such as
{USENET}.

flamer: n. One who habitually flames others.  Said esp. of obnoxious
{USENET} personalities.

flap: vt. 1. To unload a DECtape (so it goes flap, flap,
flap...).  Old-time hackers at MIT tell of the days when the
disk was device 0 and microtapes were 1, 2,... and attempting
to flap device 0 would instead start a motor banging inside a
cabinet near the disk!  2. By extension, to unload any magnetic
tape.  See {microtape}, {macrotape}.  Modern cartridge tapes no
longer actually flap, but the usage has remained.

flarp: /flarp/ [Rutgers University] n. Yet another metasyntactic
variable (see {foo}).  Among those who use it, it is associated
with a legend that any program not containing the word flarp'
somewhere will not work.  The legend is discreetly silent on the
reliability of programs which *do* contain the magic word.

flat: adj. 1. Lacking any complex internal structure.  "That
{bitty box} only has a flat filesystem, not a hierarchical one."
The verb form is {flatten}.  2. Said of a memory architecture
like the VAX or 680x0 that is one big linear address space
(typically with each possible value of a processor register
corresponding to a unique core address), as opposed to a
segmented' architecture like the 80x86 in which addresses are
composed from a base-register/offset pair (such designs are
generally considered {cretinous}).

flat-ASCII: adj. Said of a text file that contains only 7-bit ASCII
characters and uses only ASCII-standard control characters (that
is, has no embedded codes specific to a particular text formatter
or markup language, and no {meta}-characters).  Syn.
{plain-ASCII}.  Compare {flat-file}.

flat-file: adj. A {flatten}ed representation of some database or
tree or network structure, as a single file from which the
structure could implicitly be rebuilt, esp. one in {flat-ASCII}
form.

flatten: vt. To remove structural information, esp. to filter
something with an implicit tree structure into a simple sequence of
leaves; also tends to imply mapping to {flat-ASCII}.  "This code
flattens an expression with parentheses into an equivalent
{canonical} form."

flavor: n. 1. Variety, type, kind.  "DDT commands come in two
flavors."  "These lights come in two flavors, big red ones and
small green ones."  See {vanilla}.  2. The attribute that causes
something to be {flavorful}.  Usually used in the phrase "yields
allowing one to print text either right-side-up or upside-down."
See {vanilla}.  This usage was certainly reinforced by the
terminology of quantum chromodynamics, in which quarks (the
constituents of, e.g., protons) come in six flavors (up, down,
strange, charm, top, bottom) and three colors (red, blue, green)
--- however, hackish use of flavor' at MIT predated QCD.  3. The
term for class' (in the object-oriented sense) in the Lisp Machine
Flavors system.  Though the Flavors design has been superseded
(notably by the Common Lisp CLOS facility), the term flavor' is
still used as a general synonym for class' by some LISP hackers.

flavorful: adj. Full of {flavor}; esthetically pleasing.  See
{taste} and {elegant}.

flippy: /flip'ee/ n. A single-sided floppy disk altered for
double-sided use by addition of a second write-notch, so called
because it must be flipped over for the second side to be
accessible.  No longer common.

flowchart:: [techspeak] n.  An archaic form of visual control-flow
specification employing arrows and speech balloons' of various
shapes.  Hackers never use flowcharts, consider them extremely
silly, and associate them with {COBOL} programmers, {card
walloper}s, and other lower forms of life.  This is because (from a
hacker's point of view) they are no easier to read than code, are
less precise, and tend to fall out of sync with the code (so that
they either obfuscate it rather than explaining it, or require
{pdl}, sense #3.

flush: v. 1. To delete something, usually superfluous.  "All that
nonsense has been flushed."  2. [UNIX/C] To force buffered I/O to
disk, as with an fflush(3)' call.  This is *not* an
abort as in sense #1, but a demand for early completion!  3. To
leave at the end of a day's work (as opposed to leaving for a
meal).  "I'm going to flush now."  "Time to flush."  4. To
exclude someone from an activity, or to ignore a person.

Flush' was standard ITS terminology for aborting an output
operation; one spoke of the text that would have been printed, but
was not, as having been flushed.  It is speculated that this term
arose from a vivid image of flushing unwanted characters by hosing
down the internal output buffer, washing the characters away before
they can be printed.  The UNIX/C usage, on the other hand, was
propagated by the fflush(3)' call in C's standard I/O library
(though it is reported to have been in use among BLISS programmers
at DEC and on Honeywell and IBM machines as far back as 1965).
UNIX/C hackers find the ITS usage confusing and vice versa.

flytrap: n. See {firewall machine}.

FOAF: // [USENET] n. Acronym for Friend Of A Friend.  The
source of an unverified, possibly untrue story.  This was not
originated by hackers (it is used in Jan Brunvand's books on urban
folklore), but is much better recognized on USENET and elsewhere
than in mainstream English.

FOD: v. [Abbreviation for Finger of Death', originally a
spell-name from fantasy gaming] To terminate with extreme prejudice
and with no regard for other people.  From {MUD}s where the
wizard command FOD <player>' results in the immediate and total
death of <player>, usually as punishment for obnoxious behavior.
This migrated to other circumstances, such as "I'm going to fod
that process which is burning all the cycles."  Compare {gun}.

In aviation, FOD means Foreign Object Damage, e.g. what happens
when a jet engine sucks up a rock on the runway.  Finger of Death
is an distressingly apt description of the usual results of this!

fold case: v. See {smash case}.  This term tends to be used more
by people who don't *mind* that their tools smash case.  It
also connotes that case is ignored but case distinctions in data
processed by the tool in question aren't destroyed.

followup: n. On USENET, a {posting} generated in response to
another posting (as opposed to a {reply}, which goes by email
rather than being broadcast).  Followups include the ID of the
this information to present USENET news in conversation' sequence

foo: /foo/ 1. interj. Term of disgust.  2. n. Name used for
temporary programs, or samples of three-letter names.  Other
similar words are {bar}, {baz} (Stanford corruption of
{bar}), and rarely rag'.  3. Used very generally as a sample
name for absolutely anything.  4. First on the standard list of
{bar}, {baz}, {qux}, {quux}, {corge}, {grault},
{garply}, {waldo}, {fred}, {plugh}, {xyzzy},
{thud}.

{foo} is the {canonical} example of a metasyntactic variable'; a
name used in examples and understood to stand for whatever thing is
under discussion, or any random member of a class of things under
discussion.  To avoid confusion, hackers never use foo' or other
words like it as permanent names for anything.  In filenames, a
common convention is that any filename beginning foo' is a scratch
file which may be deleted at any time.

The etymology of hackish foo' is obscure.  When used in
connection with bar' it is generally traced to the WWII-era army
slang acronym FUBAR (Fucked Up Beyond All Recognition), later

However, the use of the word foo' itself has more complicated
antecedents, including a long history in comic strips and cartoons.
The old Smokey Stover' comic strips by Bill Holman often
included the word FOO', in particular on license plates of cars;
allegedly, FOO' and BAR' also occurred in Walt Kelly's
Pogo' strips.  In a 1938 cartoon Daffy Duck holds up a sign
saying "SILENCE IS FOO!"  It is even possible that hacker usage
actually springs from the title FOO, Lampoons and Parody' of
a comic book first issued 20 years later, in September 1958; the
byline read C. Crumb' but this may well have been a sort-of
pseudonym for noted weird-comix artist Robert Crumb.  The title FOO
was featured in large letters on the front cover.

An old-time member reports that in the semi-legendary 1959
"Dictionary of the TMRC Language", compiled at TMRC (the Tech
Model Railroad Club at MIT, pronounced /tmerk'/), there was an
entry which went something like this:

FOO: The first syllable of the sacred chant phrase "FOO MANE PADME
HUM."  Our first obligation is to keep the foo counters turning.

marvel of complexity for which the control system alone featured
about 1200 relays.  There were {scram switch}es located at
numerous places around the room which could be pressed if something
undesirable was about to occur, such as a train going full-bore at
an obstruction.  Another feature of the system was a digital clock
on the dispatch board.  Normally it ran at some multiple of real
time, but if someone hit a scram switch the clock stopped and the
display was replaced with the word "FOO".

Almost the entire AI staff was involved with the TMRC, so it's not
clear that anyone can say which group introduced the other to the
word FOO.

Very probably, hackish foo' had no single origin and derives
through all these channels from Yiddish feh' and/or English
fooey!'.

foobar: n. Another common metasyntactic variable; see {foo}.
Note that hackers do *not* generally use this to mean
{FUBAR} in either slang or jargon senses!

fool: n. As used by hackers, specifically describes a person who
habitually reasons from obviously or demonstrably incorrect
premises and cannot be persuaded by evidence to do otherwise; it is
not generally used in its other senses, i.e., to describe a person
with a native incapacity to reason correctly, or a clown.  Indeed,
in hackish experience many fools are capable of reasoning all too

footprint: n. 1. The floor or desk area taken up by a piece of
hardware.  2. [IBM] The audit trail (if any) left by a crashed
program (often in plural, footprints').  See also
{toeprint}.

hardware equipment which is available by its design without needing
cleverness to implement, e.g, "In APL, we get the matrix
it refers to a serendipitous feature of doing things a certain way
(compare {big win}), but may refer to an intentional but
secondary feature.

for the rest of us: [from the Mac slogan "The computer for the
rest of us"] adj. 1. Used to describe a {spiffy} product whose
affordability shames other comparable products, or (more often)
used sarcastically to describe {spiffy} but very overpriced
products.  2. Describes a program with a limited interface,
deliberately limited capabilities, non-orthogonality, inability to
compose primitives, or any other limitation designed to not
confuse' a naive user.  This places an upper bound on how far that
user can go before the program begins to get in the way of the task
instead of helping accomplish it.  Used in reference to Macintosh
software which doesn't provide obviously necessary capabilities
(and which are obvious to implement) because it is thought that the
users wouldn't need them, wouldn't understand them, and other
applicable patronizing terms.  Becomes the rest of *them*'
when used in third-party reference; thus, "Yes, it is an
attractive program, but it's designed for The Rest Of Them" means
a program which superficially is neat but has no depth beyond the
surface flash.  See {WIMP environment}, {Macintrash}.

foreground: [UNIX] adj.,vt. 1. [techspeak] On a time-sharing
system, a task executing in foreground is one able to accept input
from and return output to the user; oppose {background}.
Nowadays this term is primarily associated with {UNIX}, but it
appears first to have been used in this sense on OS/360.  Normally,
there is only one foreground task per terminal (or terminal
window); having multiple processes simultaneously reading the
keyboard is a good way to {lose}.  2. By extension, to
foreground a task' is to bring it to the top of one's
{stack} for immediate processing, and hackers often use it in

system slowed to incredibly bad speeds due to a process recursively
spawning copies of itself (using the UNIX system call fork(2)')
and taking up all the process table entries.

Fortrash: n. Hackerism for the FORTRAN language, referring to its
primitive design, gross and irregular syntax, limited control
constructs, and slippery, exception-filled semantics.

fortune cookie: [UNIX] n. A random quote, item of trivia, joke, or
maxim printed to the user's tty at login time or (less commonly) at
logout time.  Items from this lexicon have often been used as

fossil: n. 1. In software, a misfeature that becomes understandable
only in historical context, as a remnant of times past retained so
as not to break compatibility.  Example: the retention of octal as
default base for string escapes in {C}, in spite of the better
architectures.  See {dusty deck}.  2. More restrictively, a
feature with past but no present utility.  Example: the
force-all-caps (LCASE) bits in the V7 and {BSD} UNIX tty driver,
designed for use with monocase terminals.  In a perversion of the
usual backward-compatibility goal, this functionality has actually
been expanded and renamed in some later {USG UNIX} releases as
the IUCLC and OLCUC bits.  3. The FOSSIL (Fido/Opus/Seadog
Standard Interface Level) driver specification for serial-port
Fossils are used by most MSDOS {BBS} software in lieu of
programming the {bare metal} of the serial ports, as the ROM
routines do not support interrupt-driven operation or setting
speeds above 9600.  Since the FOSSIL specification allows
additional functionality to be hooked in, drivers that use the
{hook} but do not provide serial-port access themselves are named
with a modifier, as in video fossil'.

four-color glossies: 1. Literature created by {marketroid}s
allegedly containing technical specs, but in fact as superficial as
possible without being totally {content-free}.  "Forget the
four-color glossies, give me the tech ref manuals."  Often applied
even when the material is printed on ordinary paper in B&W as an
indication of superficiality.  Four-color-glossy manuals are
*never* useful for finding a problem.  2. [rare] Applied by
extension to manual pages that don't contain enough information to
diagnose why the program doesn't produce the expected or desired
output.

fred: n. 1. The personal name most frequently used as a
metasyntactic variable (see {foo}).  Allegedly popular because
it's easy to type on a standard QWERTY keyboard.  Unlike
{J. Random Hacker} or J. Random Loser', this name has no
acronym for Flipping Ridiculous Electronic Device'; other F-verbs
may be substituted for "flipping".

frednet: /fred'net/ n. Used to refer to some {random} and
uncommon protocol encountered on a network.  "We're implementing
bridging in our router to solve the frednet problem."

freeware: n. 1. Free software, often written by enthusiasts and
distributed by users' groups, or via electronic mail, local
bulletin boards, {USENET}, or other electronic media.  At one
time, freeware' was a trademark of Andrew Fluegelman, the author
of the well-known MS-DOS comm program PC-TALK III.  It wasn't
enforced after his mysterious disappearance in 1984.  See
{shareware}.  2: Sometimes more specifically used for software
which is given away with no conditions nor requests for
contributions attached.

freeze: v. To lock an evolving software distribution or document
against changes so it can be released with some hope of stability.
Carries the strong implication that the item in question will
unfreeze' at some future date.  "OK, fix that bug and we'll
freeze for release."

FReq: // [FidoNet] Abbreviation for {File Request}.

fried: adj. 1. Non-working due to hardware failure; burnt out.
Especially used of hardware brought down by a power glitch'
(see {glitch}), {drop-outs}, a short, or other electrical
event.  (Sometimes this literally happens to electronic circuits!
In particular, resistors can burn out and transformers can melt
down, emitting noxious smoke.  However, this term is also used
metaphorically.)  Compare {frotzed}.  2. Of people, exhausted.
Said particularly of those who continue to work in such a state.
Often used as an explanation or excuse.  "Yeah, I know that fix
destroyed the file system, but I was fried when I put it in."

friode: /frie'ohdz/ [TMRC] n. A reversible (that is, fused or
blown) diodes.  Compare {fried}.

fritterware: n. An excess of capability that serves no productive
end.  The canonical example is font-diddling software on the Mac
(see {macdink}); the term describes anything that eats huge
amounts of time for quite marginal gains in function, but seduces
people into using it anyway.

frob: /frob/ 1. n. [MIT] The TMRC definition was FROB = a
protruding arm or trunnion', and by metaphoric extension a frob is
any random small thing; an object that you can comfortably hold in
one hand; something you can frob.  See {frobnitz}.  2. vt.
Abbreviated form of {frobnicate}.  3. [from the {MUD} world]
A command on some MUDs that changes a player's experience level
(this can be used to make wizards); also, to request {wizard}
privileges on the professional courtesy' grounds that one is a
wizard elsewhere.

frobnicate: /frob'ni-kayt/ vt. [Poss. derived from {frobnitz}, and
usually abbreviated to {frob}, but frobnicate' is recognized
as the official full form.] To manipulate or adjust, to tweak.
One frequently frobs bits or other two-state devices.  Thus:
"Please frob the light switch."  (that is, flip it), but also
"Stop frobbing that clasp; you'll break it."  One also sees the
construction to frob a frob'.  See {tweak} and {twiddle}.
Usage: frob, twiddle, and tweak sometimes connote
points along a continuum.  Frob' connotes aimless manipulation;
twiddle' connotes gross manipulation, often a coarse search for
a proper setting; tweak' connotes fine-tuning.  If someone is
turning a knob on an oscilloscope, then if he's carefully adjusting
it, he is probably tweaking it; if he is just turning it but looking
at the screen, he is probably twiddling it; but if he's just doing
it because turning a knob is fun, he's frobbing it.  The variant
frobnosticate' has been recently reported.

frobnitz: /frob'nits/, pl. frobnitzem' (frob'nit-zm) n. An
unspecified physical object, a widget.  Also refers to electronic
black boxes.  This rare form is usually abbreviated to frotz',
or more commonly to {frob}.  Also used are frobnule'
(/frob'n[y]ool/) and frobule' (/frob'nool/).  Starting perhaps
in 1979, frobozz' /fruh-boz'/, plural frobbotzim'
/fruh-bot'z*m/ has also become very popular, largely due to its
exposure as a name via {Zork}.  These can also be applied to
nonphysical objects, such as data structures.

frog: alt. phrog' 1. interj. Term of disgust (we seem to have
a lot of them).  2. Used as a name for just about anything.  See
{foo}.  3. n. Of things, a crock.  4. n. Of people, somewhere
in between a turkey and a toad.  5. froggy': adj. Similar to
bagbiting' (see {bagbiter}), but milder.  "This froggy
program is taking forever to run!"

front end: n. 1. An intermediary computer that does set-up and
filtering for another (usually more powerful but less friendly)
machine (a back end').  2. What you're talking to when you
have a conversation with someone who is making replies without
paying attention.  "Look at the dancing elephants!"  "Uh-huh."
"Do you know what I just said?"  "Sorry, you were talking to the
an interface to another program behind' it, which may not be as
user-friendly.  Probably from analogy with hardware front-ends (see
sense #1) which interfaced with mainframes.

frotz: /frotz/ 1. n. See {frobnitz}.  2. mumble frotz': An
interjection of very mild disgust.

frotzed: /frotzt/ adj. {down} due to hardware problems.  Compare
{fried}.  A machine which is merely frotzed may be fixable
without replacing parts, but a fried machine is more seriously
damaged.

fry: 1. vi. To fail.  Said especially of smoke-producing hardware
failures.  More generally, to become non-working.  Usage: never
said of software, only of hardware and humans.  See {fried}, {magic
smoke}.  2. vt. To cause to fail; to {roach}, {toast}, or {hose} a
piece of hardware (never used of software or humans).

FTP: /ef-tee-pee/, *not* /fit'ip/ 1. [techspeak] n. The File
Transfer Protocol for transmitting files between systems on the
Internet.  2. vt. To {beam} a file using the File Transfer
Protocol.  3. Sometimes used as a generic even for file transfers
not using {FTP}.  "Lemme get this copy of Wuthering
Heights' ftp'd from uunet."

FUBAR: n. The Failed UniBus Address Register in the PDP-11
emulation part of a VAX.  A good example of how jargon can
occasionally be snuck past the {suit}s; see {foobar}.

fuck me harder: excl. Sometimes uttered in response to egregious
misbehavior, esp. in software, and esp. of those which seem
unfairly persistent (as though designed in by the imp of the
perverse).  Often theatrically elaborated: "Aiighhh! Fuck me with
a piledriver and sixteen feet of curare-tipped wrought-iron fence
*and no lubricants!*"  The phrase is sometimes heard
abbreviated FMH in polite company.

FUD: /fuhd/ n. Defined by Gene Amdahl after he left IBM to found
his own company: "FUD is the fear, uncertainty, and doubt that IBM
sales people instill in the minds of potential customers who might
be considering [Amdahl] products."  The idea, of course, was to
persuade them to go with safe IBM gear rather than with
competitors' equipment.  This was traditionally done by promising
that Good Things would happen to people who stuck with IBM, but
Dark Shadows loomed over the future of competitors' equipment or
software.  See {IBM}.

FUD wars: /fuhd worz/ n. [from {FUD}] Political posturing engaged in
by hardware and software vendors ostensibly committed to
standardization but actually willing to fragment the market to
protect their own shares.  The UNIX International vs. OSF conflict,
for example.

fudge: 1. vt. To perform in an incomplete but marginally acceptable
way, particularly with respect to the writing of a program.  "I
didn't feel like going through that pain and suffering, so I fudged
it --- I'll fix it later."  2. n. The resulting code.

fudge factor: n. A value or parameter that is varied in an ad hoc way
to produce the desired result.  The terms tolerance' and
{slop} are also used, though these usually indicate a one-sided
leeway, such as a buffer that is made larger than necessary
because one isn't sure exactly how large it needs to be, and it is
better to waste a little space than to lose completely for not
having enough.  A fudge factor, on the other hand, can often be
tweaked in more than one direction.  A good example is the fuzz'
typically allowed in floating-point calculations: two numbers being
compared for equality must be allowed to differ by a small amount;
if that amount is too small, a computation may never terminate,
while if it is too large, results will be needlessly inaccurate.
Fudge factors are frequently adjusted incorrectly by programmers
of x}.

fuel up: vi. To eat or drink hurriedly in order to get back to
hacking.  "Food-p?"  "Yeah, let's fuel up."  "Time for a

fuggly: /fuhg'lee/ adj. Emphatic form of {funky}; funky + ugly (or
possibly a contraction of fuckin' ugly').  Unusually for hacker
jargon, this may actually derive from black street-jive.  To say it
properly, the first syllable should be growled rather than spoken.
Usage: humorous.  "Man, the {{ASCII}}-to-{{EBCDIC}} code in that printer

funky: adj. Said of something that functions, but in a slightly
strange, klugey way.  It does the job and would be difficult to
change, so its obvious non-optimality is left alone.  Often used to
describe interfaces.  The more bugs something has that nobody has
bothered to fix because workarounds are easier, the funkier it is.
{TECO} and UUCP are funky.  The Intel i860's exception handling is
extraordinarily funky.  Most standards acquire funkiness as they
age.  "The new mailer is installed, but is still somewhat funky;
if it bounces your mail for no reason, try resubmitting it."
"This UART is pretty funky.  The data ready line is active-high in
interrupt mode, and active-low in DMA mode."  See {fuggly}.

funny money: n. 1. Notional dollar' units of computing time and/or
storage handed to students at the beginning of a computer course;
also called play money' or purple money' (in implicit
opposition to real or green' money).  When your funny money
ran out, your account froze and you needed to go to a professor to
get more.  Fortunately, the plunging cost of timesharing cycles has
made this less common.  The amounts allocated were almost
invariably too small, even for the non-hackers who wanted to slide
by with minimum work.  In extreme cases, the practice led to
small-scale black markets in bootlegged computer accounts.  2. By
extension, phantom money or quantity tickets of any kind used as a
resource-allocation hack within a system.  Antonym: real
money'.

fuzzball: [TCP/IP hackers] n. A DEC LSI-11 running a particular suite
of homebrewed software by Dave Mills and assorted co-conspirators,
used in the early 1980s for Internet protocol testbedding and
experimentation.  These were used as NSFnet backbone sites in its
early 56KB-line days; a few of these are still active on the
Internet as of early 1990, doing odd jobs such as network time
service.

= G =
=====

G: pref. (on units) suff. (on numbers) See {{quantifiers}}.

gabriel: /gay'bree-*l/ [for Dick Gabriel, SAIL LISP hacker and
volleyball fanatic] n. An unnecessary (in the opinion of the
opponent) stalling tactic, e.g., tying one's shoelaces or hair
repeatedly, asking the time, etc.  Also used to refer to the
perpetrator of such tactics.  Also, pulling a Gabriel',
Gabriel mode'.

gag: vi. Equivalent to {choke}, but connotes more disgust. "Hey,
this is FORTRAN code.  No wonder the C compiler gagged."  See also
{barf}.

gang bang: n. The use of large numbers of loosely coupled
programmers in an attempt to wedge a great many features into a
product in a short time.  While there have been memorable gang
bangs (e.g., that over-the-weekend assembler port mentioned in
Steven Levy's Hackers'), most are perpetrated by large
companies trying to meet deadlines and produce enormous buggy
masses of code entirely lacking in orthogonality (see
{orthogonal}).  When market-driven managers make a list of all
the features the competition has and assign one programmer to
implement each, they often miss the importance of maintaining a
technique}, {Conway's Law}.

garbage collect: vi. (also garbage collection', n.) See {GC}.

garply: /gar'plee/ [Stanford] n. Another meta-syntactic variable (see
{foo}); formerly popular among SAIL hackers.

gas: [as in gas chamber'] 1. interj. A term of disgust and
hatred, implying that gas should be dispensed in generous
quantities, thereby exterminating the source of irritation.  "Some
loser just reloaded the system for no reason!  Gas!"  2. interj. A
suggestion that someone or something ought to be flushed out of
mercy.  "The system's wedging every few minutes.  Gas!"  3. vt.
To {flush} (sense #1).  "You should gas that old crufty
software."  4. [IBM] n. Dead space in nonsequentially organized
files that was occupied by data that has been deleted; the
compression operation that removes it is called degassing' (by
analogy, perhaps, with the use of the same term in vacuum
technology).

gaseous: adj. Deserving of being {gas}sed.  Disseminated by Geoff
Goodfellow while at SRI; became particularly popular after the
Moscone/Milk murders in San Francisco, when it was learned that the
defendant Dan White (a politician who had who supported Proposition
7) would get the gas chamber under Proposition 7 if convicted.  He
was eventually found not guilty by reason of insanity.

GC: /jee-see/ [from LISP terminology; Garbage Collect']
1. vt.  To clean up and throw away useless things.  "I think I'll
GC the top of my desk today."  When said of files, this is
equivalent to {GFR}.  2. vt. To recycle, reclaim, or put to
another use.  3. n.  An instantiation of the garbage collector
process.

Garbage collection' is computer science jargon for a particular
class of strategies for dynamically reallocating computer memory.
One such strategy involves periodically scanning all the data in
memory and determining what is no longer accessible; useless data
items are then discarded so that the memory they occupy can be
recycled and used for another purpose.  Implementations of the LISP
language usually use garbage collection.

In jargon, the full phrase is sometimes heard but the {abbrev} is
more frequently used because it's shorter.  Note that there is an
ambiguity in usage that has to be resolved by context: "I'm going
to garbage-collect my desk" usually means to clean out the
drawers, but it could also mean to throw away or recycle the desk
itself.

GCOS: n. A {quick and dirty} {clone} of System/360 DOS that emerged
from GE about 1970; originally called GECOS (the General Electric
Comprehensive Operating System).  Later kluged to support
primitive timesharing and transaction processing.  After the buyout
of GE's computer division by Honeywell, the name was changed to
General Comprehensive Operating System (GCOS).  Other OS groups at
Honeywell began referring to it as God's Chosen Operating System',
allegedly in reaction to the GCOS crowd's uninformed and snotty
attitude about the superiority of their product.  All this might be
of zero interest, except for two facts: (1) the GCOS people won the
political war, resulting in the orphaning and eventual death of
Honeywell {Multics}, and (2) GECOS/GCOS left one permanent mark
on UNIX.  Some early UNIX systems at Bell Labs were used as front
ends to GCOS machines; the field added to /etc/passwd to carry GCOS
ID information was called the GECOS field' and survives today as
the pw_gecos member used for the user's full name and other
human-id information.  GCOS later played a major role in keeping
Honeywell a dismal also-ran in the mainframe market, and was itself
ditched for UNIX in the late 1980s when Honeywell retired its aging
{big iron} designs.

GECOS: n. See GCOS.

gedanken: /g*-dahn'kn/ adj. Ungrounded; impractical; not
well-thought-out; untried; untested.  Gedanken' is a German word
for thought'.  A thought experiment is one you carry out in your
head.  In physics, the term gedanken experiment' is used to
refer to an experiment that is impractical to carry out, but useful
to consider because you can reason about it theoretically.  (A
classic gedanken experiment of relativity theory involves thinking
about a man in an elevator accelerating through space.)  Gedanken
experiments are very useful in physics, but you have to be careful.
It was a gedanken experiment that led Aristotle to conclude that
heavy things always fall faster than light things (he thought about
a rock and a feather); this was accepted until Galileo proved
otherwise.

Among hackers, however, the word has a pejorative connotation.  It
is said of a project, especially one in artificial intelligence
research, which is written up in grand detail (typically as a Ph.D.
thesis) without ever being implemented to any great extent.  Such a
project is usually perpetrated by people who aren't very good
hackers or find programming distasteful or are just in a hurry.  A
gedanken thesis is usually marked by an obvious lack of intuition
about what is programmable and what is not, and about what does and
does not constitute a clear specification of an algorithm.  See
also {DWIM}.

h{geef} v. [ostensibly from gefingerpoken'] vt. Syn. {mung}.  See

geek out: vi. To temporarily enter techno-nerd mode while in a
non-hackish context, for example at parties held near computer
equipment.  Especially used when you need to do something highly
technical and don't have time to explain: "Pardon me while I geek
out for a moment."

gen: /jen/ n.,v. Short for {generate}, used frequently in both spoken
and written contexts.

gender mender: n., A cable connector shell with either two male or
two female connectors on it, used to correct the mismatches that
result when some {loser} didn't understand the RS232C
specification and the distinction between DTE and DCE.  Used esp.
for RS-232C parts in either the original D-25 or the IBM PC's bogus
D-9 format.  Also called a gender bender', gender
blender', sex changer', and even homosexual adaptor';
there appears to be some confusion as to whether a male homosexual
adapter' has pins on both sides (is male) or sockets on both sides
(connects two males).

General Public Virus: n. Pejorative name for some versions of the
{GNU} project {copyleft} or General Public License (GPL), which
requires that any tools or {app}s incorporating copylefted code
must be source-distributed on the same counter-commercial terms as
GNU stuff.  Thus it is alleged that the copyleft infects' software
generated with GNU tools, which may in turn infect other software
that reuses any of its code.  The Free Software Foundation's
official position as of January 1991 is that copyright law limits
the scope of the GPL to "programs textually incorporating
significant amounts of GNU code", and that the infection' is not
passed on to third parties unless actual GNU source is transmitted
(as in, for example, use of the Bison parser skeleton).
Nevertheless, widespread suspicion that the {copyleft} language
is boobytrapped' has caused many developers to avoid using GNU
tools and the GPL.

generate: vt. To produce something according to an algorithm or
program or set of rules, or as a (possibly unintended) side effect
of the execution of an algorithm or program.  The opposite of
{parse}.  This term retains its mechanistic connotations (though
often humorously) when used of human behavior.  "The guy is
rational most of the time, but mention nuclear energy around him
and he'll generate {infinite} flamage."

gensym: [from MacLisp for generated symbol'] 1. v. To invent a new
name for something temporary, in such a way that the name is almost
certainly not already in conflict with one already in use.  2. n.
The resulting name.  The canonical form of a gensym is Gnnnn'
where nnnn represents a number; any LISP hacker would recognize
G0093 (for example) as a gensym.  3. A freshly generated data
structure with a gensymmed name.  These are useful for storing or
uniquely identifying crufties (see {cruft}).

Get a life!: imp. Hacker-standard way of suggesting that the person
to whom you are speaking has succumbed to terminal geekdom (see
{computer geek}).  Often heard on {USENET}, esp. as a way of
suggesting that the target is taking some obscure issue of
{theology} too seriously.  This exhortation was popularized by
William Shatner on a Saturday Night Live episode in a speech which
ended "Get a *life*!", but some respondents believe it to
have been in use before then.

Get a real computer!: imp. Typical hacker response to news that
somebody is having trouble getting work done on a system that (a)
is single-tasking, (b) has no hard disk, or (c) has an address
space smaller than 4 megabytes.  This is as of mid-1991; note that
the threshold for real computer' rises with time, and it may well
be (for example) that machines with character-only displays will be
generally considered unreal' in a few years (GLS points out that
they already are in some circles).  See {essentials}, {bitty
box} and {toy}.

GFR: /jee eff ar/ vt. [acronym, ITS] From "Grim File Reaper", an
ITS utility.  To remove a file or files according to some
program-automated or semi-automatic manual procedure, especially
one designed to reclaim mass storage space or reduce namespace
clutter.  Often generalized to pieces of data below file level.
"I used to have his phone number but I guess I {GFR}ed it."  See
also {prowler}, {reaper}.  Compare {GC}, which discards only
provably worthless stuff.

gig: /jig/ or /gig/ n. See {{quantifiers}}.

giga-: /ji'ga/ or /gi'ga/ pref. See {{quantifiers}}.

GIGO: /gie'goh/ [acronym] 1. Garbage In, Garbage out --- usually said
in response to {luser}s who complain that a program didn't complain
about faulty data.  Also commonly used to describe failures in
human decision making due to faulty, incomplete, or imprecise data.
2. Garbage In, Gospel Out --- this more recent expansion is a
sardonic comment on the tendency human beings have to put excessive
trust in "computerized" data.

gillion: /jill'y*n/ n. 10 ^ 9. [From {giga-}, following
construction of mega/million and notional tera/trillion] Same as an
American billion or a British milliard'.

GIPS: /gips/ or /jips/ [analogy with {MIPS}] n. Giga-Instructions
per Second (also possibly Gillions of Instructions per Second; see
{gillion}).  How one pronounces this depends on whether one
speaks {giga-} with hard or soft g'.  In 1991 this is used of
only a handful of highly parallel machines, but this is expected to
change.  Compare {KIPS}.

glark: /glark/ vt. To figure something out from context.  "The
System III manuals are pretty poor, but you can generally glark the
meaning from context."  Interestingly, the word was originally
glork'; the context was: "This gubblick contains many nonsklarkish
English flutzpahs, but the overall pluggandisp can be glorked [sic]
from context", by David Moser, quoted by Douglas Hofstadter in his
Metamagical Themas' column in the January 1981 Scientific
American.  It is conjectured that hackish usage mutated the verb to
glark' because {glork} was already an established jargon term.

glass: [IBM] n. Synonym for {silicon}.

glass tty: /glas tee-tee-wie/ or /glas ti'tee/ n. A terminal which
has a display screen but which, because of hardware or software
limitations, behaves like a teletype or other printing terminal,
thereby combining the disadvantages of both: like a printing
terminal, it can't do fancy display hacks, and like a display
terminal, it doesn't produce hard copy.  An example is the early
dumb' version of Lear-Siegler ADM-3 (without cursor control).  See
{tube}, {tty}.  See Appendix A for an interesting true story

glassfet: /glas'fet/ [by analogy with MOSFET the acronym for
Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor] n.  Syn.
{firebottle}, a humorous way to refer to a vacuum tube.

glitch: /glich/ [from German glitschen' to slip, via Yiddish
glitshen', to slide or skid] 1. n. A sudden interruption in
electric service, sanity, continuity, or program function.
Sometimes recoverable.  An interruption in electric service is
specifically called a power glitch'.  This is of grave concern
because it usually crashes all the computers.  More common in
jargon, though, a hacker who got to the middle of a sentence and
then forgot how he or she intended to complete it might say,
"Sorry, I just glitched".  2. vi. To commit a glitch.  See
{gritch}.  3. vt. [Stanford] To scroll a display screen several
lines at a time.  This derives from some oddities in the terminal
behavior under {WAITS}.  4. obs.  Same as {magic cookie},
sense #2.

All these uses of glitch' derive from the specific technical
meaning the term has to hardware people.  If the inputs of a
circuit change, and the outputs change to some {random} value for
some very brief time before they settle down to the correct value,
then that is called a glitch.  This may or may not be harmful,
depending on what the circuit is connected to.  This term is found
in electronic texts.

glob: /glob/, *not* /glohb/ [UNIX] vt.,n. To expand special
characters in a wildcarded name, or the act of so doing (the action
is also called globbing').  The UNIX conventions for filename
wildcarding have become sufficiently pervasive that many hackers
use some of them in written English, especially in email or news on
technical topics.  Those commonly encountered include:

?    wildcard for any character (generally only read this way
at the beginning or in the middle of a word).
[]   delimits a wildcard matching any of the enclosed characters.
{}   alternation of comma-separated alternatives.  Thus,
foo{baz,qux}' would be read as foobaz' or fooqux'.

Some examples: "He said his name was [KC]arl" (expresses
ambiguity).  "That got posted to talk.politics.*" (all the
talk.politics subgroups on {USENET}).  Other examples are given
under the entry for {X}.  Compare {regexp}.

Historical note: the jargon usage derives from glob', the
name of a subprogram that expanded wildcards in archaic Bourne
Shell versions; this was necessary because early UNIX machines had
so little memory that the glob routine and the rest of the shell
could not be co-resident within 64K of code plus data.

glork: /glork/ 1. interj. Term of mild surprise, usually tinged with
outrage, as when one attempts to save the results of two hours of
editing and finds that the system has just crashed.  2. Used as a
name for just about anything.  See {foo}.  3. vt. Similar to
{glitch}, but usually used reflexively.  "My program just glorked
itself."

glue: n. Generic term for any interface logic or protocol that
connects between two component blocks.  For example, the {Blue
Glue} is IBM's SNA protocol, and hardware designers call anything
used to connect large VLSI's or circuit blocks "glue logic".

gnarly: adj. Both {obscure} and {hairy} in the sense of complex.
"Yeech --- the tuned assembler implementation of BitBlt is really
gnarly!"  From a similar but less specific usage in surfer slang.

GNU: /gnoo/, *not* /noo/ 1. [acronym, GNU's Not UNIX!',
see {{recursive acronyms}}] A UNIX-workalike development effort of
the Free Software Foundation headed by Richard Stallman
(rms@mole.ai.mit.edu).  GNU EMACS and the GNU C compiler, two
tools designed for this project, have become very popular in
hackerdom and elsewhere.  The GNU project was designed partly to
proselytize for RMS's position that information is community
property and all software source should be shared.  One of its
slogans is "Help stamp out software hoarding!"  Though this
remains controversial (because it implicitly denies any right of
designers to own, assign, and sell the results of their labors),
many hackers who disagree with him have nevertheless cooperated to
redistribution under the Free Software Foundation imprimatur.  See
{EMACS}, {copyleft}, {General Public Virus}.  2. Noted UNIX
hacker John Gilmore (gnu@toad.com), founder of USENET's anarchic
alt.* hierarchy.

GNUMACS: /gnoo'maks/ [contraction of GNU EMACS'] Often-heard
abbreviated name for the {GNU} project's flagship tool, {EMACS}.
Used esp. in contrast with {GOSMACS}.

go flatline: [from cyberpunk SF, refers to flattening of EEG traces
upon brain-death] vi., also adjectival flatlined'. 1. To die,
terminate, or fail, esp. irreversibly.  In hacker parlance, this is
used of machines only, human death being considered somewhat too
serious a matter to employ jargon-jokes about.  2. To go completely
quiescent; said of machines undergoing controlled shutdown.  "You
can suffer file damage if you shut down UNIX but power off before
the system has gone flatline."  3. Of a video tube, to fail by
losing vertical scan, so all one sees is a bright horizontal line
bisecting the screen.

go root: [UNIX] vi. To temporarily enter {root mode} in order to
perform a privileged operation.  This use is deprecated in
Australia, where v. root' is roughly synonymous with fuck'.

gobble: vt. To consume or to obtain.  The phrase gobble up' tends to
imply consume', while gobble down' tends to imply obtain'.
"The output spy gobbles characters out of a {tty} output buffer."
"I guess I'll gobble down a copy of the documentation tomorrow."

{Godzillagram} n. [from Japan's national hero]  1. A network packet
that in theory is a broadcast to every machine in the universe.
The typical case of this is an IP datagram whose destination IP
address is [255.255.255.255].  Fortunately, few gateways are
foolish enough to attempt to implement this!  2. A network packet
of maximum size.  An IP Godzillagram has 65,536 octets.

golden: adj. [perh. from folklore's golden egg'] When used to
describe a magnetic medium (e.g. golden disk', golden tape'),
describes one containing a tested, up-to-spec, ready-to-ship
software version.  Compare {platinum-iridium}.

golf-ball printer: n. A slow but letter-quality printing device and
terminal (the IBM 2741) based on the IBM Selectric typewriter.  The
golf ball' was a round object bearing mirror-image embossed images
of 88 different characters (arranged on four lines of latitude);
one could change the font by swapping in a different golf ball.
This was the technology that enabled APL to use a non-EBCDIC,
non-ASCII, and in fact completely non-standard character set; this
put it ten years ahead of its time --- where it stayed, firmly
rooted, for the next twenty, until character displays gave way to
programmable bit-mapped devices with the flexibility to support
other character sets.

gonk: /gonk/ vt.,n. 1. To prevaricate or to embellish the truth
beyond any reasonable recognition.  It is alleged that in German
the term is (fictively) gonken', in Spanish the verb becomes
gonkar'.  "You're gonking me.  That story you just told me is a
bunch of gonk."  In German, for example, "Du gonkst mir" (You're
sleep at an odd time; compare {gronk} (sense #4).

gonkulator: /gon'kyoo-lay-tr/ [from the old Hogan's Heroes' TV
series] n. A pretentious piece of equipment that actually serves no
useful purpose.  Usually used to describe one's least favorite
piece of computer hardware.  See {gonk}.

gonzo: /gon'zo/ [from Hunter S. Thompson] adj. Overwhelming;
outrageous; over the top; very large, esp. used of collections of
source code, source files or individual functions.  Has some of the
connotations of {moby} and {hairy}.

Good Thing: n.,adj. Often capitalized; always pronounced as if
capitalized.  1. Self-evidently wonderful to anyone in a position
to notice: "The Trailblazer's 19.2Kbaud PEP mode with on-the-fly
Lempel-Ziv compression is a Good Thing for sites relaying
netnews."  2. Something that can't possibly have any ill
side-effects and may save considerable grief later: "Removing the
self-modifying code from that shared library would be a Good
Thing."  3. When said of software tools or libraries, as in "YACC
is a Good Thing", specifically connotes that the thing has
Thing}.

gorilla arm: n. The side-effect that destroyed touch-screens as a
mainstream input technology despite a promising start in the early
eighties.  It seems the designers of all those {spiffy}
touch-menu systems failed to notice that humans aren't designed to
hold their arms in front of their faces making small motions.
After more than a very few selections, the arm begins to feel sore,
cramped, and oversized, hence gorilla arm'.  This is now
considered a classic cautionary tale to human-factors designers;
"Remember the gorilla arm!" is shorthand for "How's this gonna
fly in *real* use?".

gorp: /gorp/ [CMU, perhaps from the canonical hiker's food, Good
Old Raisins and Peanuts] Another metasyntactic variable, like
{foo} and {bar}.

GOSMACS: /goz'maks/ [contraction of Gosling EMACS'] n. The first
{EMACS}-in-C implementation, predating but now largely eclipsed by
{GNUMACS}.  Originally freeware; a commercial version is now
modestly popular as UniPress EMACS'.  The author (James Gosling)
went on to invent {NeWS}.

Gosperism: /gos'p*r-iz-m/ A hack, invention, or saying by
arch-hacker R. William (Bill) Gosper.  This notion merits its own
term because there are so many of them.  Many of the entries in

gotcha: n. A {misfeature} of a system, especially a programming
language or environment, that tends to breed bugs or mistakes
because it behaves in an unexpected way.  For example, a classic
gotcha in {C} is the fact that if (a=b) {code;}' is
syntactically valid and sometimes even correct.  It puts the value
of b into a and then executes code' if a is non-zero.  What
the programmer probably meant was if (a==b) {code;}' which
executes code' if a and b are equal.

{copyleft}.

GPV: n. Abbrev. for {General Public Virus} in widespread use.

grault: /grawlt/ n. Yet another meta-syntactic variable, invented by
Mike Gallaher and propagated by the {GOSMACS} documentation.  See
{corge}.

gray goo: n. A hypothetical substance composed of {sagan}s of
sub-micron-sized self-replicating robots programmed to make copies
of themselves out of whatever is available.  The image that goes
with the term is one of the entire biosphere of Earth being
eventually converted to robot goo.  This is the simplest of the
{{nanotechnology}} disaster scenarios, easily refuted by arguments
from energy requirements and elemental abundances.  Compare {blue
goo}.

Great Renaming: n. The {flag day} on which all of the groups on the
{USENET} had their names changed from the net.- format to the
current multiple-hierarchies scheme.

Great Runes: n. Uppercase-only text or display messages.  Some
{smash case}, {fold case}.

great-wall: [from SF fandom] vi.,n. A mass expedition to an
Oriental restaurant, esp. one where food is served family-style
and shared.  There is a common heuristic about the amount of food
to order, expressed as "Get N - 1' entrees"; the value of
N, which is the number of people in the group, can be inferred from
context (see {N}).  See {{Oriental Food}}, {ravs},
{stir-fried random}.

Green Book: n. 1. One of the three standard PostScript references
(PostScript Language Program Design', Adobe Systems,
{Red Book}, {Blue Book}).  2. Informal name for one of the three
standard references on SmallTalk: Smalltalk-80: Bits of
QA76.8.S635S58, ISBN 0-201-11669-3 (this, too, is associated with
blue and red books).  3. The X/Open Compatibility Guide'.
Defines an international standard {UNIX} environment that is a
proper superset of POSIX/SVID; also includes descriptions of a
standard utility toolkit, systems administrations features, and the
like.  This grimoire is taken with particular seriousness in
Europe.  See {Purple Book}.  4. The IEEE 1003.1 POSIX Operating
Systems Interface standard has been dubbed "The Ugly Green Book".
5. Any of the 1992 standards which will be issued by the CCITT 10th
plenary assembly.  Until now, these have changed color each review
cycle (1984 was {Red Book}, 1988 {Blue Book}); however, it is
rumored that this convention is going to be dropped before 1992.
These include, among other things, the X.400 email spec and the

green bytes: n. 1. Meta-information embedded in a file such as the
length of the file or its name; as opposed to keeping such
information in a separate description file or record.  The term
comes from an IBM user's group meeting ca.1962 where these two
approaches were being debated and the diagram of the file on the
blackboard had the green bytes' drawn in green.  2. By extension,
the non-data bits in any self-describing format.  "A GIF file
contains, among other things, green bytes describing the packing
method for the image."

green card: n. [after the IBM System/360 Reference Data'
card] This is used for any summary of an assembly language, even if
the color is not green.  Less frequently used now because of the
decrease in the use of assembly language.  "I'll go get my green
card so I can check the addressing mode for that instruction."
Some green cards are actually booklets.

The original green card became a yellow card when the System/370
was introduced, and later a yellow booklet.  An anecdote from IBM
refers to a scene that took place in a programmers' terminal room
at Yorktown in 1978.  A luser overheard one of the programmers ask
another "Do you have a green card?"  The other grunted and
passed the first a thick yellow booklet.  At this point the luser
turned a delicate shade of olive and rapidly left the room, never

green lightning: [IBM] n. 1. Apparently random flashing streaks on
the face of 3278-9 terminals while a new symbol set is being
some genius within IBM suggested it would let the user know that
something is happening'.  That, it certainly does.  Later
microprocessor-driven IBM color graphics displays were actually
*programmed* to produce green lightning!  2. [proposed] Any
bug perverted into an alleged feature by adroit rationalization or
marketing.  E.g., "Motorola calls the CISC cruft in the 88000
architecture compatibility logic', but I call it green

green machine: n. A computer or peripheral device that has been
designed and built to military specifications for field equipment
(that is, to withstand mechanical shock, extremes of temperature
and humidity, and so forth).  Comes from the olive-drab uniform'
paint used for military equipment.

Green's Theorem: [TMRC] prov. For any story, in any group of people
there will be at least one person who has not heard the story.

grep: /grep/ [from the qed/ed editor idiom g/re/p , where
re stands for a regular expression, to Globally search for the
Regular Expression and Print the lines containing matches to it,
via {UNIX} grep(1)'] vt. To rapidly scan a file or file set
looking for a particular string or pattern.  By extension, to look
for something by pattern.  "Grep the bulletin board for the system

grind: vt. 1. [MIT and Berkeley] To format code, especially LISP
code, by indenting lines so that it looks pretty.  This usage was
associated with the MacLISP community and is now rare;
{prettyprint} was and is the generic term for such operations.
2. [UNIX] To generate the formatted version of a document from the
nroff, troff, TeX, or Scribe source.  The BSD program
vgrind(1)' grinds code for printing on a Versatec bitmapped
printer.  3. To run seemingly interminably, esp. (but not
necessarily) if performing some tedious and inherently useless
task.  Similar to {crunch} or {grovel}.  Grinding has a
connotation of using a lot of CPU time, but it is possible to grind
a disk, network, etc.  See also {hog}.  4. To make the whole
system slow, e.g. "Troff really grinds a PDP-11".  5. grind
grind' excl. Roughly, "Isn't the machine slow today!"

grind crank: n. A mythical accessory to a terminal.  A crank on the
side of a monitor, which when operated makes a zizzing noise and
causes the computer to run faster.  Usually one does not refer to a
grind crank out loud, but merely makes the appropriate gesture and
noise.  See {grind}, and {wugga wugga}.

Historical note: At least one real machine actually had a grind
crank --- the R1, a research machine built towards the the end of
the days of the great vacuum tube computers in 1959.  R1 (also
known as The Rice Institute Computer' (TRIC) and later as The
Rice University Computer' (TRUC)) had a single-step/free-run switch
for use when debugging programs.  Since single-stepping through a
large program was rather tedious, there was also a crank with a cam
and gear arrangement that repeatedly pushed the single-step button.
This allowed one to crank' through a lot of code, then slow down
to single-step a bit when you got near the code of interest, poke
at some registers using the console typewriter, and then keep on
cranking.

gritch: /grich/ 1. n. A complaint (often caused by a {glitch}).
2. vi. To complain.  Often verb-doubled: "Gritch gritch".  3. A
synonym for {glitch} (as verb or noun).

grok: /grok/, var. /grohk/ [from the novel Stranger in a
Strange Land', by Robert Heinlein, where it is a Martian word
meaning literally to drink' and metaphorically to be one
with'] vt. 1. To understand, usually in a global sense.  Connotes
intimate and exhaustive knowledge.  Contrast {zen}, similar
supernal understanding as a single brief flash.  2. Used of
programs, may connote merely sufficient understanding, e.g.,
"Almost all C compilers grok void these days."

gronk: /gronk/ [popularized by the comic strip B.C.' by Johnny
Hart, but the word apparently predates that] vt. 1. To clear the
state of a wedged device and restart it.  More severe than "to
{frob}".  2. [TMRC] To cut, sever, smash, or similarly
disable.  3. The sound made by many 3.5-inch diskette drives.  In
particular, the microfloppies on a Commodore Amiga go "grink,
gronk".

gronked: adj. 1. Broken.  "The teletype scanner was gronked, so
we took the system down."  2. Of people, the condition of
feeling very tired or sick.  Compare {broken}, which means about
the same as {gronk} used of hardware but connotes depression or
mental/emotional problems in people.

gronk out: vi. To cease functioning.  Of people, to go home and go
to sleep.  "I guess I'll gronk out now; see you all tomorrow."

grovel: vi. 1. To work interminably and without apparent progress.
Often used transitively with over' or through'.  "The file
scavenger has been grovelling through the file directories for ten
minutes now."  Compare {grind} and {crunch}.  Emphatic form:
grovel obscenely'.  2. To examine minutely or in complete detail.
"The compiler grovels over the entire source program before
beginning to translate it."  "I grovelled through all the
documentation, but I still couldn't find the command I wanted."

grunge: /gruhnj/ n. 1. That which is grungy, or that which
makes it so.  2. [Cambridge] Code which is dead' (can never be
accessed) due to changes in other parts of the program.  The
preferred term in North America is {dead code}.

gubbish: /guh'bish/ [a portmanteau of "garbage" and "rubbish"?]
n. Garbage; crap; nonsense.  "What is all this gubbish?"  The
opposite portmanteau "rubbage" is also reported.

guiltware: n. 1. {freeware} decorated with a message telling one how
long and hard the author worked on this program and intimating that
one is a no-good freeloader if one does not immediately send the
poor suffering martyr gobs of money.  2. {Shareware} that works.

gumby: /guhm'bee/ [from a class of Monty Python characters, poss.
themselves named after the 1960s claymation character] n. An act of
minor but conspicuous stupidity, often in gumby maneuver' or
pull a gumby'.

gun: [from the :GUN command on ITS] vt. To forcibly terminate a
program or job (computer, not career).  "Some idiot left a
background process running soaking up half the cycles, so I gunned
it."  Compare {can}.

gunch: [TMRC] vt. To push, prod, or poke at a device which has
almost produced the desired result.  Implies a threat to {mung}.

gurfle: /ger'fl/ interj. An expression of shocked disbelief.  "He
said we have to recode this thing in FORTRAN by next week.
Gurfle!"  Compare {weeble}.

guru: n. 1. [UNIX] An expert.  Implies not only {wizard} skill but a
history of being a knowledge resource for others.  Less often, used
(with a qualifier) for other experts on other systems, as in VMS
guru'.  2. Amiga equivalent of "panic" in UNIX.  When the system
crashes, a cryptic message "GURU MEDITATION #XXXXXXXX.YYYYYYYY"
appears, indicating what the problem was.  An Amiga guru can figure
things out from the numbers.  Generally a {guru} event must be
followed by a {vulcan nerve pinch}.

= H =
=====

h: [from SF fandom] infix. A method of marking' common words,
i.e. calling attention to the fact that they are being used in a
nonstandard, ironic, or humorous way.  Orig. in the fannish
catchphrase "Bheer is the One True Ghod!" from decades ago.
H-infix marking of Ghod' and other words spread into the Sixties
counterculture via underground comix, and into early hackerdom
either from the counterculture or SF fandom (all three overlapped
heavily at the time).  More recently, the h infix has become an
expected feature of benchmark names, e.g. Dhrystone, Rhealstone,
etc.; this is prob. patterning on the original Whetstone (the name
of a laboratory) but influenced by the fannish/counterculture H
infix.

ha ha only serious: [from SF fandom, orig. as mutation of HHOK,
"Ha Ha Only Kidding"] A phrase that aptly captures the flavor of
much hacker discourse (often seen abbreviated as HHOS).  Applied
especially to parodies, absurdities, and ironic jokes that are both
intended and perceived to contain a possibly disquieting amount of
truth, or truths which are constructed on in-joke and self-parody.
This lexicon contains many examples of ha-ha-only-serious in
both form and content.  Indeed, the entirety of hacker culture is
often perceived as ha-ha-only-serious by hackers themselves; to
take it either too lightly or too seriously marks a person as an
outsider, a {wannabee}, or in {larval stage}.  For further
{{Humor, Hacker}} and {AI koans}.

hack: 1. n. Originally a quick job that produces what is needed,
but not well.  2. n. An incredibly good, and perhaps very
time-consuming, piece of work that produces exactly what is needed.
3. vt. To bear emotionally or physically.  "I can't hack this
heat!"  4. vt. To work on something (typically a program).  In
specific sense: "What are you doing?"  "I'm hacking TECO."  In
general sense: "What do you do around here?"  "I hack TECO."
(The former is time-immediate, the latter time-extended.)  More
generally, "I hack foo'" is roughly equivalent to
"foo' is my major interest (or project)".  "I hack
solid-state physics."  5. vt. To pull a prank on.  See sense #2
and {hacker} (sense #5).  6. vi. To interact with a computer in
a playful and exploratory, rather than goal-directed way.
"Whatcha up to?"  "Oh, just hacking."  7. n. Short for
{hacker}, which see.  8. [UNIX] n. A dungeon game similar to
{rogue} but more elaborate, distributed in C source over
{USENET} and very popular at UNIX sites and on PC-class machines.
Recent versions are called nethack'.

Constructions on this term abound.  They include: happy
hacking', a farewell; how's hacking?', a friendly greeting
among hackers; and hack, hack', a fairly content-free but
friendly comment, often used as a temporary farewell.  For more on
{real hack}.

hack attack: [poss. by analogy with Big Mac Attack'; the variant
big hack attack' is reported] n. Nearly synonymous with
{hacking run}, though the latter more strongly implies an
all-nighter.

hack mode: n. 1. What one is in when hacking, of course.  2. More
specifically, a Zen-like state of total focus on The Problem which
may be achieved when one is hacking (this is why every good hacker
is part mystic).  Ability to enter such concentration at will
correlates strongly with wizardliness; it is one of the most
important skills learned during {larval stage}.  Sometimes
amplified as deep hack mode'.

Being yanked out of hack mode (see {priority interrupt}) may be
experienced as a physical shock, and the sensation of being in it
is more than a little habituating.  The intensity of this
experience is probably by itself sufficient explanation for the
existence of hackers, and explains why many resist being promoted
(sense #2).

Some aspects of hackish etiquette will appear quite odd to an
observer unaware of the high value placed on hack mode.  For
example, if someone appears at your door, it is perfectly okay to
hold up a hand (without turning one's eyes away from the screen) to
avoid being interrupted.  One may read, type, and interact with the
computer for quite some time before further acknowledging the
other's presence (of course, he or she is reciprocally free to
leave without a word).  The understanding is that you might be in
{hack mode} with a lot of delicate {state} (sense #2) in your
head, and you dare not {swap} that context out until you have
reached a good point to pause.

hack on: vt. To {hack}; implies that the subject is some
pre-existing hunk of code that one is evolving, as opposed to
something one might {hack up}.

hack together: vt. To throw something together so it will work.
Unlike kluge together' or {cruft together}, this does not
necessarily have negative connotations.

hack up: vt. To {hack}, but generally implies that the result is
a hack in sense #1 (a quick hack).  Contrast this with {hack on}.
To hack up on' implies a {quick and dirty} modification to an
existing system.  Contrast {hacked up}; compare {kluge up},
{monkey up}, {cruft together}.

hack value: n. Often adduced as the reason or motivation for
expending effort toward a seemingly useless goal, the point being
that the accomplished goal is a hack.  For example, MacLISP had
features for reading and printing Roman numerals, which were
installed purely for hack value.  This cannot be explained.  As a
great artist once said of jazz, if you hafta ask, you ain't never
goin' to find out.

hack-and-slay: v. (also hack-and-slash') 1. To play a {MUD}
or go mudding, especially with the intention of {berserking} for
pleasure.  2. To undertake an all-night programming/hacking
session, interspersed with stints of mudding as a change of pace.
This term arose on the British academic network amongst students
who worked nights and logged onto Essex University's MUDs during
public-access hours (2 am to 7 am).  Usually more mudding than
work was done in these sessions.

hacked off: [analogous with pissed off'] adj. Said of system
administrators who have become annoyed, upset, or touchy due to
suspicions that their sites have been or are going to be victimized
by crackers, or used for inappropriate, technically illegal, or
even overtly criminal activities.  For example, having unreadable
files in your home directory called worm', lockpick', or goroot'
would probably be an effective (as well as impressively obvious and

hacked up: adj. Sufficiently patched, kluged, and tweaked that the
surgical scars are beginning to crowd out normal tissue (compare
{critical mass}).  Note that not all programs which are hacked
become hacked up'; if modifications are done with some eye to
coherence and continued maintainability, the software may emerge
better for the experience.  Contrast {hack up}.

hacker: [originally, someone who makes furniture with an axe] n.
1. A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable
systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most
users who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary.  2. One who
programs enthusiastically (even obsessively), or who enjoys
programming rather than just theorizing about programming.  3. A
person capable of appreciating {hack value}.  4. A person who
is good at programming quickly.  5. An expert at a particular
program, or one who frequently does work using it or on it; as in
a UNIX hacker'.  (Definitions 1 to 5 are correlated, and people
who fit them congregate.)  6. An expert of any kind.  One might
be an astronomy hacker, for example.  7. One who enjoys the
intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming or circumventing
limitations.  8. (deprecated) A malicious meddler who tries to
discover sensitive information by poking around.  Hence
password hacker', network hacker'.  See {cracker}.

hacking run: [analogy with bombing run' or speed run'] n. A
hack session extended long outside normal working times, especially
one longer than 12 hours.  May cause you to change phase the hard
way' (see {phase}).

Hacking X for Y: [ITS] n. The information ITS made publicly
available about each user (the INQUIR record) was a sort of form in
which the user could fill out fields.  On display, two of these
fields were combined into a project description of the form
"Hacking X for Y" (e.g., "Hacking perceptrons for
Minsky"').  This form of description became traditional and has
since been carried over to other systems with more general

Hackintosh: n. 1. An Apple Lisa that has been hacked into emulating a
Macintosh (also called a Mac XL').  2. A Macintosh assembled
from parts theoretically belonging to different models in the line.

hackish: /hak'ish/ adj. (also {hackishness} n.) 1. Said of
something which is or involves a hack.  2. Of or pertaining to
better to be described as hackish by others than to describe
oneself that way.  Hackers consider themselves something of an
elite, though one to which new members are gladly welcome.  It is a
meritocracy based on ability.  There is a certain self-satisfaction
in identifying yourself as a hacker (but if you claim to be one and
are not, you'll quickly be labelled {bogus}).

hackishness: n. The quality of being or involving a hack.  See
{hackitude}.

hackitude: n. Syn. {hackishness}; this word is considered silly.

hair: [back-formation from {hairy}] n. The complications that
make something hairy.  "Decoding {TECO} commands requires a
certain amount of hair."  Often seen in the phrase infinite
hair', which connotes extreme complexity.  Also in hairiferous'
(tending to promote hair growth): "GNUMACS Elisp encourages lusers
to write complex editing modes."  "Yeah, it's pretty hairiferous
all right." (or just: "Hair squared!")

hairy: adj. 1. Annoyingly complicated.  "{DWIM} is incredibly
hairy."  2. Incomprehensible.  "{DWIM} is incredibly hairy."
3. Of people, high-powered, authoritative, rare, expert, and/or
incomprehensible.  Hard to explain except in context: "He knows
this hairy lawyer who says there's nothing to worry about."  See
also {hirsute}.

HAKMEM: /hak'mem/ n. MIT AI Memo 239 (February 1972).  A legendary
collection of neat mathematical and programming hacks contributed
by many people at MIT and elsewhere.  (The title of the memo really
is "HAKMEM", which is a six-letterism for hacks memo'.)  Some of
them are very useful techniques, powerful theorems, or interesting
unsolved problems, but most fall into the category of mathematical
and computer trivia.  A sampling of the entries (with authors),
slightly paraphrased:

Item 41 (Gene Salamin): There are exactly 23,000 prime numbers less
than 2 ^ 18.

Item 46 (Rich Schroeppel): The most *probable* suit
distribution in bridge hands is 4-4-3-2, as compared to 4-3-3-3,
which is the most *evenly* distributed.  This is because the
world likes to have unequal numbers: a thermodynamic effect saying
things will not be in the state of lowest energy, but in the state
of lowest disordered energy.

Item 81 (Rich Schroeppel): Count the magic squares of order 5
(that is, all the 5-by-5 arrangements of the numbers from 1 to 25
such that all rows, columns, and diagonals add up to the same
number).  There are about 320 million, not counting those that
differ only by rotation and reflection.

Item 154 (Gosper): The myth that any given programming language is
machine independent is easily exploded by computing the sum of
powers of 2.  If the result loops with period = 1 with sign +, you
are on a sign-magnitude machine.  If the result loops with period =
1 at -1, you are on a twos-complement machine.  If the
result loops with period greater than 1, including the beginning,
you are on a ones-complement machine.  If the result loops with
period greater than 1, not including the beginning, your machine
isn't binary --- the pattern should tell you the base.  If you run
out of memory, you are on a string or bignum system.  If arithmetic
overflow is a fatal error, some fascist pig with a read-only mind
is trying to enforce machine independence.  But the very ability to
trap overflow is machine dependent.  By this strategy, consider the
universe, or, more precisely, algebra: Let X = the sum of many
powers of two = ...111111 Now add X to itself: X + X = ...111110
Thus, 2X = X - 1, so X = -1.  Therefore algebra is run on a machine
(the universe) that is two's-complement.

Item 174 (Bill Gosper and Stuart Nelson): 21963283741 is the only
number such that if you represent it on the {PDP-10} as both an
integer and a floating-point number, the bit patterns of the two
representations are identical.

Item 176 (Gosper): The "banana phenomenon" was encountered when
processing a character string by taking the last 3 letters typed
out, searching for a random occurrence of that sequence in the
text, taking the letter following that occurrence, typing it out,
and iterating.  This ensures that every 4-letter string output
occurs in the original.  The program typed BANANANANANANANA....  We
note an ambiguity in the phrase, "the Nth occurrence of."  In one
sense, there are five 00's in 0000000000; in another, there are
nine.  The editing program TECO finds five.  Thus it finds only the
first ANA in BANANA, and is thus obligated to type N next.  By
Murphy's Law, there is but one NAN, thus forcing A, and thus a
loop.  An option to find overlapped instances would be useful,
although it would require backing up N-1 characters before seeking
the next N character string.

HAKMEM also contains some rather more complicated mathematical and
technical items, but these examples show some of its fun flavor.

hakspek: /hak'speek/ n. Generally used term to describe a method of
spelling to be found on many British academic bulletin boards and
{talker system}s.  Syllables and whole words in a sentence are
replaced by single ASCII characters the names of which are
phonetically similar or equivalent, whilst multiple letters are
usually dropped.  Hence, for' becomes 4'; two', too', and to'
become 2'; ck' becomes k'.  "Before I see you tomorrow"
becomes "b4 i c u 2moro".  First appeared in London about 1986,
and was probably caused by the slow speed of available talker
systems, which operated on archaic machines with outdated operating
systems, and no standard methods of communication.  Has become

hamster: [Fairchild] n. A particularly slick little piece of code
that does one thing well; a small, self-contained hack.  The image
is of a hamster happily spinning its exercise wheel.

hand-hacking: n. 1. The practice of translating {hot spot}s
from an {HLL} into hand-tuned assembler, as opposed to trying to
coerce the compiler into generating better code.  Both the term and
the practice are becoming uncommon.  See {tune}, {bum}; syn.
with v. {cruft}.  2. More generally, manual construction or
patching of data sets that would normally be generated by a
translation utility and interpreted by another program, and aren't
really designed to be read or modified by humans.

handshaking: n. Hardware or software activity designed to start or
keep two machines or programs in synchronization as they {do
protocol}.  Often applied to human activity; thus, a hacker might
watch two people in conversation nodding their heads to indicate
that they've heard each others' points and say "Oh, they're

handwave: [poss. from gestures characteristic of stage magicians]
1. v. To gloss over a complex point; to distract a listener; to
support a (possibly actually valid) point with blatantly faulty
logic.  2. n. The act of handwaving.  "Boy, what a handwave!"

If someone starts a sentence with "Clearly..." or
"Obviously..." or "It is self-evident that...", it is
a good bet he is about to handwave (alternatively, use of these
constructions in a sarcastic tone before a paraphrase of someone
else's argument suggests that it is a handwave).  The theory behind
this term is that if you wave your hands at the right moment, the
listener may be sufficiently distracted to not notice that what you
have said is {bogus}.  Failing that, if a listener does object,
you might try to dismiss the objection with a wave of your hand.

The use of this word is often accompanied by gestures: both hands
up, palms forward, swinging the hands in a vertical plane pivoting
at the elbows and/or shoulders (depending on the magnitude of the
handwave); alternatively, holding the forearms in one position
while rotating the hands at the wrist to make them flutter.  In
context, the gestures alone can suffice as a remark; if a speaker
makes an outrageously unsupported assumption, you might simply wave
your hands in this way, as an accusation, far more eloquent than
words could express, that his logic is faulty.

hang: v. 1. More commonly, to wait for an event that will never
occur.  "The system is hanging because it can't read from the
crashed drive".  See {wedged}, {hung}.  2. To wait for some
event to occur; to hang around until something happens.  "The
program displays a menu and then hangs until you type a
character."  Compare {block}.  3. To attach a peripheral
device, esp. in the construction hang off'.  "We're going to
hang another tape drive off the file server".  Implies a device
attached with cables, rather than something that's strictly inside
the machine's chassis.

Hanlon's Razor: prov. A corollary of {Murphy's Law} similar to
Occam's Razor that reads "Never attribute to malice that which can
be adequately explained by stupidity."  The derivation of the
common title Hanlon's Razor is unknown; a similar epigram has been
attributed to William James.  Quoted here because it seems to be a
particular favorite of hackers, often showing up in {fortune
networks.  This probably reflects the hacker's daily experience of
environments created by the well-intentioned but shortsighted.

hardcoded: adj. 1. Data inserted directly into a program, where
it cannot be easily modified, as opposed to data in some
{profile}, resource (see {de-rezz} sense #2), or environment
variable that a {user} or hacker can easily modify.  2. In C,
this is esp. applied to use of a literal instead of a
#define' macro (see {magic number}).

hardwarily: /hard-weir'i-lee/ adv. In a way pertaining to hardware.
"The system is hardwarily unreliable."  The adjective
hardwary' is *not* used.  See {softwarily}.

hardwired: adj. 1. In software, syn. for {hardcoded}.  2. By
extension, anything that is not modifiable, especially in the sense
of customizable to one's particular needs or tastes.

has the X nature: [seems to derive from Zen Buddhist koans of the
form "Does an X have the Buddha-nature?"] adj. Common hacker
construction for is an X', used for humorous emphasis.  "Anyone
who can't even use a program with on-screen help embedded in it
truly has the {loser} nature!"

hash bucket: n. A notional receptacle into which more than one
thing accessed by the same key or short code might be dropped.
This is used as techspeak with respect to code that uses actual
hash functions; in jargon, it is used for human associative memory
as well.  Thus, two things "in the same hash bucket" may be
confused with each other.  Compare {hash collision}.

hash collision: [from the technical usage] n. (var. hash
clash') When used of people, signifies a confusion in associative
memory or imagination, especially a persistent one (see
{thinko}).  True story: one of us [ESR] was once on the phone
with a friend about to move out to Berkeley.  When asked what he
expected Berkeley to be like, the friend replied "Well, I have
this mental picture of naked women throwing Molotov cocktails, but
I think that's just a collision in my hash tables."  Compare
{hash bucket}.

HCF: /aych-see-eff/ n. Mnemonic for Halt and Catch Fire', any of
several undocumented and semi-mythical machine instructions with
destructive side-effects, supposedly included for test purposes on
several well-known architectures going as far back as the IBM 360.
The MC6800 microprocessor was the first for which the HCF opcode
became widely known.  This instruction caused the processor to
{toggle} a subset of the bus lines as rapidly as it can; in some
configurations this can actually cause lines to burn up.

{hack mode} and {larval stage}, although it's not confined to
fledgling hackers.

heartbeat: n. 1. The signal emitted by a Level 2 Ethernet
transceiver at the end of every packet to show that the
collision-detection circuit is still connected.  2. A periodic
synchronization signal used by software or hardware, such as a bus
clock or a periodic interrupt.  3. The natural' oscillation
frequency of a computer's clock crystal, before frequency division
down to the machine's clock rate.  4. A signal emitted at regular
intervals by software to demonstrate that it's still alive.
Sometimes hardware is designed to reboot the machine if it stops

heavy metal: [Cambridge] n. Syn. {big iron}.

heavy wizardry: n. Code or designs which trade on a particularly
intimate knowledge or experience of a particular operating system
or language or complex application interface.  Distinguished from
{deep magic}, which trades more on arcane *theoretical*
knowledge.  Writing device drivers is heavy wizardry; so is
interfacing to {X} (sense #2) without a toolkit.  Esp. found in
comments similar to "Heavy wizardry begins here...".  Compare
{voodoo programming}.

featureful, but costly.  Esp. used of communication protocols,
language designs, and any sort of implementation in which maximum
generality and/or ease of implementation has been pushed at the
expense of mundane considerations like speed, memory utilization,
and start-up time.  {EMACS} is a heavyweight editor; {X} is an
extremely' heavyweight window system.  This term isn't
pejorative, but one man's heavyweight is another's {elephantine}
and a third's {monstrosity}.  Oppose lightweight'.

heisenbug: /hie'zen-buhg/ [from Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle in
quantum physics] n. A bug that disappears or alters its behavior
when one attempts to probe or isolate it.  Antonym of {Bohr bug}.
In C, 9 out of 10 heisenbugs result from either {fandango on core}
phenomena (esp. lossage related to corruption of the malloc
{arena}) or errors that {smash the stack}.

Helen Keller mode: n. State of a hardware or software system that
is deaf, dumb, and blind, i.e. accepting no input and generating no
output, usually due to an infinite loop or some other excursion
into {deep space}.  (Unfair to the real Helen Keller, whose
flatline}, {catatonic}.

hello, sailor!: interj. Occasional West Coast equivalent of
{hello, world}; seems to have originated at SAIL, later
associated with the game {Zork} (which also included "hello,
aviator" and "hello, implementor").  Originally from the
traditional hooker's greeting to a swabbie fresh off the boat, of
course.

hello, wall!: excl. See {wall}.

hello, world: interj. 1. The canonical minimal test message in
the C/UNIX universe.  2. Any of the minimal programs that emit
this message. In folklore, the first program a C coder is supposed
to write in a new environment is one that just prints "hello,
world" to standard output (and indeed it is the first example
program in {K&R}).  Environments that generate an unreasonably
large executable for this trivial test or which require a {hairy}
compiler-linker invocation to generate it are considered to
{lose} (see {X}).  2. Greeting uttered by a hacker making an
entrance or requesting information from anyone present.  "Hello,
world!  Is the {VAX} back up yet?"

hex: n. 1. Short for {{hexadecimal}}, base 16.  2. A six-pack
of anything (compare {quad}, sense #2).  Neither usage has
anything to do with {magic} or {black art}, though the pun is
appreciated and occasionally used by hackers.  True story: as a
joke, some hackers once offered some surplused ICs for sale to be
worn as protective amulets against hostile magic.  The chips were,
of course, hex inverters.

hexadecimal:: n. Base 16.  Coined in the early 1960s to replace
earlier sexadecimal', which was too racy and amusing for stuffy
IBM, and later adopted by the rest of the industry.

Actually, neither term is etymologically pure.  If we take binary'
to be paradigmatic, the most etymologically correct term for
base 10, for examples, is denary' (compare binary'), which
comes from deni' (ten at a time, ten each), a Latin distributive'
number; the corresponding term for base-16 would be something like
sendenary'.  Decimal' is from an ordinal number; the
corresponding prefix for six would imply something like
sextidecimal'.  The sexa-' prefix is Latin but incorrect in this
context and hexa-' is Greek.  The word octal' is similarly
incorrect; correct forms would be octaval' (to go with decimal),
or octonary' (to go with binary).  If anyone ever implements a
base-3 computer, computer scientists will be faced with the
unprecedented dilemma of a choice between two *correct* forms;
both ternary' and trinary' have a claim to this throne.

hexit: /hek'sit/ n. A hexadecimal digit (0--9, and A--F or a--f).
Used by people who claim that there are only *ten* digits,
dammit; sixteen-fingered human beings are rather rare, regardless
of what some keyboard designs might seem to imply (see

hidden flag: [scientific computation] n. An extra option added to a
routine without changing the calling sequence.  For example,
to give extra diagnostic output, the programmer might just add a
test for some otherwise meaningless feature of the existing inputs,
such as a negative mass.  Liberal use of hidden flags can make a
program very hard to debug and understand.

high bit: [from high order bit'] n. 1. The most significant bit
in a byte.  2. Also meaning most significant part of something
other than a data byte, e.g. "Spare me the whole {saga}, just give

high moby: /hie mohb'ee/ n. The high half of a stock {PDP-10}'s
address space; the other half was of course the low moby.  This
usage has been generalized in a way that has outlasted the
{PDP-10}; for example, at the 1990 Washington D.C. Area Science
Fiction Conclave (Disclave) when a miscommunication resulted in two
separate wakes being held in commemoration of the shutdown of MIT's
last {ITS} machines, the one on the upper floor was dubbed the
high moby and the other the low moby.  All parties involved
{grok}ked this instantly.  See {moby}.

highly: [scientific computation] adv. The preferred modifier for
overstating an understatement.  As in: highly nonoptimal', the
worst possible way to do something; highly nontrivial', either
impossible or requiring a major research project; highly
nonlinear', completely erratic and unpredictable; highly
nontechnical', drivel written for {luser}s, oversimplified to the
point of being misleading or incorrect (compare {drool-proof
paper}).  In other computing cultures, postfixing of {in the
extreme} might be preferred.

hirsute: adj. Occasionally used humorously as a synonym for {hairy}.

HLL: /aych-el-el/ n. [High-Level Language (as opposed to assembler)]
Found primarily in email and news rather than speech.  Rarely, the
variants VHLL' and MLL' are found.  VHLL = Very-High-Level
Language' and is used to describe a {bondage-and-discipline
language} that the speaker happens to like; Prolog and Backus's FP
are often called VHLLs.  MLL' = Medium-Level Language' and is
sometimes used half-jokingly to describe C, alluding to its

hobbit: n. 1. The High Order Bit of a byte; same as the {meta
bit}.  2. The non-ITS name of vad@ai.mit.edu (*Hobbit*), master
of lasers.

hog: n.,vt. Favored term to describe programs or hardware that seem
to eat far more than their share of a system's resources, esp.
those which noticeably degrade interactive response.  *Not*
used of programs that are simply extremely large or complex or
which are merely painfully slow themselves (see {pig, run like
a}).  More often than not encountered in qualified forms, e.g.
memory hog', core hog', hog the processor', hog
the disk'.  Example: "A controller that never gives up the I/O bus
gets killed after the bus-hog timer expires."

holy wars: [from {USENET}, but may predate it] n. {flame war}s
over {religious issues}.  The paper by Danny Cohen that
popularized the terms {big-endian} and {little-endian} in
connection with the LSB-first/MSB-first controversy was entitled
On Holy Wars and a Plea for Peace'.  Other perennial Holy
Wars have included: {EMACS} vs. {vi}, my personal computer vs.
everyone else's personal computer, {ITS} vs. {UNIX}, {UNIX}
vs. {VMS}, {BSD} UNIX vs. {USG UNIX}, {C} vs. {{Pascal}},
{C} vs. {LISP}, etc. ad nauseam.  The characteristic that
distinguishes {holy wars} from normal technical disputes is that
most participants spend their time trying to pass off personal
value choices and cultural attachments as objective technical

home box: n. A hacker's personal machine, especially one he or she
owns.  "Yeah?  Well, *my* home box runs a full 4.2BSD, so
there!"

hook: n. A software or hardware feature included in order to
simplify later additions or changes by a user.  For example,
a simple program that prints numbers might always print them in
base ten, but a more flexible version would let a variable
determine what base to use; setting the variable to 5 would make
the program print numbers in base five.  The variable is a simple
hook.  An even more flexible program might examine the variable
and treat a value of 16 or less as the base to use, but treat any
other number as the address of a user-supplied routine for printing
a number.  This is a {hairy} but powerful hook; one can then write a
routine to print numbers as Roman numerals, say, or as Hebrew
characters, and plug it into the program through the hook.  Often
the difference between a good program and a superb one is that the
latter has useful hooks in judiciously chosen places.  Both may do
the original job about equally well, but the one with the hooks is
much more flexible for future expansion of capabilities ({EMACS},
for example, is *all* hooks).  The term user exit' is
synonymous but much more formal and less hackish.

hop: n. One file transmission in a series required to get a file
from point A to point B on a store-and-forward network.  On such
networks (including {UUCPNET} and {FidoNet}), the important
inter-machine metric is the number of hops in the shortest path
between them, rather than their geographical separation.  See
{bang path}.

hose: 1. vt. To make non-functional or greatly degraded in
performance, as in "That big ray-tracing program really hoses the
system."  See {hosed}.  2. n. A narrow channel through which
data flows under pressure.  Generally denotes data paths that
represent performance bottlenecks.  3. n. Cabling, especially
thick Ethernet cable.  This is sometimes called bit hose' or
hosery' (play on hosiery') or etherhose'.  See also
{washing machine}.

hosed: adj. Same as {down}.  Used primarily by UNIX hackers.
Humorous: also implies a condition thought to be relatively easy to
reverse.  Probably derived from the Canadian slang hoser'
popularized by the Bob and Doug Mackenzie skits on SCTV.  See
{hose}.  It is also widely used of people in the mainstream sense
of in an extremely unfortunate situation'.

Once upon a time, a Cray which had been experiencing periodic
difficulties crashed, and it was announced to have been hosed.
It was discovered that the crash was due to the disconnection of
some coolant hoses.  The problem was corrected, and users were then
assured that everything was OK because the system had been rehosed.

hot spot: n. 1. [primarily C/UNIX programmers, but spreading] It
is received wisdom that in most programs, less than 10% of the code
eats 90% of the execution time; if one were to graph instruction
visits versus code addresses, one would typically see a few huge
spikes amidst a lot of low-level noise.  Such spikes are called
hot spots' and are good candidates for heavy optimization or
{hand-hacking}.  The term is especially used of tight loops and
recursions in the code's central algorithm, as opposed to (say)
initial set-up costs or large but infrequent I/O operations.  See
{tune}, {bum}, {hand-hacking}.  2. The active location of a
cursor on a bit-map display.  "Put the mouse's hot spot on the
ON' widget and click the left button."  3. In a massively
parallel computer with shared memory, the one location that all ten
thousand processors are trying to read or write at once (perhaps
because they are all doing a {busy-wait} on the same lock).

house wizard: [prob. from ad-agency lingo, house freak'] n. A
hacker occupying a technical-specialist, R&D, or systems position
at a commercial shop.  A really effective house wizard can have
influence out of all proportion to his/her ostensible rank and
still not have to wear a suit.  Used esp. of UNIX wizards.  The
term house guru' is equivalent.

HP-SUX: /aych pee suhx/ n. Unflattering hackerism for HP-UX,
Hewlett-Packard's UNIX port.  Features some truly unique bogosities
in the filesystem internals and elsewhere that occasionally create
portability problems.  HP-UX is often referred to as "hockey-pux"
inside HP, and one respondent claims that the proper pronunciation
is /aych-pee ukkkhhhh/ as though one were spitting.  Another such
alternate spelling and pronunciation is "H-PUX" /aych-puhks/.
Hackers at HP/Apollo (the former Apollo Computer that was swallowed
by HP in 1989) have been heard to complain that Mr. Packard should
have pushed to have his name first, if for no other reason than the
greater eloquence of the resulting acronym.  Compare {buglix}.

huff: v. To compress data using a Huffman code.  Various programs
that use such methods have been called HUFF' or some variant
thereof.  Oppose {puff}.  Compare {crunch}, {compress}.

humma: excl. A filler word used on various chat' and talk'
programs when you had nothing to say but felt that it was important
to say something.  The word apparently originated (at least with
this definition) on the MECC Timeshare System (MTS, a now-defunct
educational time-sharing system running in Minnesota during the
1970s and early '80s) but was later sighted on early UNIX systems.

Humor, Hacker:: n. A distinctive style of shared intellectual humor
found among hackers, having the following distinctive
characteristics:

1) Fascination with form-vs.-content jokes, paradoxes, and humor
having to do with confusion of metalevels (see {meta}).  One way
to make a hacker laugh: hold an red index card in front of him/her
with "GREEN" written on it, or vice-versa (note, however, that
this is only funny the first time).

2) Elaborate deadpan parodies of large intellectual constructs such
as specifications (see {write-only memory}), standards documents,
language descriptions (see {INTERCAL}), and even entire scientific
theories (see {quantum bogodynamics}, {computron}).

3) Jokes that involve screwily precise reasoning from bizarre,
ludicrous, or just grossly counter-intuitive premises.

4) Fascination with puns and wordplay.

5) A fondness for apparently mindless humor with subversive
currents of intelligence in it, for example: old Warner Brothers
and Rocky & Bullwinkle cartoons, The Marx Brothers, the early
B-52s, and Monty Python's Flying Circus.  Humor which combines this
trait with elements of high camp and slapstick is especially
favored.

6) References to the symbol-object antinomies and associated ideas
in Zen Buddhism and (less often) Taoism.  See {has the X nature},
{Discordianism}, {zen}, {ha ha only serious}, {AI koans}.

itchy feeling that all six of these traits are really aspects of
one thing that is incredibly difficult to talk about exactly, you
are (a) correct and (b) responding like a hacker.  These traits are
also recognizable (though in a less marked form) throughout
{{Science-Fiction Fandom}}.

hung: [from hung up'] adj. Equivalent to {wedged}. but more
common at UNIX/C sites.  Not generally used of people.  Syn. with
A hung state is distinguished from {crash}ed or {down}, where the
program or system is also unusable but because it is not running
rather than because it is waiting for something.  However, the
recovery from both situations is often the same.

hungry puppy: n. Syn. {slopsucker}.

hungus: /huhng'g*s/ [perhaps related to slang humungous'] adj.
Large, unwieldy, usually unmanageable.  "TCP is a hungus piece of
code."  "This is a hungus set of modifications."

hyperspace: (hie'per-spays) n. A memory location that is *far*
away from where the program counter should be pointing, often
inaccessible because it is not even mapped in.  "Another core
dump... looks like the program jumped off to hyperspace
somehow", (compare {jump off into never-never land}).  This
usage is from the SF notion of a spaceship jumping into
hyperspace', that is, taking a shortcut through higher-dimensional
space --- in other words, bypassing this universe.

= I =
=====

I didn't change anything!: interj. An aggrieved cry often heard as
bugs manifest during a regression test.  The {canonical} reply to
this assertion is "Then it works just the same as it did before,
applications programmers trying to blame an obvious applications
problem on an unrelated systems software change, for example a
divide-by-zero fault after terminals were added to a network.
Usually, their statement is found to be false.  Upon close
questioning, they will admit some major restructuring of the
program that shouldn't have broken anything, in their opinion,
but actually hosed the code completely.

i14y: // n. Abbrev. for interoperability', which is an i'
followed by 14 letters followed by y'.  Used in the {X}
community.  Refers to portability and compatibility of data formats
(even binary ones) between different programs or implementations of
the same program on different machines.

i18n: // n. Abbrev. for internationalization', which is
an i' followed by 18 letters followed by n'.  Used in the {X}
community.

IBM: /ie bee em/ Inferior But Marketable; It's Better Manually;
Insidious Black Magic; It's Been Malfunctioning; Incontinent Bowel
Movement; and a near-{infinite} number of even less complimentary
expansions, including International Business Machines'.  See
{TLA}.  These abbreviations illustrate the considerable antipathy
most hackers have long felt for the industry leader' (see {fear
and loathing}).

What galls hackers about most IBM machines above the PC level isn't
so much that they're underpowered and overpriced (though that does
count against them), but that the designs are incredibly archaic,
{crufty}, and {elephantine}...and you can't *fix* them
--- source code is locked up tight and programming tools are
expensive, hard to find, and bletcherous to use once you've found
them.  With the release of the UNIX-based RIOS family this may have
begun to change --- but then, we thought that when the PC-RT came
out, too.

In the spirit of universal peace and brotherhood, this lexicon now
includes a number of entries marked IBM'; these derive from some
rampantly unofficial jargon lists circulated within IBM's own
beleaguered hacker underground.

IBM discount: n. A price increase.  Outside IBM, this derives from
the common perception that IBM products are generally overpriced
(see {clone}); inside, it is said to spring from a belief that
large numbers of IBM employees living in an area cause prices to
rise.

ice: [coined by USENETter Tom Maddox, popularized by William
Gibson's cyberpunk SF: acronym, Intrusion Countermeasure
Electronics'] Security software (in Gibson's novels, software that
responds to intrusion by attempting to literally kill the
intruder).  Also, icebreaker': a program designed for cracking
security on a system.  Neither term is in serious use yet as of
mid-1991, but many hackers find the metaphor attractive and both
terms may develop a denotation in the future.

ill-behaved: adj. 1. [numerical analysis] Said of an algorithm or
computational method that tends to blow up due to accumulated
roundoff error or poor convergence properties.  2. Software which
bypasses the defined {OS} interfaces to do things (like screen,
keyboard, and disk I/O) itself, often in a way that depends on the
hardware of the machine it is running on or which is nonportable or
incompatible with other pieces of software.  In the IBM PC/MS-DOS
world, there is a folk theorem (nearly true) to the effect that
(due to gross inadequacies and performance penalties in the OS
{bare metal}. Oppose {well-behaved}, compare {PC-ism}.  See
{mess-dos}.

IMHO: // [from SF fandom via USENET; acronym for In My Humble
Opinion]  Example: "IMHO, mixed-case C names should be avoided, as
mistyping something in the wrong case can cause hard-to-detect
errors --- and they look too Pascalish anyhow."  Also seen in
variant forms such as IMNSHO (In My Not-So-Humble Opinion) and IMAO
(In My Arrogant Opinion).

in the extreme: adj. A preferred superlative suffix for many hackish
terms.  See, for example, obscure in the extreme' under {obscure},
and compare {highly}.

incantation: n. Any particularly arbitrary or obscure command that
must be muttered at a system to attain a desired result.  Not used
of passwords or other explicit security features.  Especially used
of tricks that are so poorly documented they must be learned from a
{wizard}.  E.g. "This compiler normally locates initialized data
in the data segment, but if you {mutter} the right incantation they
will be forced into text space".

include: vt. [USENET] 1. To duplicate a portion (or whole) of
another's message (typically with attribution to the source) in a
reply or followup, for clarifying the context of one's response.
See the section on inclusion styles in the front matter.
2. Derived from C: #include <disclaimer.h>' has appeared
in {sig block}s to refer to a notional standard disclaimer
file'.

include war: n. Excessive multi-leveled including within a
a forum with high-traffic newsgroups, such as USENET, this can lead
to {flame}s and the urge to start a {kill file}.

indent style: [C programmers] n. The rules one uses to indent code
in a readable fashion; a subject of {holy wars}.  There are four
major C indent styles, as described below; all have the aim of
making it easier for the reader to visually track the scope of
control constructs.  The significant variable is the placement of
{' and }' with respect to the statement(s) they
enclose and the guard or controlling statement (if',
else', for', while', or do') on the block,
if any.

K&R style' --- Named after Kernighan & Ritchie, because the
examples in {K&R} are formatted this way.  Also called kernel
style' because the UNIX kernel is written in it, and the One True
Brace Style', abbr. 1TBS, by its partisans.  The basic indent shown
here is 8 spaces (or 1 tab) per level; 4 or 2 is occasionally seen,
but is much less common.

if (cond) {
<body>
}

Allman style' --- Named for Eric Allman, a Berkeley hacker who
wrote a lot of the BSD utilities in it (it is sometimes called
BSD style').  Resembles normal indent style in Pascal and
Algol.  Basic indent per level shown here is 8 spaces, but 4 is
just as common (esp. in C++ code).

if (cond)
{
<body>
}

Whitesmiths style' --- popularized by the examples that came
with Whitesmiths C, an early commercial C compiler.  Basic indent
per level shown here is 8 spaces, but 4 is occasionally seen.

if (cond)
{
<body>
}

GNU style' --- Used throughout GNU EMACS and the Free Software
Foundation code, and just about nowhere else.  Indents are always 4
spaces per level, with {' and }' halfway between the
outer and inner indent levels.

if (cond)
{
<body>
}

Statistically, surveys have shown the Allman and Whitesmiths styles
to be the most common, with about equal mind share.  K&R/1TBS used
to be nearly universal, but is now much less common (the opening
brace tends to get lost against the right paren of the guard part
in an if' or while', which is a {Bad Thing}).
Defenders of 1TBS argue that any putative gain in readability is
less important than their style's relative economy with vertical
space, which enables one to see more code on one's screen at once.
Doubtless these issues will continue to be the subjects of {holy
wars}.

infant mortality: n. It is common lore among hackers that the chances
of sudden hardware failure drop off exponentially with a machine's
time since power-up (that is, until the relatively distant time at
which mechanical wear in I/O devices and thermal-cycling stress in
components has accumulated enough for the machine to start going
senile).  Up to half of all chip-and-wire failures happen within a
new system's first few weeks; such failures are often referred to
as infant mortality' problems (or, occasionally, as sudden
infant death syndrome').  See {bathtub curve}, {burn-in period}.

infinite: adj. Consisting of a large number of objects; extreme.
Used very loosely as in: "This program produces infinite
garbage."  "He is an infinite loser."  The word most likely to
follow infinite', though, is {hair} (it has been pointerd out
that fractals are an excellent example of infinite hair).  These
uses are abuses of the word's mathematical meaning.  The term
"semi-infinite" denoting an immoderately large amount of some
resource is also heard.  "This compiler is taking a semi-infinite

infinity: n. 1. The largest value that can be represented in a
particular type of variable (register, memory location, data type,
whatever).  2. minus infinity': The smallest such value, not
necessarily or even usually the simple negation of plus infinity.
In N-bit twos-complement arithmetic, infinity is 2 ^ (N-1) -
1' but minus infinity is - (2 ^ (N-1))', not -(2 ^
(N-1) - 1)'.  Note also that this is different from time t
equals minus infinity', which is closer to a mathematician's usage
of infinity.

insanely great: adj. [Mac community, from Steve Jobs; also BSD UNIX
people via Bill Joy] Something so incredibly {elegant} that it is
imaginable only to someone possessing the most puissant of
{hacker}-natures.

INTERCAL: /in't*r-kal/ [said by the authors to stand for
Compiler Language With No Pronounceable Acronym'] n. A
computer language designed by Don Woods and James Lyon in 1972.
INTERCAL is purposefully different from all other computer
languages in all ways but one; it is purely a written language,
being totally unspeakable.  An excerpt from the INTERCAL Reference
Manual will make the style of the language clear:

"It is a well-known and oft-demonstrated fact that a person whose
work is incomprehensible is held in high esteem.  For example, if
one were to state that the simplest way to store a value of 65536
in a 32-bit INTERCAL variable is:

DO :1 <- #0$#256 any sensible programmer would say that that was absurd. Since this is indeed the simplest method, the programmer would be made to look foolish in front of his boss, who would of course have happened to turn up, as bosses are wont to do. The effect would be no less devastating for the programmer having been correct." INTERCAL has many other peculiar features designed to make it even more unspeakable. The Woods/Lyons implementation was actually used by many (well, at least several) people at Princeton. The language has been recently re-implemented as C-INTERCAL and is consequently enjoying an unprecedented level of unpopularity; there is even an alt.lang.intercal newsgroup devoted to the study and ... appreciation of the language on USENET. interesting: adj. In hacker parlance, this word is not simply synonymous with intriguing', but has strong connotations of annoying', or difficult', or both. Hackers relish a challenge, and enjoy wringing all the irony possible out of the ancient Chinese curse "May you live in interesting times". Oppose {trivial}, {uninteresting}. Internet address:: [techspeak] n. 1. [techspeak] An absolute network address of the form foo@bar.baz, where foo is a user name, bar is a {sitename}, and baz is a domain' name, possibly including periods itself. Contrasts with {bang path}; see also {network, the} and {network address}. All Internet machines and most UUCP sites can now resolve these addresses, thanks to a large amount of behind-the-scenes magic and PD software written since 1980 or so. See also {bang path}, {domainist}. 2. More loosely, any network address reachable through Internet; this includes {bang path} addresses and some internal corporate and government networks. Reading Internet addresses is something of an art. Here are the four most important top-level functional Internet domains followed by a selection of geographical domains: com Commercial organizations. edu Educational institutions. gov U.S. government civilian sites. mil U.S. military sites. Note that most of the sites in the com and edu domains are in the U.S. or Canada. us Sites in the U.S. outside the functional domains. su Sites in the Soviet Union (only one really active one so far!). uk Sites in the United Kingdom. Within the us' domain there are subdomains for the fifty states, generally with a name identical to the state's postal abbreviation. Within the uk' domain there is an ac' subdomain for academic sites and a co' domain for commercial ones. Other top-level domains may be divided up in similar ways. interrupt: 1. [techspeak] n. On a computer, an event that interrupts normal processing and temporarily diverts flow-of-control through an "interrupt handler" routine. See also {trap}. 2. interj. A request for attention from a hacker. Often explicitly spoken. "Interrupt --- have you seen Joe recently?". See {priority interrupt}. 3. Under MS-DOS, the term interrupt' is nearly synonymous with system call', because the OS and BIOS routines are both called using the INT instruction (see {{interrupt list, the}}) and because programmers so often have to bypass the OS (going directly to a BIOS interrupt) to get reasonable performance. interrupt list, the:: [MSDOS] n. The list of all known software interrupt calls (both documented and undocumented) for IBM PCs and compatibles maintained and made available for free redistribution by Ralf Brown (ralf@cs.cmu.edu). As of early 1991, it had grown to approximately 1 megabyte in length. interrupts locked out: adj. When someone is ignoring you. In a restaurant, after several fruitless attempts to get the waitress's attention, a hacker might well observe that "She must have interrupts locked out." The synonym interrupts disabled' is also common. Variations of this abound; "to have one's interrupt mask bit set" or "interrupts masked out"is also heard. See also {spl}. iron: n. Hardware, especially older/larger hardware of {mainframe} class with big metal cabinets housing relatively low-density electronics (but also used of modern supercomputers). Often in the phrase {big iron}. Oppose {silicon}. See also {dinosaur}. Iron Age: n. In the history of computing, 1961--1971 --- the formative era of commercial {mainframe} technology, when {big iron} {dinosaur}s ruled the earth (the hackish metaphors for the era aren't quite paleontologically correct). These began with the delivery of the first PDP-1, coincided with the dominance of ferrite {core}, and ended with the introduction of the first commercial microprocessor (the Intel 4004) in 1971. See also {Stone Age}. iron box: [UNIX/Internet] n. A special environment set up to trap a {cracker} logging in over remote connections long enough to be traced. May include a modified {shell} restricting the hacker's movements in unobvious ways, and bait' files designed to keep him interested and logged on. See also {back door}, {firewall machine}, {Venus flytrap}, and Clifford Stoll's account in Cuckoo's Egg' of how he made and used one (see Appendix C). ironmonger: [IBM] n. Derogatory. A hardware specialist. Compare {sandbender}, {polygon pusher}. ITS: /ie-tee-ess/ n. 1. Incompatible Time-sharing System, an influential but highly idiosyncratic operating system written for PDP-10s at MIT and long used at the MIT AI lab; much AI-hacker jargon derives from ITS folklore. After about 1982, most actual work was shifted to newer machines, with the remaining ITS boxes run essentially as a hobby and service to the hacker community. The shutdown of the lab's last ITS machine in May 1990 marked the end of an era and sent old-time hackers into mourning nationwide (see {high moby}). The Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden is maintaining one live' ITS site at its computer museum (right next to the only TOPS-10 system still on the Internet), so ITS is still alleged to hold the record for OS in longest continuous use'. See Appendix A. 2. A mythical image of operating system perfection worshipped by a bizarre, fervent retro-cult of old-time hackers and ex-users (see {troglodyte}, sense #2). ITS worshippers manage somehow to continue believing that an OS that supported only character I/O and monocase 6-character filenames in one directory per account remains superior to today's state of commercial art (their venom against UNIX is particularly intense). See also {holy wars}, {Weenix}. IWBNI: // [acronym] It Would Be Nice If. Compare {WIBNI}. IYFEG: // [USENET] Abbreviation for Insert Your Favorite Ethnic Group'. Used as a meta-name when telling racist jokes on the net to avoid offending anyone. See {JEDR}. = J = ===== J. Random: /jay rand'm/ n. [generalized from {J. Random Hacker}] Arbitrary; ordinary; any one; any old'. J. Random' is often prefixed to a noun to make a name out of it. It means roughly some particular' or any specific one'. "Would you let J. Random Loser marry your daughter?". The most common uses are J. Random Hacker', J. Random Loser' and J. Random Nerd' ("Should J. Random Loser be allowed to {gun} down other people?"), but it can be used simply as an elaborate version of {random} in any sense. J. Random Hacker: [MIT] /jay rand'm hak'r/ n. A mythical figure like the Unknown Soldier; the archetypal hacker nerd. See {random}, {Suzie COBOL}. This may originally have been inspired or influenced by J. Fred Muggs', a show-biz chimpanzee whose name was a household word back in the early days of the MIT Model Railroad Club. jaggies: /jag'eez/ n. The stairstep' effect observable when an edge (esp. a linear edge of shallow or steep slope) is rendered on a pixel device (as opposed to a vector display). JCL: n. 1. IBM's supremely {rude} Job Control Language'. JCL is the script language used to control the execution of programs in IBM's batch systems. JCL has a very {fascist} syntax, and some versions will, for example, {barf} if two spaces appear where it expects one. Most programmers confronted with JCL simply copy a working file (or card deck), changing the file names. Someone who actually understands and generates unique JCL is regarded with the mixed respect which one gives to someone who memorizes the phone book. It is reported that hackers at IBM itself sometimes sing "I-B-M, J-C-L, M-o-u-s-e" to the tune of the Mickey Mouse Club theme to express their opinion of the beast (think about the original lyrics). 2. Any very {rude} software that a hacker is expected to use. "That's as bad as JCL." As with {COBOL}, JCL is often used as an archetype of ugliness even by those who haven't experienced it. See also {IBM}, {fear and loathing}. JEDR: n. Synonymous with {IYFEG}. At one time, the rec.humor.funny newsgroup on USENET tended to use JEDR' instead of {IYFEG} or <ethnic>'; this stemmed from a nearly successful attempt to kill the group once made by a loser with initials JEDR after he was offended by an ethnic joke posted there (the practice was {retcon}ned by the expanding these initials as Joke Ethnic/Denomination/Race'). After much sound and fury JEDR faded away; this term appears to be doing likewise. JFCL: /jif'kl/ or /jaf'kl/ vt., obs. (alt. jfcl') To cancel or annul something. "Why don't you jfcl that out?" The fastest do-nothing instruction on older models of the PDP-10 happened to be JFCL, which stands for "Jump if Flag set and then CLear the flag"; this does something useful, but is a very fast no-operation if no flag is specified. Geoff Goodfellow, one of the jargon-1 co-authors, has long had JFCL on the license plate of his BMW. Usage: rare except among old-time PDP-10 hackers. JRST: /jerst/ [based on the PDP-10 jump instruction] v., obs. To suddenly change subjects, with no intention of returning to the previous topic.. Usage: rather rare except among PDP-10 diehands, and considered silly. See also {AOS}. jiffy: n. 1. The duration of one tick of the system clock on the computer (see {tick}). Often 1 AC cycle time (1/60 second in the U.S. and Canada, 1/50 most other places) but more recently 1/100 sec has become common. "The swapper runs every 6 jiffies" means that the virtual memory management routine is executed once for every 6 ticks of the clock, or about 10 times a second. 2. Confusingly, the term is sometimes also used for a 1-millisecond {wall time} interval. 3. Indeterminate time from a few seconds to forever. "I'll do it in a jiffy" means certainly not now and possibly never. This is a bit contrary to the more widespread use of the word. Oppose {nano}. See also {Real Soon Now}. job security: n. When some piece of code is written in a particularly {obscure} fashion, and no good reason (such as time or space optimization) can be discovered, it is often said that the programmer was attempting to increase his job security (i.e., by making himself indispensable for maintenance). This sour joke seldom has to be said in full; if two hackers are looking over some code together and one points at a section and says job security', the other one may just nod. jock: n. 1. Programmer who is characterized by large and somewhat brute-force programs. See {brute force}. 2. When modified by another noun, describes a specialist in some particular computing area. The compounds compiler jock' and systems jock' seem to be the best established examples of this. joe code: /joh' kohd/ n. 1. Code that is overly {tense} and unmaintainable. "{Perl} may be a handy program, but if you look at the source, it's complete joe code." 2. Badly written, possibly buggy. Correspondents wishing to remain anonymous have fingered a particular Joe at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and observed that usage has drifted slightly; the original sobriquet Joe code' was intended in sense #1. JR[LN]: /jay ahr en/, /jay ahr el/ n. The names JRN and JRL were sometimes used as example names when discussing a kind of user ID used under {TOPS-10}; they were understood to be the initials of (fictitious) programmers named J. Random Nerd' and J. Random Loser' (see {J. Random}). For example, if one said "To log in, type log one comma jay are en" (that is, "log 1,JRN"), the listener would have understood that he should use his own computer id in place of JRN'. juggling eggs: vi. Keeping a lot of {state} in your head while modifying a program. "Don't bother me now, I'm juggling eggs", meaning an interrupt is likely to result in the program being scrambled. See {hack mode}. jump off into never-never land: [from J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan'] v. Same as {branch to Fishkill}, but more common in technical cultures associated with non-IBM computers that use the term jump' rather than branch'. Compare {hyperspace}. = K = ===== K: /kay/ [from {kilo-}] n. A kilobyte. This is used both as a spoken word and a written suffix (like {meg} and {gig} for megabyte and gigabyte). The formal SI metric prefix for 1000 is k'; some use this strictly, reserving K' for multiplication by 1024 (KB is kilobytes'). See also {{quantifiers}}. K&R: [Kernighan and Ritchie] n. Brian Kernighan & Dennis Ritchie's The C Programming Language', esp. the classic and influential first edition (Prentice-Hall 1978, ISBN 0-113-110163-3). Syn. {White Book}, {Old Testament}. See also {New Testament}. kahuna: /k*-hoo'nuh/ [IBM, from the Hawaiian title for a shaman] n. Synonym for {wizard}, {guru}. kamikaze packet: n. The official' jargon for what is more commonly called a {Christmas tree packet}. RFC1025, TCP and IP Bake Off' says: 10 points for correctly being able to process a "Kamikaze" packet (AKA nastygram, christmas tree packet, lamp test segment, et al.). That is, correctly handle a segment with the maximum combination of features at once (e.g., a SYN URG PUSH FIN segment with options and data). See also {Chernobyl packet}. ken: /ken/ n. 1. [UNIX] Ken Thompson, principal inventor of UNIX. In the early days he used to hand-cut distribution tapes, often with a note that read "Love, ken." Old-timers still use his first name (sometimes uncapitalized) in third-person reference; it is widely understood (on USENET, in particular) that without a last name Ken' refers only to Ken Thompson. Similarly, Dennis without last name means Dennis Ritchie. See also {net.god}, {UNIX}. 2. A flaming user. This was originated by the Software Support group at Symbolics because the two greatest flamers in the user community were both named Ken. kgbvax: /kay-jee-bee-vaks/ n. See {kremvax}. kill file: [USENET] n. (alt. KILL file') Per-user file(s) used by some {USENET} reading programs (originally Larry Wall's rn(1)') to discard summarily (without presenting for reading) articles which match some particularly uninteresting (or unwanted) patterns of subject, author, or other header lines. Thus to "add a person (or subject) to one's kill file" is to arrange for that person to be ignored by one's newsreader in future. By extension, it may be used for a decision to ignore the person or subject in other media. See also {plonk}. killer micro: [popularized by Eugene Brooks] n. A microprocessor-based machine that infringes on mini, mainframe or supercomputer performance turf. Often heard in "No one will survive the attack of the killer micros!", the battle cry of the downsizers. Used esp. of RISC architectures. killer poke: n. A recipe for inducing hardware damage on a machine via insertion of invalid values (see {poke}) in a memory-mapped control register; used esp. of various fairly well-known tricks on MMU-less {bitty box}es like the IBM PC and Commodore PET that can overload and trash analog electronics in the monitor. See also {HCF}. kilo-: pref. See {{quantifiers}}. KIPS: [acronym, by analogy with {MIPS} using {K}] n. Thousands (*not* 1024s) of Instructions Per Second. Usage: rare. KISS Principle: n. "Keep It Simple, Stupid". A maxim often invoked when discussing design to fend off {creeping featurism} and control development complexity. Possibly related to the {marketroid} maxim on sales presentations, "Keep It Short and Simple". kit: [USENET] n. A source software distribution that has been packaged in such a way that it can (theoretically) be unpacked and installed according to a series of steps using only standard UNIX tools, and entirely documented by some reasonable chain of references from the top-level {README file}. The more general term {distribution} may imply that special tools or more stringent conditions on the host environment are required. kluge: /klooj/ alt. kludge /kluhj/ [from the German klug', clever; /klooj/ is the original pronunciation, more common in the US; /kluhj/ is reported more common in England. A plurality of hackers pronounce this word /klooj/ but spell it incorrectly as kludge' (compare the pronunciation drift of {mung}). Some observers consider this appropriate in view of its meaning.] 1. n. A Rube Goldberg (or Heath Robinson) device in hardware or software. (A long-ago {Datamation} article by Jackson Granholme said: "An ill-assorted collection of poorly matching parts, forming a distressing whole.") 2. n. A clever programming trick intended to solve a particular nasty case in an expedient, if not clear, manner. Often used to repair bugs. Often involves {ad-hockery} and verges on being a {crock}. In fact, the TMRC dictionary defined kludge' as "a crock that works'. 3. n. Something that works for the wrong reason. 4. vt. To insert a kluge into a program. "I've kluged this routine to get around that weird bug, but there's probably a better way." 5. [WPI] n. A feature that is implemented in a {rude} manner. kluge around: vt. To avoid a bug or difficult condition by inserting a {kluge}. Compare {workaround}. kluge up: vt. To lash together a quick hack to perform a task; this is milder than {cruft together} and has some of the connotations of {hack up} (note, however, that the construction kluge on' corresponding to {hack on} is never used). "I've kluged up this routine to dump the buffer contents to a safe place." Knights of the Lambda Calculus: n. A semi-mythical organization of wizardly LISP and Scheme hackers (the name refers to a mathematical formalism invented by Alonzo Church with which LISP is intimately connected). There is no enrollment list and the criteria for induction are unclear, but one well-known LISPer has been known to give out buttons and, in general, the *members* know who they are.... Knuth: [Donald E. Knuth's The Art of Computer Programming'] n. Mythically, the reference that answers all questions about data structures or algorithms. A safe answer when you do not know, as in "I think you can find that in Knuth." Contrast {literature, the}. See also {bible}. kremvax: /krem-vaks/ [from the then large number of {USENET} {VAXen} with names of the form foovax'] n. A fictitious USENET site at the Kremlin, announced on April 1, 1984, in a posting ostensibly originated there by Soviet leader Konstantin Chernenko. The posting was actually forged by Piet Beertema as an April Fool's joke. Other sites mentioned in the hoax were moskvax and {kgbvax}, which now seems to be the one by which it is remembered. This was probably the funniest of the many April Fool's forgeries perpetrated on USENET (which has negligible security against them), because the notion that USENET might ever penetrate the Iron Curtain seemed so totally absurd at the time. In fact, it was only 6 years later that the first genuine site in Moscow, demos.su, joined USENET. Some readers needed convincing that it wasn't another prank. Vadim Antonov (avg@hq.demos.su), the major poster from Moscow up to at least the end of 1990, was quite aware of all this, referred to it frequently in his own postings, and at one point twitted some credulous readers by blandly admitting that he *was* a hoax! [Mr. Antonov also contributed the Russian-language material for this File --- ESR] = L = ===== lace card: n. obs. A {{punched card}} with all holes punched (also called a whoopee card'). Card readers jammed when they got to one of these, as the resulting card had too little structural strength to avoid buckling inside the mechanism. Card punches could also jam trying to produce these things due to power-supply problems. When some practical joker fed a lace card through the reader, you needed to clear the jam with a card knife' --- which you used on the joker first. language lawyer: n. A person, usually an experienced or senior software engineer, who is intimately familiar with many or most of the numerous restrictions and features (both useful and esoteric) applicable to one or more computer programming languages. A language lawyer is distinguished by the ability to show you the five sentences scattered throughout a 200-plus page manual which together imply the answer to your question "if only you had thought to look there". Compare {wizard}, {legal}, {legalese}. languages of choice: n. {C} and {LISP}. Essentially all hackers know one of these and most good ones are fluent in both. Smalltalk and Prolog are also popular in small but influential communities. There is also a rapidly dwindling category of older hackers with FORTRAN, or even assembler, as their language of choice. They often prefer to be known as <real programmer>s, and other hackers consider them a bit odd (see The Story of Mel, a Real Programmer' in Appendix A). Assembler is generally no longer considered interesting or appropriate for anything but HLL implementation, glue, and a few time-critical and hardware-specific uses in systems programs. FORTRAN occupies a shrinking niche in scientific programming. Most hackers tend to frown at languages like {{Pascal}} and {{Ada}} which don't give them the near-total freedom considered necessary for hacking (see {bondage-and-discipline language}), and to regard everything that's even remotely connected with {COBOL} or other traditional {card walloper} languages as a total {loss}. larval stage: n. Describes a period of monomaniacal concentration on coding apparently passed through by all fledgling hackers. Common symptoms include: the perpetration of more than one 36-hour {hacking run} in a given week, neglect of all other activities including usual basics like food, sleep, and personal hygiene, and a chronic case of advanced bleary-eye. Can last from six months to two years, with the apparent median being around eighteen months. A few so afflicted never resume a more normal' life, but the ordeal seems to be necessary to produce really wizardly (as opposed to merely competent) programmers. See also {wannabee}. A less protracted and intense version of larval stage (typically lasting about a month) may recur when learning a new {OS} or programming language. lase: /layz/ vt. To print a given document via a laser printer. "OK, let's lase that sucker and see if all those graphics-macro calls did the right things." laser chicken: n. Kung Pao Chicken, a standard Chinese dish containing chicken, peanuts, and hot red peppers in a spicy pepper-oil sauce. Many hackers call it laser chicken' for two reasons; it can {zap} you just like a laser, and the sauce has a red color reminiscent of some laser beams. In a variation on this theme, it is reported that one group of Australian hackers have redesignated the common dish lemon chicken' as Chernobyl Chicken'. The name is derived from the color of the sauce, which is considered bright enough to glow in the dark (mythically, like some of the inhabitants of Chernobyl). laundromat: n. Syn. {disk farm}; see {washing machine}. LDB: /l*'d*b/ [from the PDP-10 instruction set] vt. To extract from the middle. "LDB me a slice of cake, please" This usage has been kept alive by Common LISP's function of the same name. See also {DPB}. leaf site: n. A machine that merely originates and reads USENET news or mail, and does not relay any third-party traffic. Often uttered in a critical tone; when the ratio of leaf sites to backbone, rib, and other relay sites gets too high, the network tends to develop bottlenecks. Compare {backbone site}, {rib site}. leak: n. With qualifier, one of a class of resource-management bugs that occur when resources are not freed properly after operations on them are finished, leading to eventual exhaustion as new allocation requests come in. {memory leak} and {fd leak} have their own entries; one might also refer, say, to a window handle leak' in a window system. leaky heap: [Cambridge] n. Syn. {memory leak}. legal: adj. Loosely used to mean in accordance with all the relevant rules', esp. in connection with some set of constraints defined by software. Thus one very frequently hears constructions like legal syntax', legal input', etc. Hackers often model their work as a sort of game played with the environment in which the objective is to maneuver through the thicket of natural laws' to achieve a desired objective. Their use of legal' is flavored as much by this game-playing sense as by the more conventional one having to do with courts and lawyers. Compare {language lawyer}, {legalese}. legalese: n. Dense, pedantic verbiage in a language description, product specification, or interface standard; text that seems designed to obfuscate and requires a {language lawyer} to {parse} it. While hackers are not afraid of high information density and complexity in language (indeed, they rather enjoy both), they share a deep and abiding loathing for legalese; they associate it with deception, {suit}s, and situations in which hackers generally get the short end of the stick. LER: /el-ee-ar/ [TMRC] n. A light emitting resistor (that is one in the process of burning up). Ohm's law was broken. LERP: /lerp/ vi.,n. Quasi-acronym for Linear Interpolation, used as a verb or noun for the operation. E.g., Bresenham's algorithm lerps incrementally between the two endpoints of the line. let the smoke out: v. To fry hardware (see {fried}). See {magic smoke} for the mythology behind this. lexer: /lek'sr/ n. Common hacker shorthand for lexical analyzer', the input-tokenizing stage in the parser for a language (the part that breaks it into word-like pieces). "Some C lexers get confused by the old-style compound ops like =-'". life: n. 1. A cellular-automata game invented by John Horton Conway and first introduced publicly by Martin Gardner (Scientific American, October 1970). Many hackers pass through a stage of fascination with it, and hackers at various places contributed heavily to the mathematical analysis of this game (most notably Bill Gosper at MIT; see {Gosperism}). When a hacker mentions life', he is much more likely to mean this game than the magazine, the breakfast cereal, or the human state of existence. 2. The opposite of {USENET}. As in {Get a life!}. light pipe: n. Fiber optic cable. Oppose {copper}. like kicking dead whales down the beach: adj. A slow, difficult, and disgusting process. First popularized by a famous quote about the difficulty of getting work done under one of IBM's mainframe OSes. "Well, you *could* write a C compiler in COBOL, but it would be like kicking dead whales down the beach." See also {fear and loathing} like nailing jelly to a tree: adj. Used to describe a task thought to be impossible, esp. one in which the difficulty arises from poor specification or inherent slipperiness in the problem domain. line eater, the: [USENET] n. 1. A bug in some now-obsolete versions of the netnews software that used to eat up to BUFSIZ bytes of the article text. The bug was triggered by having the text of the article start with a space or tab. This bug was quickly personified as a mythical creature called the line eater', and postings often included a dummy line of line eater food'. Ironically, line eater food not preceded by whitespace wasn't actually eaten, since the bug was avoided; but if there *was* whitespace before it, then the line eater would eat the food *and* the beginning of the text which it was supposed to be protecting. The practice of sacrificing to the line eater' continued for some time after the bug had been {nailed to the wall}, and is still humorously referred to. The bug itself is still (in mid-1991) occasionally reported to be lurking in some mail-to-netnews gateways. 2. See {NSA line eater}. line starve: [MIT] 1. vi. To feed paper through a printer the wrong way by one line (most printers can't do this). On a display terminal, to move the cursor up to the previous line of the screen. Example: "To print X squared', you just output X', line starve, 2', line feed." (The line starve causes the 2' to appear on the line above the X, and the line feed gets back to the original line.) 2. n. A character (or character sequence) that causes a terminal to perform this action. Unlike line feed', line starve' is *not* standard {{ASCII}} terminology. Even among hackers it is considered a bit silly. 3. [proposed] A sequence like \c (used in System V echo, as well as nroff/troff) that suppresses a {newline} or other character(s) that would normally implicitly be emitted. link farm: [UNIX] n. A directory tree that contains many links to files in another, master directory tree of files. Link farms save space when (for example) one is maintaining several nearly identical copies of the same source tree, e.g. when the only difference is architecture-dependent object files. Example use: "Let's freeze the source and then rebuild the FROBOZZ-3 and FROBOZZ-4 link farms." Link farms may also be used to get around restrictions on the number of -I (include directory) arguments on older C preprocessors. link-dead: [MUD] adj. Said of a {MUD} character who has frozen in place due to a dropped Internet connection. lint: [from UNIX's lint(1)', named perhaps for the bits of fluff it picks from programs] 1. vt. To examine a program closely for style, language usage, and portability problems, esp. if in C, esp. if via use of automated analysis tools, most esp. if the UNIX utility lint(1)' is used. This term used to be restricted to use of lint(1)' itself but (judging by references on USENET) has become a shorthand for {desk check} at some non-UNIX shops, even in languages other than C. See also {delint}. 2. n. Excess verbiage in a document, as in "this draft has too much lint". lion food: [IBM] n. Middle management or HQ staff (by extension, administrative drones in general). From an old joke about two lions who, escaping from the zoo, split up to increase their chances but agreed to meet after two months. When they finally meet, one is skinny and the other overweight. The thin one says "How did you manage? I ate a human just once and they turned out a small army to chase me --- guns, nets, it was terrible. Since then I've been reduced to eating mice, insects, even grass." The fat one replies "Well, *I* hid near an IBM office and ate a manager a day. And nobody even noticed!" LISP: [from LISt Processing language', but mythically from Lots of Irritating Superfluous Parentheses'] n. The name of AI's mother tongue, a language based on the ideas of (a) variable-length lists and trees as fundamental data types, and (b) the interpretation of code as data and vice-versa. Invented by John McCarthy at MIT in the late 1950s, it is actually older than any other {HLL} still in use except FORTRAN. Accordingly, it has undergone considerable adaptive radiation over the years; modern variants are quite different in detail from the original LISP 1.5. The hands-down favorite of a plurality of hackers until the early 1980s, LISP now shares the throne with {C}. See {languages of choice}. All LISP functions and programs are expressions that return values; this, together with the high memory utilization of LISPs, gave rise to Alan Perlis's famous quip (itself a take on an Oscar Wilde quote) that "LISP programmers know the value of everything and the cost of nothing." literature, the: n. Computer science journals and other publications vaguely gestured at to answer a question that the speaker believes is {trivial}. Thus, one might answer an annoying question "It's in the literature." Oppose {Knuth}, which has no connotation of triviality. little-endian: adj. Describes a computer architecture in which, within a given 16- or 32-bit word, bytes at lower addresses have lower significance (the word is stored little-end-first'). The PDP-11 and VAX families of computers and Intel microprocessors and a lot of communications and networking hardware are little-endian. See {big-endian}, {middle-endian}, {NUXI problem}. The term is sometimes used to describe the ordering of units other than bytes; most frequently these are bits within a byte. live data: n. 1. Data which is written to be interpreted and takes over program flow when triggered by some un-obvious operation, such as viewing it. One particular use of such hacks is to break security. For example, some smart terminals have commands that allow one to download strings to program keys; this can be used to write live data' which, when listed to the terminal, infects it with a security-breaking virus' that is triggered the next time a hapless user strikes that key. For another, there are some well-known bugs in vi which allow certain texts to send arbitrary commands back to the machine when they are simply viewed. 2. In C code, data which includes pointers to function {hook}s. 3. An object such as a {trampoline} which is constructed on the fly by a program and intended to be executed as code. Live Free Or Die!: imp. 1. The state motto of New Hampshire, which used to be on its car license plates. 2. A slogan associated with UNIX in the romantic days when UNIX aficionados saw themselves as a tiny, beleaguered underground tilting against the windmills of industry. The "free" referred specifically to freedom from the {fascist} design philosophies and crufty misfeatures common on commercial operating systems. Armando Stettner, one of the early UNIX developers, used to give out fake license plates bearing this motto under a large UNIX, all in New Hampshire colors of green and white. These are now valued collector's items. livelock: n. A situation in which some critical stage of a task is unable to finish because its clients perpetually create more work for it to do after they've been serviced but before it can clear. Differs from {deadlock} in that the process is not blocked or waiting for anything, but has a virtually infinite amount of work to do and accomplishes nothing. liveware: n. Synonym for {wetware}. Less common. lobotomy: n. 1. What a hacker subjected to formal management training is said to have undergone. At IBM and elsewhere this term is used by both hackers and low-level management; the latter doubtless intend it as a joke. 2. The act of removing the processor from a microcomputer in order to replace or upgrade it. Some very cheap {clone} systems are sold in lobotomized' form --- everything but the brain. locked and loaded: [from military slang for an M-16 with magazine inserted and prepared for firing] adj. Said of a removable disk volume properly prepared for use --- that is, locked into the drive and with the heads loaded. Ironically, because their heads are loaded' whenever the power is up, this description is never used of {{Winchester}} drives (which are named after a rifle). locked up: adj. Syn. for {hung}, {wedged}. logic bomb: n. Code surreptitiously inserted in an application or OS which causes it to perform some destructive or security-compromising activity whenever specified conditions are met. Compare {back door}. logical: [from the technical term logical device', wherein a physical device is referred to by an arbitrary logical' name] adj. Having the role of. If a person (say, Les Earnest at SAIL) who has long held a certain post left and was replaced, the replacement would for a while be known as the logical' Les Earnest (this does not imply any judgement on the replacement). Compare {virtual}. At Stanford, logical' compass directions denote a coordinate system in which logical north' is toward San Francisco, logical west' is toward the ocean, etc., even though logical north varies between physical (true) north near San Francisco and physical west near San Jose. (The best rule of thumb here is that, by definition, El Camino Real always runs logical north-and-south.) In giving directions, one might say, "To get to Rincon Tarasco restaurant, get onto {El Camino Bignum} going logical north." Using the word logical' helps to prevent the recipient from worrying about that the fact that the sun is setting almost directly in front of him. The concept is reinforced by North American highways which are almost, but not quite, consistently labelled with logical rather than physical directions. A similar situation exists at MIT. Route 128 (famous for the electronics industry that has grown up along it) is a three-quarters circle surrounding Boston at a radius of ten miles, terminating at the coastline at each end. It would be most precise to describe the two directions along this highway as being clockwise' and counterclockwise', but the road signs all say north' and south', respectively. A hacker might describe these directions as logical north' and logical south', to indicate that they are conventional directions not corresponding to the usual denotation for those words. (If you went logical south along the entire length of route 128, you would start out going northwest, curve around to the south, and finish headed due east!) loop through: vt. To process each element of a list of things. "Hold on, I've got to loop through my paper mail." Derives from the computer-language notion of an iterative loop; compare cdr down' (under {cdr}) which is less common among C and UNIX programmers. ITS hackers used to say IRP over' after an obscure pseudo-op in the MIDAS PDP-10 assembler. lord high fixer: [primarily British, prob. from Gilbert & Sullivan's lord high executioner'] n. The person in an organization who knows the most about some aspect of a system. See {wizard}. lose: [MIT] vi. 1. To fail. A program loses when it encounters an exceptional condition or fails to work in the expected manner. 2. To be exceptionally unesthetic or crocky. 3. Of people, to be obnoxious or unusually stupid (as opposed to ignorant). See also {deserves to lose}. 4. n. Refers to something which is {losing}, especially in the phrases "That's a lose!" or "What a lose!". lose lose: interj. A reply to or comment on an undesirable situation. "I accidentally deleted all my files!" "Lose, lose." loser: n. An unexpectedly bad situation, program, programmer, or person. Someone who habitually loses (even winners can lose occasionally). Someone who knows not and knows not that he knows not. Emphatic forms are real loser', total loser', and complete loser' (but not moby loser', which would be a contradiction in terms). See {luser}. losing: adj. Said of anything which is or causes a {lose} or {lossage}. loss: n. Something (not a person) which loses; a situation in which something is losing. Emphatic forms include moby loss', total loss', complete loss'. Common interjections are "What a loss!" and "What a moby loss!" Note that moby loss' is OK even though moby loser' is not used; applied to an abstract noun, moby is simply a magnifier, whereas when applied to a person it implies substance and has positive connotations. Compare {lossage}. lossage: /los'*j/ n. The result of a bug or malfunction. This is a mass or collective noun. "What a loss!" and "What lossage!" are nearly synonymous remarks. The former is slightly more particular to the speaker's present circumstances while the latter implies a continuing lose of which the speaker is presently victim. Thus (for example) a temporary hardware failure is a loss, but bugs in an important tool (like a compiler) are serious lossage. lost in the noise: adj. Syn. {lost in the underflow}. This term is from signal processing, where signals of very small amplitude cannot be separated from low-intensity noise in the system. Though popular among hackers, it is not confined to hackerdom; physicists, engineers, astronomers, and statisticians all use it. lost in the underflow: adj. Too small to be worth considering; more specifically, small beyond the limits of accuracy or measurement. This is a reference to a condition called floating underflow' that can occur when a floating-point arithmetic processor tries to handle quantities smaller than its limit of magnitude. It is also a pun on undertow' (a kind of fast, cold current that sometimes runs just outshore of a beach and can be dangerous to swimmers). "Well, sure, photon pressure from the stadium lights alters the path of a thrown baseball, but that effect gets lost in the underflow." See also {overflow bit}. lots of MIPS but no I/O: adj. Used to describe a person who is technically brilliant but can't seem to communicate with human beings effectively. Technically it describes a machine that has lots of processing power but is bottlenecked on I/O. low-bandwidth: [from communication theory] adj. Used to indicate a talk that although not {content-free} was not terribly informative. "That was a low-bandwidth talk, but what can you expect for an audience of {suit}s." Compare {zero-content}, {bandwidth}, {math-out}. LPT: /lip'it/ [MIT, via DEC] n. Line printer, of course. Rare under UNIX, commoner in hackers with MS-DOS or CP/M background. The printer device is called LPT:' on those systems which, like ITS, were strongly influenced by early DEC conventions. lunatic fringe: [IBM] n. Customers who can be relied upon to accept release 1 versions of software. lurker: n. One of the silent majority' in a electronic forum; one who posts occasionally or not at all but is known to read the group regularly. This term is not pejorative and indeed is casually used reflexively: "Oh, I'm just lurking." Often used in the lurkers', the hypothetical audience for the group's {flamage}-emitting regulars. luser: /loo'zr/ n. A {user}; esp. one who is also a {loser}. ({luser} and {loser} are pronounced identically.) This word was coined about 1975 at MIT. Under ITS, when you first walked up to a terminal at MIT and typed Control-Z to get the computer's attention, it prints out some status information, including how many people are already using the computer; it might print "14 users", for example. Someone thought it would be a great joke to patch the system to print "14 losers" instead. There ensued a great controversy, as some of the users didn't particularly want to be called losers to their faces every time they used the computer. For a while several hackers struggled covertly, each changing the message behind the back of the others; any time you logged into the computer it was even money whether it would say "users" or "losers". Finally, someone tried the compromise lusers', and it stuck. Later one of the ITS machines supported luser' as a request-for-help command. ITS died the death in mid-1990, except as a museum piece; the usage lives on, however, and the term luser' is often seen in program comments. = M = ===== M: pref. (on units) suff. (on numbers) See {{quantifiers}}. macdink: /mak'dink/ [from the Apple Macintosh, which is said to encourage such behavior] vt. To make many incremental and unnecessary cosmetic changes to a program or file. Frequently the subject of the macdinking would be better off without them. Ex: "When I left at 11pm last night, he was still macdinking the slides for his presentation." See also {fritterware}. machinable: adj. Machine-readable. Having the {softcopy} nature. machoflops: /mach'oh-flops/ [pun on megaflops', a coinage for millions of floating-point operations per second'] n. Refers to artificially inflated performance figures often quoted by computer manufacturers. Real applications are lucky to get half the quoted speed. See {Your mileage may vary}, {benchmark}. Macintoy: /mak'in-toy/ n. The Apple Macintosh, considered as a {toy}. Less pejorative than {Macintrash}. Macintrash: /mak'in-trash/ n. The Apple Macintosh, as described by a hacker who doesn't appreciate being kept away from the *real computer* by the interface. The term maggotbox' has been reported in regular use in the Research Triangle (Raleigh/Durham, NC). Compare {Macintoy}. See also {WIMP environment}, {drool-proof paper}, {user-friendly}. macro: /mak'roh/ [techspeak] n. A name (possibly followed by a formal {arg} list) that is equated to a text or symbolic expression to which it is to be expanded (possibly with the substitution of actual arguments) by a macro expander. This definition can be found in any technical dictionary; what those won't tell you is how the hackish connotations of the term have changed over time. The term macro' originated in early assemblers, which encouraged the use of macros as a structuring and information-hiding device. During the early 1970s, macro assemblers became ubiquitous and sometimes quite as powerful and expensive as HLLs, only to fall from favor as improving compiler technology marginalized assembler programming (see {languages of choice}). Nowadays the term is most often used in connection with the C preprocessor, LISP, or one of several special-purpose languages built around a macro-expansion facility (such as TeX or UNIX's [nt]roff suite). Indeed, the meaning has drifted enough that the collective macros' is now sometimes used for code in any special-purpose application control language (whether or not the language is actually translated by text expansion) as well as other expansions' such as the keyboard macros' supported in some text editors (and PC TSR or Macintosh INIT/CDEV keyboard enhancers). macro-: pref. Large. Opposite of {micro-}. In the mainstream and among other technical cultures (for example, medical people) this competes with the prefix {mega-}, but hackers tend to restrict the latter to quantification. macrology: /mak-ro'l*-jee/ n. 1. Set of usually complex or crufty macros, e.g., as part of a large system written in {LISP}, {TECO}, or (less commonly) assembler. 2. The art and science involved in comprehending a macrology in sense #1. Sometimes studying the macrology of a system is not unlike archeology, ecology, or {theology}, hence the sound-alike construction. See also {boxology}. macrotape: /ma'kroh-tayp/ n. An industry standard reel of tape, as opposed to a {microtape}. maggotbox: n. See {Macintrash}. This is even more derogatory. magic: adj. 1. As yet unexplained, or too complicated to explain; compare {automagically} and (Arthur C.) Clarke's Third Law: "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic." "TTY echoing is controlled by a large number of magic bits." "This routine magically computes the parity of an eight-bit byte in three instructions." 2. Characteristic of something that works but no one really understands why (this is especially called {black magic}). 3. [Stanford] A feature not generally publicized that allows something otherwise impossible, or a feature formerly in that category but now unveiled. Example: The keyboard commands which override the screen-hiding features. Compare {black magic}, {wizardly}, {deep magic}, {heavy wizardry}. For more about hackish magic', see Appendix A. magic cookie: [UNIX] n. 1. Something passed between routines or programs that enables the receiver to perform some operation; a capability ticket or opaque identifier. Especially used of small data objects which contain data encoded in a strange or intrinsically machine-dependent way. E.g., on non-UNIX OSes with a non-byte-stream model of files, the result of ftell(3)' may be a magic cookie rather than a byte offset; it can be passed to fseek(3)', but not operated on in any meaningful way. The phrase it hands you a magic cookie' means it returns a result whose contents are not defined but which can be passed back to the same or some other program later. 2. An in-band code for changing graphic rendition (e.g., inverse video or underlining) or performing other control functions. Some older terminals would leave a blank on the screen corresponding to mode-change magic cookies; this was also called a {glitch}. See also {cookie}. magic number: [UNIX/C] n. 1. In source code, some non-obvious constant whose value is significant to the operation of a program and which is inserted inconspicuously in-line ({hardcoded}), rather than expanded in by a symbol set by a commented #define'. Magic numbers in this sense are bad style. 2. A number that encodes critical information used in an algorithm in some opaque way. The classic examples of these are the numbers used in hash or CRC functions, or the coefficients in a linear congruential generator for pseudo-random numbers. This sense actually predates and was ancestral to the more common #1. 3. Special data located at the beginning of a binary data file to indicate its type to a utility. Under UNIX the system and various applications programs (especially the linker) distinguish between types of executable file by looking for a magic number. Only a {wizard} knows the magic to create magic numbers. How do you choose a fresh magic number of your own? Simple --- you pick one at random. See? It's magic! magic smoke: n. A substance trapped inside IC packages that enables them to function (also called blue smoke'; compare phlogiston'). Its existence is demonstrated by what happens when a chip burns up --- the magic smoke gets let out, so it doesn't work any more. See {smoke test}, {let the smoke out}. USENETter Jay Maynard tells the following story: "Once, while hacking on a dedicated Z80 system, I was testing code by blowing EPROMs and plugging them in the system, then seeing what happened. One time, I plugged one in backwards. I only discovered that *after* I realized that Intel didn't put power-on lights under the quartz windows on the tops of their EPROMs --- the die was glowing white-hot. Amazingly, the EPROM worked fine after I erased it, filled it full of zeros, then erased it again. For all I know, it's still in service. Of course, this is because the magic smoke didn't get let out." mailing list: n. (often shortened to list') 1. An {email} address that is an alias (or {macro}, though that word is never used in this connection) for many other email addresses. Some mailing lists are simple reflectors', redirecting mail sent to them to the list of recipients. Others are filtered by humans or programs of varying degrees of sophistication; lists filtered by humans are said to be moderated'. 2. The people who receive your email when you send it to such an address. Mailing lists are one of the primary forms of hacker interaction, along with {USENET}. They predate USENET, and originated with the first UUCP and ARPANET connections. They are often used for private information-sharing on topics that would be too specialized for or inappropriate to public USENET groups. While some of these maintain purely technical content (such as the Internet Engineering Task Force mailing list), others (like the sf-lovers' list maintained for many years by Saul Jaffe) are recreational, and others are purely social. Perhaps the most infamous of the social lists was the eccentric bandykin' distribution; its latter-day progeny, lectroids' and tanstaafl', still include a number of the oddest and most interesting people in hackerdom. Mailing lists are easy to create and (unlike USENET) don't tie up a significant amount of machine resources. Thus, they are often created temporarily by working groups who can then collaborate on a project without ever needing to meet face-to-face. Much of the material in this book was criticized and polished on just such a mailing list (called jargon-friends'), which included all the co-authors of the The Hacker's Dictionary' first edition. main loop: n. Software tools are often written to perform some actions repeatedly on whatever input is handed to them, terminating when there is no more input or they are explicitly told to go away. In such programs, the loop that gets and processes input is called the main loop'. See also {driver}. mainframe: n. This term originally referred to the cabinet containing the central processor unit or main frame' of a room-filling {Stone Age} batch machine. After the emergence of smaller minicomputer' designs in the early Seventies, the traditional {big iron} machines were described as mainframe computers' and eventually just as mainframes. The term carries the connotation of a machine designed for batch rather than interactive use, though possibly with an interactive timesharing operating system retrofitted onto it; it is especially used of machines built by IBM, Unisys, and the other great {dinosaur}s surviving from computing's {Stone Age}. It is common wisdom among hackers that the mainframe architectural tradition is essentially dead (outside of the tiny market for {number-crunching} supercomputers (see {cray})), swamped by the recent huge advances in IC technology and low-cost personal computing. As of 1991, corporate America hasn't quite figured this out yet, though the wave of failures, takeovers, and mergers among traditional mainframe makers are certainly straws in the wind. management: n. 1. Corporate power elites distinguished primarily by their distance from actual productive work and their chronic failure to manage (see also {suit}). Spoken derisively, as in "*Management* decided that...". 2. Mythically, a vast bureaucracy responsible for all the world's minor irritations. Hackers' satirical public notices are often signed The Mgmt'. manged: /mahnjed/ [probably from the French manger' or Italian mangiare', to eat; perh. influenced by English n. mange', mangy']. adj. Refers to anything that is mangled or damaged, usually beyond repair. "The disk was manged after the electrical storm." Compare {mung}. mangle: vt. Used similarly to {mung} or {scribble}, but more violent in its connotations; something that is mangled has been irreversibly and totally trashed. mangler: [DEC] n. A manager. Compare {mango}; see also {management}. Note that {system mangler} is somewhat different in connotation. mango: /mang'go/ [orig. in-house jargon at Symbolics] n. A manager. Compare {mangler}. See also {devo} and {doco}. marginal: adj. 1. Extremely small. "A marginal increase in {core} can decrease {GC} time drastically." In everyday terms, this means that it's a lot easier to clean off your desk if you have a spare place to put some of the junk while you sort through it. 2. Of extremely small merit. "This proposed new feature seems rather marginal to me." 3. Of extremely small probability of {win}ning. "The power supply was rather marginal anyway; no wonder it fried." Marginal Hacks: n. Margaret Jacks Hall, a building into which the Stanford AI Lab was moved near the beginning of the 1980s (from the {D. C. Power Lab}). marginally: adv. Slightly. "The ravs here are only marginally better than at Small Eating Place." See {epsilon}. marketroid: /mar'k*-troyd/ alt. marketing slime', marketing droid', marketeer' n. Member of a company's marketing department, esp. one who promises users that the next version of a product will have features that are not actually scheduled for inclusion, extremely difficult to implement, and/or are in violation of the laws of physics; and/or one who describes existing features (and misfeatures) in ebullient, buzzword-laden adspeak. Derogatory. Compare {droid}. martian: n. A packet sent on a TCP/IP network with a source address of the test loopback interface (127.0.0.1). This means that it will come back at you labelled with a source address that is clearly not of this earth. As in "The domain server is getting lots of packets from Mars. Does that gateway have a martian filter?" massage: vt. Vague term used to describe smooth' transformations of a data set into a different form, esp. transformations that do not lose information. Connotes less pain than {munch} or {crunch}. "He wrote a program that massages X bitmap files into GIF format." Compare {slurp}. math-out: [poss. from white-out' (the blizzard variety)] n. A paper or presentation so encrusted with mathematical or other formal notation as to be incomprehensible. This may be a device for concealing the fact that it is actually {content-free}. See also {numbers}, {social science number}. Matrix: [FidoNet] n. 1. What the Opus BBS software and sysops call {FidoNet}. 2. Fanciful term for a {cyberspace} expected to emerge from current networking experiments (see {network, the}). Some people refer to the totality of present networks this way. Mbogo, Dr. Fred: [Stanford] n. The archetypal man you don't want to see about a problem, esp. an incompetent professional; a shyster. Usage: "Do you know a good eye doctor?" "Sure, try Mbogo Eye Care and Professional Dry Cleaning." The name comes from synergy between {bogus} and the original Dr. Mbogo, a witch doctor who was Gomez Addams' physician on the old Addams Family' TV show. See also {fred}. meatware: n. Synonym for {wetware}. Less common. meeces: [TMRC] n. Occasional furry visitors who are not {urchin}s. [That is, mice. This may no longer be in live use; it clearly derives from the refrain of the old Tom an Jerry cartoons "I hate meeces to *pieces*!" -- ESR] meg: /meg/ n. See {{quantifiers}}. mega-: /me'g*/ pref. See {{quantifiers}}. megapenny: /meg'*-pen'ee/ n.$10,000 (1 cent * 10 ^ 6).  Used
semi-humorously as a unit in comparing computer cost/performance
figures.

MEGO: /me'goh/ or /mee'goh/ [My Eyes Glaze Over, often Mine Eyes
Glazeth (sic) Over, attributed to the futurologist Herman Kahn]
Also MEGO factor'.  1. n. Handwaving intended to confuse the
listener and hopefully induce agreement because the listener does
not want to admit to not understanding what is going on.  MEGO is
usually directed at senior management by engineers and contains a
high proportion of {TLA}s.  2. excl. An appropriate response to
MEGO tactics.  3. Among non-hackers this term often refers not to
behavior which causes the eyes to glaze, but the eye-glazing
reaction itself, which may be triggered by the mere threat of
technical detail as effectively as by an actual excess of it.

meltdown, network: n.  See {network meltdown}.

meme: /meem/ [coined on analogy with gene' by Richard
Dawkins] n. An idea considered as a {replicator}, esp. with the
connotation that memes parasitize people into propagating them much
as viruses do.  Used esp. in the phrase meme complex'
denoting a group of mutually supporting memes which form an
organized belief system, such as a religion.  This dictionary is an
(epidemiological) vector of the hacker subculture' meme
complex; each entry might be considered a meme.  However,
meme' is often misused to mean meme complex'.  Use of the
term connotes acceptance of the idea that in humans (and presumably
other tool-and language-using sophonts) cultural evolution by
selection of adaptive ideas has superseded biological evolution by
selection of hereditary traits.  Hackers find this idea congenial
for tolerably obvious reasons.

meme plague: n. The spread of a successful but pernicious {meme},
esp. one which parasitizes' the victims into giving their all to
propagate it.  Astrology, BASIC, and the other guy's religion are
often considered to be examples.  This usage is given point by the
historical fact that joiner' ideologies like Naziism or various
forms of millennarian Christianity have exhibited plague-like cycles
of exponential growth followed by collapse to small reservoir
populations.

memetics: /m*-met'iks/ [from {meme}] The study of memes.  As of
mid-1991, this is still an extremely informal and speculative
endeavor, though the first steps towards at least statistical rigor
have been made by H. Keith Henson and others.  Memetics is a
popular topic among hackers, who like to see themselves as the
architects of the new information ecologies in which memes live and
replicate.

memory leak: n. An error in a program's dynamic-store allocation
to attempted hogging of main store and eventual collapse due to
memory exhaustion.  Also (esp. at CMU) called {core leak}.  See
{aliasing bug}, {fandango on core}, {smash the stack},
{precedence lossage}, {overrun screw}, {leaky heap}.

menuitis: /menyoo-ie'tis/ n. Notional disease suffered by software
with an obsessively simple-minded menu interface and no escape.
Hackers find this intensely irritating and much prefer the
flexibility of command-line or language-style interfaces,
especially those customizable via macros or a special-purpose
language in which one can encode useful hacks.  See
{user-obsequious}, {drool-proof paper}, {WIMP environment},
{for the rest of us}.

mess-dos: /mes-dos/ n. Derisory term for MS-DOS.  Often followed
by the ritual expurgation "Just Say No!".  See MS-DOS.  Most
hackers (even many MS-DOS hackers) loathe MS-DOS for its
single-tasking nature, its limits on application size, its nasty
primitive interface, and its ties to IBMness (see {fear and
loathing}).  Also mess-loss', messy-dos', mess-dog',
mess-dross', mush-dos', and various combinations thereof.
In Ireland it is even sometimes called Domestos' after a brand of
toilet cleanser.

meta: /me't*/ or /may't*/ or (Commonwealth) /mee't*/ [from
analytic philosophy] adj. One level of description up.  Thus, a
meta-syntactic variable is a variable in notation used to describe
syntax and meta-language is language used to describe language.
This is difficult to explain briefly, but much hacker humor turns
on deliberate confusion between meta-levels.  See {{Humor,
Hacker}}.

meta bit: n. The top bit of an 8-bit character, on in character
values 128--255.  Also called {high bit}, {alt bit}, or
{hobbit}.  Some terminals and consoles (see {space-cadet
keyboard}) have a META shift key.  Others (including,
*mirabile dictu*, keyboards on IBM PC-class machines) have an

MFTL: /em-eff-tee-ell/ [acronym: My Favorite Toy Language] 1. adj.
Describes a talk on a programming language design which is heavy on
syntax, frequently BNF, sometimes even talks about semantics, e.g.,
type systems, but rarely, if ever, has any content (see
{content-free}).  More broadly applied to talks even when the
topic is not a programming language, but the subject matter is gone
into in unnecessary and meticulous detail at the sacrifice of any
conceptual content.  Usage: "Well, it was a typical MFTL talk".
2. n. Describes a language developed by an individual or group,
which they are passionate about, but which hardly anyone outside
the group cares about.  Applied to the language by those outside
the group.  "He cornered me about type resolution in his MFTL"

mickey: n. The resolution unit of mouse movement.  It has been
suggested that the disney' will become a benchmark unit for
animation graphics performance.

micro-: pref. 1. Very small; this is the root of its use as a
quantifier prefix.  2. As that decimal prefix, calling for
multiplication by 10 ^ -6' (see {{quantifiers}}).
Neither of these uses is peculiar to hackers, but hackers tend to
fling them both around rather more freely than is countenanced in
standard English.  It is recorded, for example, that one CS
professor used to characterize the standard length of his lectures
{attoparsec}, {nanoacre}, and especially {microfortnight}).
3. Personal or human-scale --- that is, capable of being
maintained or comprehended or manipulated by one human being.  This
sense is generalized from microcomputer', and esp. used in
contrast with macro-' (the corresponding Greek prefix meaning
large').  4. Local as opposed to global (or {macro-}).  Thus a
hacker might say, for example, that buying a smaller car to reduce
pollution only solves a microproblem; the macroproblem of getting
to work might be better solved by using mass transit, moving to
within walking distance, or (best of all) telecommuting.

microfortnight: n. About 1.2 sec. The VMS operating system has a
lot of tuning parameters that you can set with the SYSGEN utility,
and one of these is TIMEPROMPTWAIT, the time the system will wait
for an operator to set the correct date and time at boot if it
realizes that the current value is bogus.  This time is specified
in microfortnights!

Multiple uses of the millifortnight (about 20 minutes) and
{nanofortnight} have also been reported.

microfloppies: n. 3.5-inch floppies, as opposed to 5.25-inch
{vanilla} or mini-floppies and the now-obsolete 8-inch variety.
This term may be headed for obsolescence as 5.25-inchers pass out
of use, only to be revived if anybody floats a sub-3-inch floppy
standard.  See {stiffy}, {minifloppies}.

microLenat: n. See {bogosity}.

microReid: n.  See {bogosity}.

microtape: n. Occasionally used to mean a DECtape, as opposed to a
{macrotape}.  A DECtape is a small reel of magnetic tape about
four inches in diameter and an inch across.  Unlike normal drivers
for standard magnetic tapes, microtape drivers allow random access
to the data.  In their heyday they were used in pretty much the
same ways one would now use a floppy disk: as a small, portable way
to save and transport files and programs.  Apparently the term
microtape' was actually the official term used within DEC for
these tapes until someone coined the word DECtape', which, of
course, sounded sexier to the {marketroid} types.

middle-endian: adj. Not {big-endian} or {little-endian}.  Used
of byte orders like 3-4-1-2 or 2-1-4-3 occasionally found in the
packed-decimal formats of minicomputer manufacturers who shall
remain nameless.  See {NUXI problem}.

milliLampson: /mil'i-lampsn/ n. A unit of talking speed
abbreviated mL.  Most people run about 200 milliLampsons.  Butler
Lampson (a CS theorist and systems implementor highly regarded
among hackers) goes at 1000.  A few people speak faster.  This unit
is sometimes used to compare the (sometimes widely disparate) rates
at which people can generate ideas and actually emit them in
speech.  For example, noted computer architect C. Gordon Bell
(designer of the PDP-11) is said (with some awe) to think at about
1200 mL but only talk at about 300; he is frequently reduced to
fragments of sentences as his mouth tries to keep up with his
speeding brain.

minifloppies: n. 5.25-inch {vanilla} floppy disks, as opposed to
3.5-inch or {microfloppies} and the now-obsolescent 8-inch
variety.  At one time, this term was a trademark of Shugart
Associates for their SA-400 minifloppy drive.  Nobody paid any
attention.  See {stiffy}.

MIPS: /mips/ [acronym] n. 1. A measure of computing speed;
formally, Million Instructions Per Second' (that's 10 ^
6' per second, not 2 ^ 20'!); often rendered by hackers as
Meaningless Indication of Processor Speed' or in other
unflattering ways.  This joke expresses a nearly universal attitude
about the value of most {benchmark} claims, said attitude being
one of the great cultural divides between hackers and
{marketroid}s.  The singular is sometimes 1 MIP' even though
{GIPS}.  2. The corporate name of a particular RISC-chip
company; among other things, they designed the processor chips used
in DEC's 3100 workstation series.

misbug: /mis-buhg/ [MIT] n. An unintended property of a program
that turns out to be useful; something that should have been a
{bug} but turns out to be a {feature}.  Usage: rare.  Compare
{green lightning}.

misfeature: /mis-fee'chr/ or /mis'feechr/ n. A feature that
eventually causes lossage, possibly because it is not adequate for
a new situation which has evolved.  It is not the same as a bug
because fixing it involves a substantial philosophical change to
the structure of the system involved.  A misfeature is different
from a simple unforeseen side effect; the term implies that the
misfeature was actually carefully planned to be that way, but
future consequences or circumstances just weren't predicted
accurately.  This is different from just not having thought ahead
about it at all.  Often a former feature becomes a misfeature
(possibly only in the judgment of the implementors).  "Well, yeah,
it's kind of a misfeature that file names are limited to six
characters, but the original implementors wanted to save directory
space and we're stuck with it for now."

Missed'em-five: n. Pejorative hackerism for AT&T System V UNIX,
generally used by {BSD} partisans in a bigoted mood (the term
SysVile' is also encountered).  See {software bloat},
{Berzerkeley}.

miswart: /mis-wort/ [from {wart} by analogy with {misbug}] n.
A {feature} that superficially appears to be a {wart} but has been
determined to be the {Right Thing}.  For example, in some versions
of the {EMACS} text editor, the transpose characters' command
exchanges the two characters on either side of the cursor on the
screen, *except* when the cursor is at the end of a line, in
which case the two characters before the cursor are exchanged.
While this behavior is perhaps surprising, and certainly
inconsistent, it has been found through extensive experimentation
to be what most users want.  This feature is a miswart.

moby: /moh'bee/ [MIT; seems to have been in use among model
railroad fans years ago.  Derived from Melville's Moby Dick' (some
say from Moby Pickle').] 1. adj. Large, immense, complex,
impressive.  "A Saturn V rocket is a truly moby frob."  "Some
MIT undergrads pulled off a moby hack at the Harvard-Yale game."
(see Appendix A).  2. n. obs. The maximum address space of a
machine (see below).  For a 680[1234]0 or VAX or most modern 32-bit
architectures, it is 4,294,967,296 8-bit bytes (4 gigabytes).  3. A
title of address (never of third-person reference), usually used to
show admiration, respect, and/or friendliness to a competent
hacker.  "Greetings, moby Dave.  How's that address-book thing for
the Mac going?"  4. adj. In backgammon, doubles on the dice, as in
moby sixes', moby ones', etc.  Compare this with
{bignum} (sense #2): double sixes are both bignums and moby
sixes, but moby ones are not bignums (the use of moby' to
describe double ones is sarcastic).  Standard emphatic forms:
Moby foo', moby win', moby loss'.  Foby moo': a
spoonerism due to Greenblatt.

This term entered hackerdom with the Fabritek 256K memory of the
MIT-AI PDP-6 machine, which was considered unimaginably huge when
it was installed in the 1960s (this was at a time when a more
typical timesharing system was 72 kilobytes).  Thus, a moby is
classically 256K 36-bit words, the size of a PDP-6 or PDP-10 moby
was more generally useful; because when a computer had virtual
memory mapping, it might actually have more physical memory
attached to it than any one program could access directly.  One
could then say "This computer has six mobies" to mean that the
ratio of physical memory to address space is six, without having to
say specifically how much memory there actually is.  That in turn
implied that the computer could timeshare six full-sized' programs
without having to swap programs between memory and disk.

are usually larger than the most physical memory you can cram onto
a machine, so most systems have much *less* than 1 theoretical
native' moby of core.  Also, more modern memory-management
techniques (esp. paging) make the moby count' less significant.
However, there is one series of popular chips for which the term
could stand to be revived --- the Intel 8088 and 80286 with their
incredibly {brain-damaged} segmented-memory designs.  On these, a
moby' would be the 1-megabyte address span of a
paragraph-plus-offset pair (by coincidence, a PDP-10 moby was
exactly 1 megabyte of 9-bit bytes).

mod: vt.,n. 1. Short for modify' or modification'.  Very
commonly used --- in fact the full terms are considered markers
that one is being formal.  The plural mods' is used esp. with
reference to bug fixes or minor design changes in hardware or
software, most esp. with respect to {patch} sets or a {diff}.
2. Short for {modulo} but *only* used for its techspeak sense.

mode: n. A general state, usually used with an adjective describing
the state.  Use of the word mode' rather than state' implies that
the state is extended over time, and probably also that some
activity characteristic of that state is being carried out. "No
time to hack; I'm in thesis mode."  Usage: in its jargon sense,
mode' is most often said of people, though it is sometimes applied
to programs and inanimate objects.  "The E editor normally uses a
display terminal, but if you're on a TTY it will switch to
non-display mode."  This term is normally techspeak when used to
describe the state of a program, but the extended usage --- for
example, to describe people --- is definitely jargon.  In
particular, see {hack mode}, {day mode}, {night mode},
{demo mode}, {fireworks mode}, and {yoyo mode}; also {talk
mode}.

One also often hears the verbs enable' and disable' used in
connection with jargon modes.  Thus, for example, a sillier way of
saying "I'm going to crash." is "I'm going to enable crash mode
now."  One might also hear a request to "disable flame mode,

mode bit: n. A {flag}, usually in hardware, that selects between
two (usually quite different) modes of operation.  The connotations
are different from {flag} bit in that mode bits are mainly
written during a boot or set-up phase, are seldom read, and seldom
change over the lifetime of an ordinary program.  The classic
example was the EBCDIC-vs.-ASCII bit (#12) of the Program Status
Word of the IBM 360.  Another was the bit on a PDP-12 that
controlled whether it ran the PDP-8 or LINC instruction set.

modulo: /mod'y*-low/ prep. Except for.  From mathematical
terminology: one can consider saying that 4 = 22' except for
the 9s (4 = 22 mod 9)'.  "Well, LISP seems to work okay now,
modulo that {GC} bug."  "I feel fine today modulo a slight

molly-guard: [University of Illinois] n. A shield to prevent
tripping of some {Big Red Switch} by clumsy or ignorant hands.
Originally used of some plexiglass covers improvised for the BRS on
an IBM 4341 after a programmer's toddler daughter (named Molly)
frobbed it twice in one day.  Later generalized to covers over
stop/reset switches on disk drives and networking equipment.

Mongolian Hordes technique: n. Development by {gang bang}
(compare the Sixties counterculture expression Mongolian
clusterfuck' for a public orgy).  Implies that large numbers of
inexperienced programmers are being put on a job better performed
by a few skilled ones.  Also called Chinese Army technique';

monkey up: vt. To hack together hardware for a particular task,
especially a one-shot job.  Connotes an extremely {crufty} and
consciously temporary solution.  Compare {hack up}, {kluge up},
{cruft together}, {cruft together}.

monstrosity: 1. n. A ridiculously {elephantine} program or system,
esp. one which is buggy or only marginally functional.  2. The
quality of being monstrous (see Peculiar nouns' in the discussion

Moof: /moof/ [MAC users] n. The Moof or dogcow' is a
semi-legendary creature that lurks in the depths of the Macintosh
Technical Notes hypercard stack V3.1; specifically, the full story
of the dogcow is told in technical note #31 (the particular Moof
illustrated is properly named Clarus').  Option-shift-click will
cause it to emit a characteristic Moof!' or !fooM' sound.
*Getting* to tech note #31 is the hard part; to discover how
to do that, one must needs examine the stack script with a hackerly
eye.  Clue: {rot13} is involved.  A dogcow also appears if you
choose Page Setup...' with a LaserWriter selected and click on
the Options' button.

Moore's Law: /morz law/ prov. The observation that the logic
density of silicon integrated circuits has closely followed the
curve (bits per square inch) = 2 ^ (n - 1962); that is, the amount
of information storable in one square inch of silicon has roughly
doubled yearly every year since the technology was invented.  See
also {Parkinson's Law of Data}.

moria: /mor'ee-*/ n. Like {nethack} and {rogue}, one of the
large PD Dungeons-and-Dragons-like simulation games, available for
a wide range of machines and operating systems.  Extremely
addictive and a major consumer of time better used for hacking.

MOTAS: /moh-tahs/ [USENET, Member Of The Appropriate Sex] n. A
potential or (less often) actual sex partner.  See {MOTOS},
{MOTSS}, {SO}.

MOTOS: /moh-tohs/ [from the 1970 U.S. census forms via USENET,
Member Of The Opposite Sex] n. A potential or (less often) actual
sex partner.  See {MOTAS}, {MOTSS}, {SO}.  Less common than
MOTSS or {MOTAS}, which has largely displaced it.

MOTSS: /motss/ or /em-oh-tee-ess-ess/ [from the 1970 U.S. census
forms via USENET, Member Of The Same Sex] n. Esp. one considered as
a possible sexual partner, e.g. by a gay male or lesbian.  The
gay-issues newsgroup on USENET is called soc.motss'.  See
{MOTOS} and {MOTAS}, which derive from it.  Also see {SO}.

mouse ahead: vi. Point-and-click analog of type ahead'.  To
manipulate a computer's pointing device (almost always a mouse in
this usage, but not necessarily) and its selection or command
buttons before a computer program is ready to accept such input, in
anticipation of the program accepting the input.  Handling this
properly is rare, but it can help make a {WIMP environment} much
more usable, assuming they are familiar with the behavior of the
user interface.

mouse around: vi. To explore public portions of a large system, esp.
a network such as Internet via {FTP} or {TELNET}, looking for
interesting stuff to {snarf}.

mouse belt: n. See {rat belt}.

mouse droppings: [MSDOS] n. Pixels (usually single) which are not
properly restored when the mouse pointer moves away from a
particular location on the screen, producing the appearance that
the mouse pointer has left behind droppings.  The major causes for
this problem are programs which write to the screen memory
corresponding to the mouse pointer's current location without
hiding the mouse pointer first and mouse drivers which do not quite
support the graphics mode in use.

mouse elbow: n. A tennis-elbow-like fatigue syndrome resulting from
excessive use of a {WIMP environment}.  Similarly, mouse
shoulder'; GLS reports that he used to get this a lot before he
taught himself to be ambimoustrous.

mouso: /mow'soh/ n. [by analogy with typo'] An error in mouse usage
resulting in an inappropriate selection or graphic garbage on the
screen.  Compare {thinko}, {braino}.

MS-DOS: /em-es-dos/ [MicroSoft Disk Operating System] n. A
{clone} of {CP/M} for the 8088 crufted together in six weeks by
hacker Tim Paterson, who is said to have regretted it ever since.
Numerous features including vaguely UNIX-like but rather broken
support for subdirectories, I/O redirection, and pipelines were
hacked into 2.0 and subsequent versions; as a result, there are two
incompatible versions of many system calls, and MS-DOS programmers
can never agree on basic things like what character to use as an
option switch or whether to be case-sensitive.  The resulting mess
is now the highest-unit-volume OS in history.  Often known simply
as DOS, which annoys people familiar with other similarly
abbreviated operating systems (the name goes back to the mid-1960s,
when it was attached to IBM's first disk operating system for the
360).  Some people like to pronounce DOS like "dose", as in "I
don't work on dose, man!", or to compare it with a dose of
brain-damaging drugs.  See {mess-dos}, {ill-behaved}.

MUD: [abbr: Multi User Dungeon] 1. n. A class of {virtual reality}
experiments accessible via the Internet.  These are real-time chat
forums with structure; they have multiple locations' like an
adventure game and may include combat, traps, puzzles, magic, a
simple economic system, and the capability for characters to build
more structure onto the database that represents the existing
world.  2. vi. To play a MUD (see {hack-and-slay}).  The acronym MUD
is often lower-cased and/or verbed; thus, one may speak of going
mudding', etc.

Historically, MUDs (and their more recent progeny with names of MU-
form) derive from an AI experiment by Richard Bartle and Roy
Trubshaw on the University of Essex's DEC-10 in the early 1980s,
and descendants of that game still exist today (see {BartleMUD}).
The title MUD' is still copyright to the commercial MUD run by
Bartle on British Telecom (their motto: "You haven't *lived*
'til you've *died* on MUD!"); however, this did not stop
students on the European academic networks from copying/improving
on the MUD concept, from which sprung several new MUDs (VAXMUD,
AberMUD, LPMUD).  Many of these had associated bulletin-board
systems for social interaction.  Because USENET feeds have been
spotty and difficult to get in Great Britain and the British JANET
network doesn't support {FTP} or remote login via telnet, the
MUDs became major foci of hackish social interaction there.

AberMUD and other variants crossed the Atlantic around 1988 and
quickly gained popularity in the US; they became nuclei for large
hacker communities with only loose ties to traditional hackerdom
(some observers see parallels with the growth of USENET in the
early 1980s).  The second wave of MUDs (TinyMUD and variants)
tended to emphasize social interaction, puzzles, and cooperative
world-building as opposed to combat and competition.  In 1991, over
50% of MUD sites are of a third major variety, LPMUD, which
synthesizes the combat/puzzle aspects of AberMUD and older systems
with the extensibility of TinyMud. The trend towards greater
programmability and flexibility will doubtless continue.

The state of the art in MUD design is still moving very rapidly,
with new simulation designs appearing (seemingly) every month.
There is now (early 1991) a move afoot to deprecate the term
{MUD} itself, as newer designs exhibit an exploding variety of
names corresponding to the different simulation styles being

mudhead: n. Commonly used to refer to a {MUD} player who sleeps,
breathes, and eats MUD.  Mudheads have frequently been known to
fail their degrees, drop out, etc., with the consolation, however,
that they made wizard level.  When encountered in person, all a
wizard that in his/her view is always unfairly stopping him/her
from becoming a wizard or beating a favorite MUD, and the MUD
he/she is writing/going to write because all existing MUDs are so

multician: /muhl-ti'shn/ [coined at Honeywell, ca.1970] n.
Competent user of {Multics}.  Perhaps oddly, no one has ever
promoted the analogous Unician'.

Multics: /muhl'tiks/ n. [from "MULTiplexed Information and
Computing Service"] An early (late 1960s) timesharing operating
system co-designed by a consortium including MIT, GE, and Bell
Laboratories.  Very innovative for its time --- among other things, it
introduced the idea of treating all devices uniformly as special
files.  All the members but GE eventually pulled out after
determining that {second-system effect} had bloated Multics to
the point of practical unusability (the lean' predecessor in
question was {CTSS}).  Honeywell commercialized Multics after
buying out GE's computer group, but it was never very successful
(among other things, on some versions one was commonly required to
enter a password to log out).  One of the developers left in the
lurch by the project's breakup was Ken Thompson, a circumstance
which led directly to the birth of {UNIX}.  For this and other
reasons, aspects of the Multics design remain a topic of occasional

multitask: n. Often used of humans in the same meaning it has for
computers, to describe a person doing several things at once (but
see {thrash}).  The term multiplex' from communications
technology (meaning to handle more than one channel at the same
time) is used similarly.

mumblage: /muhm'bl*j/ n. The topic of one's mumbling (see {mumble}).
"All that mumblage" is used like "all that stuff" when it is
not quite clear what it is or how it works, or like "all that
crap" when "mumble" is being used as an implicit replacement for
obscenities.

mumble: interj. 1. Said when the correct response is either too
complicated to enunciate or the speaker has not thought it out.
Often prefaces a longer answer, or indicates a general reluctance
to get into a big long discussion.  "Don't you think that we could
improve LISP performance by using a hybrid reference-count
transaction garbage collector, if the cache is big enough and there
are some extra cache bits for the microcode to use?"  "Well,
mumble... I'll have to think about it."  2. Sometimes used as
an expression of disagreement.  "I think we should buy a
{VAX}."  "Mumble!"  Common variant: mumble frotz' (see
{frotz}; interestingly, one does not say mumble frobnitz' even
though frotz' is short for frobnitz').  3. Yet another
metasyntactic variable, like {foo}.  4. When used as a
question ("Mumble?") means "I didn't understand you."
5. Sometimes used in public' contexts on-line as a placefiller for
things one is barred from giving details about.  For example, a
poater with pre-released hardware in his machine might say "Yup,
my machine now has an extra 16M of mem, thanks to the card I'm
testing for Mumbleco."

munch: [often confused with mung', q.v.] vt. To transform
information in a serial fashion, often requiring large amounts of
computation.  To trace down a data structure.  Related to {crunch}
and nearly synonymous with {grovel}, but connotes less pain.

munching: n. Exploration of security holes of someone else's
computer for thrills, notoriety, or to annoy the system manager.

munching squares: n. A {display hack} dating back to the PDP-1
(c.1962, reportedly discovered by Jackson Wright), which employs a
trivial computation (repeatedly plotting the graph Y = X XOR T for
successive values of T --- see {HAKMEM} items 146--148) to produce
an impressive display of moving and growing squares that devour the
screen.  The initial value of T is treated as a parameter, which,
when well-chosen, can produce amazing effects.  Some of these,
later (re)discovered on the LISP machine, have been christened
munching triangles' (try AND for XOR and toggling points
instead of plotting them), munching w's', and munching
mazes'.  More generally, suppose a graphics program produces an
impressive and ever-changing display of some basic form, foo, on a
display terminal, and does it using a relatively simple program;
then the program (or the resulting display) is likely to be
referred to as "munching foos" (This is a good example of the use
of the word {foo} as a metasyntactic variable.)

munchkin: /muhnch'kin/ [from the squeaky-voiced little people in L.
Frank Baum's The Wizard of Oz'] n. A teenage-or-younger micro
enthusiast bashing BASIC or something else equally constricted.  A
term of mild derision --- munchkins are annoying but some grow up
to be hackers after passing through a {larval stage}.  The term

mundane: [from SF fandom] n. 1. A person who is not in science
fiction fandom.  2. A person who is not in the computer industry.
In this sense, most often an adjectival modifier as in "in my
mundane life...."

mung: /muhng/ alt. munge' /muhnj/ [in 1960 at MIT, Mash Until No
Good"; sometime after that the derivation from the {{recursive
acronyms}} Mung Until No Good' became standard] vt. 1. To make
changes to a file, often large-scale, usually irrevocable.
Occasionally accidental.  See {BLT}.  2. To destroy, usually
accidentally, occasionally maliciously.  The system only mungs
things maliciously; this is a consequence of {Murphy's Law}.  See
{scribble}, {mangle}, {trash}, {nuke}.  Reports from
{USENET} suggest that the pronunciation /muhnj/ is now usual in
speech, but the spelling mung' is still common in program comments
(compare the widespread confusion over the proper spelling of
{kluge}).  3. The kind of beans of which the sprouts are used
in Chinese food.  (That's their real name!  Mung beans!  Really!)

Murphy's Law: prov. The correct, *original* Murphy's Law reads:
"If there are two or more ways to do something, and one of those
ways can result in a catastrophe, then someone will do it."  This
is a principle of defensive design, cited here because it's usually
given in mutant forms which are less descriptive of the challenges of
design for lusers.  For example, you don't make a two-pin plug
symmetrical and then label it THIS WAY UP'; if it matters which way
it's plugged in, then you make the design asymmetrical.

Edward A. Murphy, Jr. was one of the engineers on the rocket-sled
experiments that were done by the U.S. Air Force in 1949 to test
human acceleration tolerances.  One experiment involved a set of 16
accelerometers mounted to different parts of the subject's body.
There were two ways each sensor could be glued to its mount, and
somebody methodically installed all 16 the wrong way around.
Murphy then made the original form of his pronouncement, which the
test subject (Major John Paul Stapp) quoted at a news conference a
few days later.

Within months Murphy's Law' had spread to various technical
cultures connected to aerospace engineering.  Before too many years
mutating as they went.  Obviously, pop-culture versions in the vein
of "Anything that can go wrong, will." demonstrate Murphy's Law
acting on itself!

Music:: n. A common extracurricular interest of hackers (compare
{filk}).  It is widely believed among hackers that there is a
substantial correlation between whatever mysterious traits underlie
hacking ability (on the one hand) and musical talent and
sensitivity (on the other).  It is certainly the case that hackers,
as a rule, like music and often develop musical appreciation in
unusual and interesting directions.  Folk music is very big in
hacker circles; so is electronic music, and the sort of elaborate
instrumental jazz/rock that used to be called progressive' and
isn't recorded much any more.  The hacker's musical range tends to
be wide; many can listen with equal appreciation to (say) Talking
Heads, Yes, Gentle Giant, Spirogyra, Scott Joplin, Tangerine Dream,
King Sunny Ade, The Pretenders, or Bach's Brandenburg Concerti.  It
is also apparently true that hackerdom includes a much higher
concentration of talented amateur musicians than one would expect
from a similar-sized control group of {mundane} types.

mutter: vt. To quietly enter a command not meant for the ears, eyes,
or fingers of ordinary mortals.  Frequently in mutter an

= N =
=====

N: /en/ quant. 1. A large and indeterminate number of objects;
"There were N bugs in that crock!"; also used in its original
sense of a variable name.  "This crock has N bugs, as N goes to
infinity."  2. A variable whose value is inherited from the
current context.  For example, when ordering a meal at a
restaurant, N may be understood to mean however many people there
are at the table.  From the remark "We'd like to order N'
wonton soups and a family dinner for N - 1'.", you can
deduce that one person at the table wants to eat only soup, even
though you don't know how many people there are (see
{great-wall}).  3. Nth': adj. The ordinal counterpart of N,
senses #1 and #2.  "Now for the Nth and last time..." In the
specific context "Nth-year grad student", N is generally assumed
to be at least 4, and is usually 5 or more (see {tenured graduate

nailed to the wall: [like a trophy] adj. Said of a bug finally
eliminated after protracted, and even heroic, effort.

nailing jelly: vi. See {like nailing jelly to a tree}.

naive: adj. Untutored in the perversities of some particular
program or system; one who still tries to do things in an intuitive
way, rather than the right way (in really good designs these
coincide, but most designs aren't really good' in the appropriate
sense).  This is completely unrelated to general maturity or
competence or even competence at any other program.  It is a sad
commentary on the primitive state of computing that the natural
opposite of this term is often claimed to be experienced user' but
is really more like cynical user'.

naive user: 1. n. A {luser}.  Tends to imply someone who is
ignorant mainly due to inexperience; when applied to someone who
*has* experience, there is a definite implication of stupidity.

NAK: [from the ASCII mnemonic for #b0010101] interj. 1. On-line joke
answer to {ACK}? --- "I'm not here".  2. On-line answer to a
request for chat --- "I'm not available".  3. Used to politely
interrupt someone to tell them you don't understand their point or
that they have suddenly stopped making sense.  See {ACK}, sense
#3.  "And then, after we recode the project in COBOL...."
"Nak, Nak, Nak!  I thought I heard you say COBOL!"

nano: [CMU] n. A brief period of time; a takeoff on nanosecond'.
"Be with you in a nano" means you really will be free shortly,
i.e., implies what mainstream people mean by "in a jiffy"
(whereas the hackish use of "jiffy" is quite different, see
{jiffy}).

nano-: [in measurement, the next quantifier below {micro-};
meaning * 10 ^ -9] pref. Smaller than {micro-}, and used in the
same rather loose and connotative way.  Thus, one has
{{nanotechnology}} (coined by hacker K. Eric Drexler) by analogy
with microtechnology'; and a few machine architectures have a
nanocode' level below microcode'.  Tom Duff at Bell Labs
has also pointed out that "Pi seconds is a nanocentury".  See
also {{quantifiers}}, {pico-}, {nanoacre}, {nanobot},
{nanocomputer}, {nanofortnight}.

nanoacre: /nan'o-aykr/ n. An areal unit (about 2 mm square) of
real estate on a VLSI chip.  The term gets its giggle value from
the fact that VLSI nanoacres have costs in the same range as real
acres once one figures in design and fabrication-setup costs.

nanobot: /nan'oh-bot/ n. A robot of microscopic proportions,
presumably built by means of {{nanotechnology}}.  As yet, only used
informally (and speculatively!).  Also sometimes called a
nanoagent'.

nanocomputer: /nan'oh-k*m-pyoo'tr/ n. A computer whose switching
elements are molecular in size.  Designs for mechanical
nanocomputers which use single-molecule sliding rods for their
logic have been proposed.  The controller for a {nanobot} would be
a nanocomputer.

nanofortnight: [Adelaide University] n. 1 fortnight times 10 ^ -9,
or about 1.2 ms.  This unit was used largely by students doing
and {micro-}.

nanotechnology:: /nan'-oh-tek-nol*-ji/ n. A hypothetical
fabrication technology in which objects are designed and built with
the individual specification and placement of each separate atom.
The first unequivocal nanofabrication experiments are taking place
now (1990), for example with the deposition of individual xenon
atoms on a nickel substrate to spell the logo of a certain very
large computer company by two of its physicists.  Nanotechnology
has been a hot topic in the hacker subculture ever since the term
was coined by K. Eric Drexler in his book Engines of Creation',
where he predicted that nanotechnology could give rise to
replicating assemblers, permitting an exponential growth of
{nanobot}.

nastygram: n. 1. A protocol packet or item of email (the latter is
also called a letterbomb') that takes advantage of misfeatures
or security holes on the target system to do untoward things.
2. Disapproving mail, esp. from a {net.god}, pursuant to a
violation of {netiquette}.  Compare {shitogram}.  3. A status
report from an unhappy, and probably picky, customer.  "What'd the
Germans say in today's nastygram?"  4. [deprecated] An error reply
by mail from a {daemon}; in particular, a {bounce message}.

you want an etymology?  Notionally, from "I regret that I have only
one asterisk for my country!", a misquote of the famous remark
uttered by Nathan Hale just before he was hanged.  Hale was a
(failed) spy for the rebels in the American War of Independence.

nature: n. See {has the X nature}.

neat hack: n. A clever technique.  Also, a brilliant practical
joke, where neatness is correlated with cleverness, harmlessness,
and surprise value.  Example: the Caltech Rose Bowl card display
switch (see Appendix A).  See {hack}.

neep-neep: /neep neep/ [onomatopoeic, from New York SF fandom] n.
One who is fascinated by computers.  More general than {hacker},
as it need not imply more skill than is required to boot games on a
PC.  The derived noun neep-neeping' applies specifically to
the long conversations about computers that tend to develop in the
corners at most SF-convention parties.  Fandom has a related
proverb to the effect that "Hacking is a conversational black
hole!".

neophilia: /neeoh-fil'-ee-uh/ n. The trait of being excited and
pleased by novelty.  Common trait of most hackers, SF fans, and
members of several other connected leading-edge subcultures,
including the pro-technology Whole-Earth' wing of the ecology
movement, space activists, many members of MENSA, and the
Discordian/neo-pagan underground.  All these groups overlap heavily
and (where evidence is available) seem to share characteristic
hacker tropisms for science fiction, {{Music}}, and {{Oriental
Food}}.

net.-: /net dot/ pref. [USENET] Prefix used to describe people and
events related to USENET.  From the time before the {Great
Renaming}, when all non-local newsgroups had names beginning
net.'.  Includes {net.god}s, net.goddesses' (various
charismatic net.women with circles of on-line admirers),
net.lurkers', (see {lurker}), net.person',
net.parties' (a synonym for {boink} sense #2 (q.v.)) and

net.god: /net god/ n. Used to refer to anyone who satisfies some
combination of the following conditions: has been visible on USENET
for more than five years, ran one of the original backbone sites,
moderated an important newsgroup, wrote news software, or knows
Gene, Mark, Rick, Mel, Henry, Chuq, and Greg personally.  See
{demigod}.

net.police: n. (var. net.cops') Those USENET readers who feel it is
their responsibility to pounce on and {flame} any posting which
they regard as offensive, or in violation of their understanding of
{netiquette}.  Generally used sarcastically or pejoratively.

nethack: /net'hak/ n. See {hack}, sense #8.

netiquette: /net'ee-ket/ or /net'i-ket/ [portmanteau from "network
etiquette"] n. Conventions of politeness recognized on {USENET},
such as: avoidance of cross-posting to inappropriate groups, or
refraining from commercial pluggery on the net.

netnews: n. 1. The software that makes {USENET} run.  2. The
content of USENET.  "I read netnews right after my mail most
mornings".

netrock: [IBM] n. A {flame}; used esp. on VNET, IBM's internal
corporate network.

network address: n. (also net address') As used by hackers,
means an address on the' network (see {network, the}; this is
almost always a {bang path} or {{Internet address}}).  Such an
address is essential if one wants to be to be taken seriously by
hackers; in particular, persons or organizations that claim to
understand, work with, sell to, or recruit from among hackers but
*don't* display net addresses are quietly presumed to be
clueless poseurs and mentally flushed (see {flush}, sense #4).
wear them prominently in contexts where they expect to meet other
is mostly functional, but is also a connotative signal that one
identifies with hackerdom (like lodge pins among Masons or tie-dyed
in email text as a more concise substitute for personal names;
indeed, hackers may come to know each other quite well by network
names without ever learning each others' legal' monikers.  See
also {sitename}, {domainist}.

network meltdown: n. A state of complete network overload; the
network equivalent of {thrash}ing.  This may be induced by a
packet}.

network, the: n. 1. The union of all the major noncommercial,
academic, and hacker-oriented networks such as Internet, the old
ARPANET, NSFnet, {BITNET}, and the virtual UUCP and {USENET}
networks', plus the corporate in-house networks and commercial
time-sharing services (such as CompuServe) that gateway to them.  A
site is generally considered on the network' if it can be reached
through some combination of Internet-style (@-sign) and UUCP
{network address}.  2. A fictional conspiracy of libertarian
hacker-subversives and anti-authoritarian monkeywrenchers described
in Robert Anton Wilson's novel Schrodinger's Cat', to which
many hackers have subsequently decided they belong (this is an
example of {ha ha only serious}).

In sense #1, network' is frequently abbreviated to net'.  "Are
you on the net?" is a frequent question when hackers first meet
face to face, and "See you on the net!" is a frequent goodbye.

New Jersey: [primarily Stanford/Silicon Valley] adj. Generically,
brain-damaged or of poor design.  This refers to the allegedly
wretched quality of such software as C, C++, and UNIX (which
originated at Bell Labs in New Jersey).  "This compiler bites the
bag, but what can you expect from a compiler designed in New

New Testament: n. [C programmers] The second edition of K&R's The C
Programming Language' (Prentice-Hall 1988, ISBN 0-13-110362-8),
describing ANSI Standard C.  See {K&R}.

newbie: /n[y]oo'bee/ n. [orig. from British public-school &
military slang contraction of new boy'] A USENET neophyte.
This term originated in the {newsgroup} talk.bizarre' but is
now in wide use.  Criteria for being considered a newbie vary
wildly; a person can be called a newbie in one newsgroup while
remaining a respected regular in another.  The label newbie'
is sometimes applied as a serious insult, to a person who has been
around USENET for a long time but who carefully hides all evidence
of having a clue.  See {BIFF}.

newgroup wars: /n[y]oo'grp wohrz/ [USENET] n. Salvos of dueling
newgroup' and rmgroup' messages sometimes exchanged by
persons on opposite sides of a dispute over whether a {newsgroup}
should be created net-wide.  These usually settle out within a week
or two as it becomes clear whether the group has a natural
constituency (usually, it doesn't).  At times, especially in the
completely anarchic alt' hierarchy, the names of newsgroups
themselves become a form of comment or humor; e.g. the spinoff of
alt.swedish.chef.bork.bork.bork' from alt.tv.muppets' in
early 1990, or any number of specialized abuse groups named after
particularly notorious {flamer}s, e.g. alt.weemba'.

newline: /n[y]oo'lien/ n. 1. [techspeak, primarily UNIX] The
ASCII LF character (#b0001010), used under {UNIX} as a text line
terminator.  A Bell-Labs-ism rather than a Berkeleyism;
interestingly (and unusually for UNIX jargon) it is said originally
to have been an IBM usage (though the term newline' appears in
ASCII standards, it never caught on in the general computing world
before UNIX).  2. More generally, any magic character, character
sequence, or operation (like Pascal's writeln procedure) required
to terminate a text record or separate lines.  See {crlf},
{terpri}.

NeWS: /nee'wis/, /n[y]oo'is/ or /n[y]ooz/ [acronym; the
Network Window System] n. The road not taken in window systems, an
elegant PostScript-based environment that would almost certainly
have won the standards war with {X} if it hadn't been
{proprietary} to Sun Microsystems.  There is a lesson here that
to many software vendors haven't yet heeded.  Many hackers insist
on the two-syllable pronunciations above as a way of distinguishing
NeWS from news' (the {netnews} software).

newsfroup: // [USENET] n. Silly synonym for
{newsgroup}, originated as a typo but now in regular use on
USENET's talk.bizarre and other lunatic-fringe groups.

newsgroup: [USENET] n. One of {USENET}'s huge collection of topic
groups.  Among the best-known are comp.lang.c' (the C-language
forum), comp.unix.wizards', rec.arts.sf-lovers' (for
science-fiction fans), and talk.politics.misc' (miscellaneous
political discussions and {flamage}).

nickle: [From nickel', common name for the US 5-cent coin] n. A
{nybble} + 1; 5 bits.  Reported among developers for Mattel's GI
1600 (the Intellivision games processor), a chip with 16-bit-wide

night mode: n. See {phase} (of people).

Nightmare File System: n. Pejorative hackerism for Sun's Network
File System (NFS).  In any nontrivial network of Suns where there
is a lot of NFS cross-mounting, when one Sun goes down, the others
often freeze up.  Some machine tries to access the down one, and
(getting no response) repeats indefinitely.  This causes it to
appear dead to some messages.  Then another machine tries to reach
either the down machine or the pseudo-down machine, and itself
becomes pseudo-down.  The first machine to discover the down one is
now trying both to access the down one and respond to the
pseudo-down one, so it is even harder to reach.  This snowballs
very fast and soon the entire network of machines is frozen --- the
user can't even abort the file access that started the problem!
(ITS partisans are apt to cite this as proof of UNIX's alleged
bogosity; ITS had a working NFS-like shared file system with none
of these problems in the early 1970s.  Of course, ITS only had
6-character filenames and no subdirectories, so it was solving a

NIL: [from LISP terminology for false'] No.  Usage: used in reply
to a question, particularly one asked using the -P' convention.
See {T}.

NMI: n. Non-Maskable Interrupt.  An IRQ 7 on the PDP-11 or
680[01234]0; the NMI line on an 80{88|[1234]86}.  Unlike a
{priority interrupt} (which might be ignored, although unlikely),
an NMI is *never* ignored.

no-op: /noh-op/ alt. NOP (nop) [no operation] n. 1. (also v.) A
machine instruction that does nothing (sometimes used in
assembler-level programming as filler for data or patch areas, or
2. A person who contributes nothing to a project, or has nothing
going on upstairs, or both.  As in "He's a no-op." 3. Any
operation or sequence of operations with no effect, such as
circling the block without finding a parking space, or putting
money into a vending machine and having it fall immediately into
the coin-return box, or asking someone for help and being told to
go away.  "Oh well, that was a no-op."

noddy: [Great Britain; from the children's books] adj. 1. Small
and unuseful, but demonstrating a point.  Noddy programs are often
written when learning a new language or system.  The archetypal
noddy program is {hello, world}.  Noddy code may be used to
demonstrate a feature or bug of a compiler.  May be used of real
hardware or software to imply that it isn't worth using.  "This
editor's a bit noddy."  2. A program that is more or less
instant to produce.  In this use, the term does not necessarily
connote uselessness, but describes a {hack} sufficiently trivial
that it can be written and debugged while carrying on (and during
the space of) a normal conversation.  "I'll just throw
together a noddy {awk} script to convert {crlf}s into
{newline}s."  See {toy program}.

NOMEX underwear: [USENET] n. Syn. {asbestos longjohns}, used
mostly in auto-related mailing lists and newsgroups.  NOMEX
underwear is an actual product available on the racing equipment
market, used as a fire resistance measure and required in some
racing series.

non-optimal solution: n. (also sub-optimal solution') An
astoundingly stupid way to do something.  This term is generally
used in deadpan sarcasm, as its impact is greatest when the person

nonlinear: adj. [scientific computation] 1. Behaving in an erratic and
unpredictable fashion.  When used to describe the behavior of a
machine or program, it suggests that said machine or program is
being forced to run far outside of design specifications.  This
behavior may be induced by unreasonable inputs, or may be triggered
when a more mundane bug sends the computation far off from its
expected course.  2. When describing the behavior of a person,
suggests a tantrum or a {flame}.  "When you talk to Bob, don't
mention the drug problem or he'll go nonlinear for hours."  In
this context, go nonlinear' connotes blow up out of proportion'
(proportion connotes linearity).

nontrivial: adj. Requiring real thought or significant computing
power.  Often used as an understated way of saying that a problem
is quite difficult or impractical, or even entirely unsolvable
("Proving P=NP is nontrivial.").  The preferred emphatic form is
decidedly nontrivial'.  See {trivial}, {uninteresting},
{interesting}.

notwork: n. A network, when it's acting {flaky} or is {down}.
Compare {nyetwork}.  Orig. referred to a particular period of
flakiness on IBM's VNET corporate network, ca.1988.

NP-: /en pee/ pref. Extremely.  Used to modify adjectives
describing a level or quality of difficulty; the connotation is
often more so than it should be' (NP-complete problems all seem to
be very hard, but so far no one has found a good a-priori reason
that they should be.)  "Getting this algorithm to perform
correctly in every case is NP-annoying."  This is generalized from
the computer science terms NP-hard' and NP-complete'.  NP
is the set of Nondeterministic-Polynomial algorithms, those that
can be completed by a nondeterministic finite state machine in an
amount of time that is a polynomial function of the size of the
input.

NSA line eater: n. The NSA (National Security Agency) trawling
program sometimes assumed to be reading {USENET} for the U.S.
Government's spooks.  Most hackers describe it as a mythical beast,
but some believe it actually exists, more aren't sure, and many
believe in acting as though it exists just in case.  Some netters
put loaded phrases like Uzi', nuclear materials', Palestine',
cocaine', and assassination' in their {sig block}s in an
attempt to confuse and overload the creature.  The {GNU} version
of {EMACS} actually has a command that randomly inserts a bunch
of insidious anarcho-verbiage into your edited text.

There's a mainstream variant of this myth involving a Trunk Line
Monitor', which supposedly used speech recognition to extract words
from telephone trunks.  This one was making the rounds in the late
or the storage, signal-processing, or speech recognition needs of
such a project.  On the basis of mass-storage costs alone it would
have been cheaper to hire 50 high-school students and just let them
listen in.  Speech recognition technology can't do this job even
now (1991), and almost certainly won't in this millennium, either.
The peak of silliness came with a letter to an alternative paper in
New Haven, laying out the factoids of this Big Brotherly affair.
The letter writer then revealed his actual agenda by offering ---
at an amazing low price, just this once, we take VISA and
MasterCard --- a scrambler, guaranteed to daunt the Trunk Trawler,
and presumably allowing the would-be Baader-Meinhof gangs of the
world to get on with their business.

nuke: vt. 1. To intentionally delete the entire contents of a
given directory or storage volume.  "On UNIX, rm -r /usr'
will nuke everything in the usr filesystem."  Never used for
accidental deletion.  Oppose {blow away}.  2. Syn. for
{dike}, applied to smaller things such as files, features, or
code sections.  Often used to express a final verdict.  "What do
you want me to do with that 80-meg {wallpaper} file?"  "Nuke
it."  3. Used of processes as well as files; nuke is a frequent
verbal alias for kill -9' on UNIX.  4. On IBM PCs, a bug
that results in {fandango on core} can trash the operating
system, including the FAT (the in-core copy of the disk block
chaining information).  This can utterly scramble attached disks,
which are then said to have been nuked'.  This term is also
used of analogous lossages on Macintoshes and other micros without
memory protection.

null device: [techspeak] n. A {logical} input/output device
connected to the {bit bucket}; when you write to it nothing
happens, when you read from it you see an end-of-file condition.
Useful for discarding unwanted output or using interactive programs
in a {batch} mode.  See {/dev/null}.

number-crunching: n. Computations of a numerical nature, esp.
those that make extensive use of floating-point numbers.  The only
thing {Fortrash} is good for.  This term is in widespread
informal use outside hackerom and even in mainstream slang, but is
cited here to record some additional hackish connotations: namely,
that the computations are mindless and involve massive use of
{brute force}.  This is not always {evil}, esp. if it involves
ray tracing or fractals or some other use that makes {pretty
pictures}, esp. if such pictures can be used as {wallpaper}.  See
also {crunch}.

numbers: [scientific computation] n. Output of a computation that
may not be significant results, but at least indicate that the
program is running.  May be used to placate management, grant
sponsors, etc.  Making numbers' means running a program
because output --- any output, not necessarily meaningful output
--- is needed as a demonstration of progress.  See {pretty
pictures}, {math-out}, {social science number}.

NUXI problem: /nuk'see pro'blm/ n. This refers to the problem of
transferring data between machines with differing byte-order.  The
string UNIX' might look like NUXI' on a machine with a
different byte sex' (e.g. when transferring data from a
{middle-endian}, {swab}, and {bytesexual}.

nybble: /nib'l/ (alt. nibble') [from v. nibble' by
analogy with bite' => byte'] n. Four bits; one
{hex} digit; a half-byte.  Though byte' is now accepted
technical jargon found in dictionaries, this useful relative is
still jargon.  Compare {{byte}}, {crumb}, {tayste},
this spelling is uncommon in Commonwealth Hackish, as British
orthography suggests the pronunciation /nie'bl/.

nyetwork: [from Russian nyet' = no] n. A network, when it's
acting {flaky} or is {down}.  Compare {notwork}.

= O =
=====

Ob-: /ob/ pref. Obligatory.  A piece of {netiquette} that
acknowledges the author has been straying from the newsgroup's
charter topic.  For example, if a posting in alt.sex has nothing
particularly to do with sex, the author may append ObSex' (or
Obsex') and toss off a question or vignette about some unusual
erotic act.  It is a sign of great winnitude when your Obs are more
interesting than most other peoples' whole postings.

Obfuscated C Contest: n. Annual contest run since 1984 over USENET
by Landon Curt Noll and friends.  The overall winner is whoever
produces the most unreadable, creative, and bizarre (but working) C
program; various other prizes are awarded at the judges' whim.
Given C's terse syntax and macro-preprocessor facilities, this
gives contestants a lot of maneuvering room.  The winning programs
often manage to be simultaneously (a) funny, (b) breathtaking works
of art, and (c) horrible examples of how *not* to code in C.

This relatively short and sweet entry might help convey the flavor
of obfuscated C:

/*
* HELLO WORLD program
* by Jack Applin and Robert Heckendorn, 1985
*/
main(v,c)char**c;{for(v[c++]="Hello, world!\n)";
(!!c)[*c]&&(v--||--c&&execlp(*c,*c,c[!!c]+!!c,!c));
**c=!c)write(!!*c,*c,!!**c);}

Here's another good one:

/*
* Program to compute an approximation of pi
*  by Brian Westley, 1988
*/

#define _ -F<00||--F-OO--;
int F=00,OO=00;
main(){F_OO();printf("%1.3f\n",4.*-F/OO/OO);}F_OO()
{
_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_
_-_-_-_
}

Objectionable-C: n. Hackish take on "Objective-C", the name of an
object-oriented dialect of C in competition with the more
well-known C++ (it is used to write native applications on the NeXT
machine).  Objectionable-C uses a Smalltalk-like syntax, but lacks
the flexibility of Smalltalk method calls, and (like many such
efforts) comes frustratingly close to attaining the {Right Thing}
without actually doing so.

obscure: adj. Used in an exaggeration of its normal meaning, to
imply total incomprehensibility.  "The reason for that last crash
is obscure."  "The find(1)' command's syntax is obscure!"
The phrase moderately obscure' implies that it could be
figured out but probably isn't worth the trouble.  The construction
obscure in the extreme' is the preferred emphatic form.

octal forty: /ok'tl for'tee/ n. Hackish way of saying "I'm drawing
a blank."  Octal 40 is the {{ASCII}} space character, #b0100000; by
an odd coincidence, {hex} 40 (#b01000000) is the {{EBCDIC}} space
character.  See {wall}.

off the trolley: adj. Describes the behavior of a program that
malfunctions and goes catatonic, but doesn't actually {crash} or
abort.  See {glitch}, {bug}, {deep space}.

off-by-one error: n. Exceedingly common error induced in many ways,
such as by starting at 0 when you should have started at 1 or vice
versa, or by writing < N instead of <= N or vice-versa.  Also
applied to giving something to the person next to the one who
should have gotten it.  Often confounded with {fencepost error},
which is properly a particular subtype of it.

offline: adv. Not now or not here.  Example: "Let's take this
discussion offline."  Specifically used on {USENET} to suggest
that a discussion be taken off a public newsgroup to email.

old fart: n. Tribal elder.  A title self-assumed with remarkable
frequency by (esp.) USENETters who have been programming for more
than about 25 years; frequently appears in {sig block}s attached
to Jargon File contributions of great archeological significance.
This is a term of insult in second or third person but pride in
first person.

Old Testament: n. [C programmers] The first edition of {K&R}, the
sacred text describing {Classic C}.

one bell system (it works): This was the output from the old UNIX
V6 1' command.  The 1' command then did a random number roll that
gave it a one-in-ten chance of recursively executing itself.

one-line fix: n. Used (often sarcastically) of a change to a
program that is thought to be trivial or insignificant right up to
the moment it crashes the system.  Usually cured' by another

one-liner wars: n. Popular game among hackers who code in the
language APL (see {write-only language}).  The objective is to
see who can code the most interesting and/or useful routine in one
line of operators chosen from APL's exceedingly {hairy} primitive
set.  A similar amusement was practiced among {TECO} hackers.

Ken Iverson, the inventor of APL, has been credited with the
following one-liner: given a number N, it produces a list of the
prime numbers from 1 to N.  It looks like this:

(2 = 0 +.= T o.| T) / T <- iN

where o' is the APL null character, the assignment arrow is a
single character, and i' represents the APL iota.

ooblick: /oo'blik/ [from Dr. Seuss's Bartholomew and the
Oobleck'] n. A bizarre semi-liquid sludge made from cornstarch and
water.  Enjoyed among hackers who make batches during playtime at
parties for its amusing and extremely non-Newtonian behavior; it
pours and splatters, but resists rapid motion like a solid and will
even crack when hit by a hammer.  Often found near lasers.

Here's a field-tested ooblick recipe contributed by GLS:

1 cup cornstarch
1 cup baking soda
3/4 cup water
N drops of food coloring

This recipe isn't quite as non-Newtonian as a pure cornstarch
ooblick, but has an appropriately slimy feel.

open: n. Abbreviation for open (or left) parenthesis' --- used when
necessary to eliminate oral ambiguity.  To read aloud the LISP form
(DEFUN FOO (X) (PLUS X 1)) one might say: "Open defun foo, open
eks close, open, plus eks one, close close."

open switch: [IBM, prob. from railroading] n. An unresolved
question, issue, or problem.

operating system:: [techspeak] n. (Often abbreviated OS') The
foundation software of a machine, of course; that which schedules
tasks, allocates storage, and presents a default interface to the
user between applications.  The facilities an operating system
provides and its general design philosophy exert an extremely
strong influence on programming style and the technical cultures
that grows up around its host machines.  Hacker folklore has been
shaped primarily by the UNIX, ITS, TOPS-10, TOPS-20/TWENEX, WAITS,
CP/M, MS-DOS, and Multics operating systems (most importantly by
ITS and UNIX). Each of these has its own entry, which see.

Orange Book: n. The U.S. Government's standards document (Trusted
Computer System Evaluation Criteria, DOD standard 5200.28-STD,
December, 1985) characterizing secure computing architectures,
defining levels A1 (most secure) through D (least).  Stock UNIXes

Oriental Food:: n. Hackers display an intense tropism towards
Oriental cuisine, especially Chinese, and especially of the spicier
varieties such as Szechuan and Hunan.  This phenomenon (which has
also been observed in subcultures which overlap heavily with
hackerdom, most notably science-fiction fandom) has never been
satisfactorily explained, but is sufficiently intense that one can
assume the target of a hackish dinner expedition to be the best
local Chinese place and be right at least 3 times out of 4. See
also {ravs}, {great-wall}, {stir-fried random}, {laser
chicken}, {Yu-Shiang Whole Fish}.  Thai, Indian, Korean, and
Vietnamese cuisines are also quite popular.

orphan: [UNIX] n. A process whose parent has died; one inherited by
init(1)'.  Compare {zombie}.

orthogonal: [from mathematics] adj. Mutually independent; well
separated; sometimes, irrelevant to.  Used in a generalization of
its mathematical meaning to describe sets of primitives or
capabilities which, like a vector basis in geometry, span the
entire capability space' of the system and are in some sense
non-overlapping or mutually independent.  For example, in
architectures such as the PDP-11 or VAX where all or nearly all
registers can be used interchangeably in any role with respect to
any instruction, the register set is said to be orthogonal.  Or, in
logic, the set of operators not' and or' is orthogonal,
but the set nand', or', and not' is not (because any
one of these can be expressed in terms of the others).  Also used
in comments on human discourse: "This may be orthogonal to the
discussion, but...".

OS: /oh ess/ 1. [Operating System] n. Acronym heavily used in email,
occasionally in speech. 2. n. obs. On ITS, an output spy.  See
Appendix A.

OS/2: /oh ess too/ n. The anointed successor to MS-DOS for
Intel-286 and 386-based micros; proof that IBM/Microsoft couldn't
get it right the second time, either.  Cited here because
mentioning it is usually good for a cheap laugh among hackers ---
the design was so {baroque}, and the implementation of 1.x so
bad, that three years after introduction you could still count the
major {app}s shipping for it on the fingers of two hands --- in
unary.  Often called Half-an-OS'.  On 28 January 1991, Microsoft
announced that it was dropping its OS/2 development to concentrate
on Windows, leaving the OS entirely in the hands of IBM; on 29
January they claimed the media had got the story wrong, but were
{vaporware}, {monstrosity}, {cretinous}, {second-system
effect}.

out-of-band: [from telecommunications and network theory] adj. In
software, describes values of a function which are not in its
natural' range of return values, but are rather signals that some
kind of exception has occurred.  Many C functions, for example,
return either a nonnegative integral value or an out-of-band -1' to
indicate failure.  Compare {hidden flag}.

overflow bit: n. 1. [techspeak] On some processors, an attempt to
calculate a result too large for a register to hold causes a
particular {flag} called an {overflow bit} to be set.
2. Hackers use the term of human thought too.  "Well, the {{Ada}}
description was {baroque} all right, but I could hack it OK until
they got to the exception handling...that set my overflow bit."
3. The hypothetical bit that will be set if a hacker doesn't get to
make a trip to the Room Of Porcelain Fixtures: "I'd better process
an internal interrupt before the overflow bit gets set".

overrun: n. 1. [techspeak] Term for a frequent consequence of data
arriving faster than it can be consumed, esp. in serial line
communications.  For example, at 9600 baud there is almost exactly
one character per millisecond, so if your {silo} can hold only
two characters and the machine takes longer than 2 ms to get to
service the interrupt at least one character will be lost.  2. Also
applied to non-serial-I/O communications. "I forgot to pay my
electric bill due to mail overrun." "Sorry, I got four phone
calls in three minutes last night and lost your message to
overrun."  When {thrash}ing at tasks, the next person to make a
request might be told "Overrun!"  3. More loosely, may refer to a
{buffer overflow} not necessarily related to processing time (as
in {overrun screw}).

overrun screw: [C programming] n. A variety of {fandango on core}
produced by scribbling past the end of an array (C has no checks
for this).  This is relatively benign and easy to spot if the array
is static; if it is auto, the result may be to {smash the stack}
--- often resulting in {heisenbug}s of the most diabolical
subtlety.  The term overrun screw' is used esp. of scribbles
beyond the end of arrays allocated with malloc(3)'; this
typically trashes the allocation header for the next block in the
{arena}, producing massive lossage within malloc and often
a core dump on the next operation to use stdio(3)' or
{memory leak}, {aliasing bug}, {precedence lossage},
{fandango on core}, {secondary damage}.

= P =
=====

P.O.D.: /pee-oh-dee/ Acronym for Piece Of Data' (as opposed to a

padded cell: n. Where you put {luser}s so they can't hurt anything.
A program that limits a luser to a carefully restricted subset
of the capabilities of the host system (for example, the
rsh(1)' utility on UNIX).  Note that this is different from
an {iron box} because it's overt and not aimed at enforcing
security so much as protecting others (and the luser him/herself!)
from the consequences of the luser's boundless naivete (see
{naive}).  Also padded cell environment'.

page in: [MIT] vi. 1. To become aware of one's surroundings again after
having paged out (see {page out}).  Usually confined to the sarcastic
comment, "So-and-so pages in.  Film at 11."  See {film at 11}.
2. Syn. swap in'; see {swap}.

page out: [MIT] vi. 1. To become unaware of one's surroundings
temporarily, due to daydreaming or preoccupation.  "Can you repeat
that?  I paged out for a minute."  See {page in}.  Compare
{glitch}, {thinko}.  2. Syn. swap out'; see {swap}.

pain in the net: n. A {flamer}.

paper-net: n. Hackish way of referring to the postal service,
analogizing it to a very slow, low-reliability network.  USENET
{sig block}s not uncommonly include a "Paper-Net:" header just
before the sender's postal address; common variants of this are
"Papernet" and "P-Net".  Compare {voice-net}, {snail-mail}.

{parm}; Compare {arg}, {var}.

parent message: n. See {followup}.

parity errors: pl.n. Those little lapses of attention or (in more
severe cases) consciousness, usually brought on by having spent all
night and most of the next day hacking.  "I need to go home and
crash; I'm starting to get a lot of parity errors."  Derives from a
relatively common but nearly always correctable transient error in
RAM hardware.

parse: [from linguistic terminology] vt. 1. To determine the
syntactic structure of a sentence or other utterance (close to the
standard English meaning).  Example: "That was the one I saw
you."  "I can't parse that."  2. More generally, to understand
or comprehend.  "It's very simple; you just kretch the glims and
then aos the zotz."  "I can't parse that."  3. Of fish, to
have to remove the bones yourself (usually at a Chinese
restaurant).  "I object to parsing fish", means "I don't want to
get a whole fish, but a sliced one is okay."  A parsed fish'
has been deboned.  There is some controversy over whether
unparsed' should mean bony', or also mean deboned'.

Parkinson's Law of Data: prov. "Data expands to fill the space
available for storage"; buying more memory encourages the use of
more memory-intensive techniques.  It has been observed over the
last ten years that the memory usage of evolving systems tends to
double roughly once every 18 months.  Fortunately, memory density
available for constant dollars tends to double about once every
twelve months (see {Moore's Law}); unfortunately, the laws of
physics guarantee that this cannot be expected to continue
indefinitely.

parm: /parm/ n. Further-compressed form of {param}.  This term
is an IBMism, and written use is almost unknown outside IBM shops;
spoken /parm/ is more widely distributed, but the synonym {arg}
is favored among hackers.  Compare {arg}, {var}.

Pascal:: n. An Algol-descended language designed by Niklaus Wirth on
the CDC 6600 around 1967--68 as an instructional tool for elementary
programming.  This language, designed primarily to keep students
from shooting themselves in the foot and thus extremely restrictive
from a general-purpose-programming point of view, was later
promoted as a general-purpose tool and, in fact, became the ancestor
{bondage-and-discipline language}).  The hackish point of view on
Pascal was perhaps best summed up by a devastating (and, in its
deadpan way, screamingly funny) 1981 paper by Brian Kernighan (of
{K&R} fame) entitled Why Pascal is Not My Favorite
Programming Language'.  Part of his discussion is worth repeating
here, because its criticisms are still apposite to Pascal itself
after ten years of improvement and could also stand as an
indictment of many other bondage-and-discipline languages.  At
the end of a summary of the case against Pascal, he wrote:

9. There is no escape

This last point is perhaps the most important.  The language is
inadequate but circumscribed, because there is no way to escape its
limitations.  There are no casts to disable the type-checking when
necessary.  There is no way to replace the defective run-time
environment with a sensible one, unless one controls the compiler that
defines the "standard procedures".  The language is closed.

People who use Pascal for serious programming fall into a fatal trap.
Because the language is impotent, it must be extended.  But each group
extends Pascal in its own direction, to make it look like whatever
language they really want.  Extensions for separate compilation,
Fortran-like COMMON, string data types, internal static variables,
initialization, octal numbers, bit operators, etc., all add to the
utility of the language for one group but destroy its portability to
others.

I feel that it is a mistake to use Pascal for anything much beyond its
original target.  In its pure form, Pascal is a toy language, suitable
for teaching but not for real programming.

Pascal has since been almost entirely displaced (by {C}) from the
niches it had acquired in serious applications and systems
programming, but retains some popularity as a hobbyist language in
the MS-DOS and Macintosh worlds.

patch: 1. n. A temporary addition to a piece of code, usually as
a {quick and dirty} remedy to an existing bug or misfeature.  A
patch may or may not work, and may or may not eventually be
incorporated permanently into the program.  Compare {one-line
fix}.  2. vt. To insert a patch into a piece of code.  3. [in
the UNIX world] n. A {diff} (sense #2).  4. A set of
modifications to binaries to be applied by a patching program.  IBM
the form of absolute hexadecimal patches.  If you have modified
your OS, you have to disassemble these back to the source.  The
patches might later be corrected by other patches on top of them
(it was said that the patches "grow scar tissue").  The result
was often a convoluted {patch space} and headaches galore.

There is a classic story of a {tiger team} penetrating a secure
military computer which illustrates the danger inherent in binary
patches (or, indeed, any that you can't inspect and examine
beforehand).  They couldn't find any trapdoors or way to penetrate
security of IBM's OS, so they made a site visit to an IBM office
(remember, these were official military types who were purportedly
on official business), swiped some IBM stationery, and created a
fake patch.  The patch was actually the trapdoor they needed.  The
patch was distributed at about the right time for an IBM patch, had
official stationery and all accompanying documentation, and was
dutifully installed.  The installation manager very shortly
thereafter learned something about proper procedures....

patch space: n. An unused block of bits left in a binary so that it
can later be modified by insertion of machine-language instructions
there (typically, the superseded code is replaced by a jump or call
to the patched area).  In 1991, widening use of HLLs has made this
term rare and now primarily historical outside IBM shops.  See
{patch} (sense #4), {zap} (sense #4).

path: n. 1. A {bang path} or explicitly routed {{Internet
machines.  2. [UNIX] A filename, fully specified relative to the
root directory (as opposed to relative to the current directory;
the latter is sometimes called a relative path'). This is also
called a pathname'.  3. [UNIX & MS-DOS] The search
path', an environment variable specifying the directories in which
the {shell} (COMMAND.COM, under MS-DOS) should look for commands.
Other, similar constructs abound under UNIX (for example, the C
preprocessor has a search path' it uses in looking for
#include' files.

pathological: adj. 1. [scientific computation] Used of a data set
that is grossly atypical of normal expected input, esp. one which
exposes a weakness or bug in whatever algorithm one is using.  An
algorithm that can be broken by pathological inputs may still be
useful if such inputs are very unlikely to occur in practice.
2. When used of test input, implies that it was purposefully
engineered as a worst case.  The implication in both senses is that
the data is spectacularly ill-conditioned or that someone had to
explicitly set out to break the algorithm in order to come up with
such a crazy example.  2. Also said of an unlikely collection of
circumstances.  "If the network is down and comes up halfway
through the execution of that command by root, the system might
just crash."  "Yes, but that's a pathological case."  Often used
to dismiss the case from discussion, with the implication that the
consequences are acceptable given they will happen so infrequently
(or not at all) that their is no justification for going to extra
work to handle that case (see sense #1).

payware: n. Commercial software.  Oppose {shareware} or
{freeware}.

PBD: [abbrev. of Programmer Brain Damage'] n. Applied to bug reports
revealing places where the program was obviously broken due to an
{brain-damaged}.

PC-ism: n. A piece of code or coding technique that takes advantage
of the unprotected single-tasking environment in IBM PCs and the
like, e.g., by busy-waiting on a hardware register, direct diddling
of screen memory, or using hard timing loops.  Compare
{ill-behaved}, {vaxism}, {unixism}.  Also, pc-ware' n., a program
full of PC-isms on a machine with a more capable operating system.
Pejorative.

PD: /pee-dee/ adj. Common abbreviation for "public domain", applied
to software distributed over {USENET} and from Internet archive
sites.  Much of this software is not in fact "public domain" in
the legal sense but travels under various copyrights granting
reproduction and use rights to anyone who can {snarf} a copy.  See
{copyleft}.

pdl: /pid'l/ or /puhd'l/ [acronym for Push Down List] 1. In ITS
days, the preferred MITism for {stack}.  2. Dave Lebling, one
of the co-authors of {Zork}; (his {network address} on the ITS
machines was at one time pdl@dms).  3. Program Design Language.
Any of a large class of formal and profoundly useless
pseudo-languages in which {management} forces one to design
programs.  {Management} often expects it to be maintained in

PDP-10: [Programmed Data Processor model 10] n. The machine that
made timesharing real.  Looms large in hacker folklore due to early
adoption in the mid-1970s by many university computing facilities and
research labs including the MIT AI lab, Stanford, and CMU.  Some
aspects of the instruction set (most notably the bit-field
instructions) are still considered unsurpassed.  Later editions
were labelled DECsystem-10' as a way of differentiating them from
the PDP-11.  The '10 was eventually eclipsed by the VAX machines
(descendants of the PDP-11) and dropped from DEC's line in the
early 1980s, and in mid-1991 to have cut one's teeth on one is
considered something of a badge of honorable old-timerhood among
hackers.  See {TOPS-10}, {ITS}, {AOS}, {BLT}, {DDT},
{DPB}, {EXCH}, {HAKMEM}, {JFCL}, {LDB}, {pop},
{push}, Appendix A.

peek: n.,vt. (and {poke}) The commands in most microcomputer
BASICs for directly accessing memory contents at an absolute
address; often extended to mean the corresponding constructs in any
{HLL}.  Much hacking on small, non-MMU micros consists of
{peek}ing around memory, more or less at random, to find the
location where the system keeps interesting stuff.  Long (and
variably accurate) lists of such addresses for various computers
circulate (see {{interrupt list, the}}).  The results of {poke}s
at these addresses may be highly useful, mildly amusing, useless
but neat, or (most likely) total {lossage} (see {killer poke}).

pencil and paper: n. An archaic information-storage and
transmission device that works by depositing smears of graphite on
bleached wood pulp.  More recent developments in paper-based
technology include improved write-once' update devices which use
tiny rolling heads similar to mouse balls to deposit colored
pigment.  These devices require an operator skilled at so-called
handwriting' technique.  These technologies are ubiquitous outside
hackerdom, but nearly forgotten inside it.  Most hackers had
terrible handwriting to begin with, and years of keyboarding tend
if anything to have encouraged it to degrade further.  Perhaps for
this reason hackers deprecate pencil and paper technology and
often resist using it in any but the most trivial contexts.  See
also Appendix B.

peon: n. A person with no special ({root} or {wheel})
privileges on a computer system.  "I can't create an account on
foovax for you; I'm only a peon there."

percent-s: /per-sent' ess/ [From "%s", the formatting sequence in
C's printf(3)' library function used to insert an arbitrary
string argument] n. An unspecified person or object.  "I was just
talking to some percent-s in administration."  Compare {random}.

perf: /perf/ n. See {chad} (sense #1).  The term perfory'
/per'f*-ree/ is also heard.

perfect programmer syndrome: n. Arrogance; the egotistical
conviction that one is above normal human error.  Most frequently
found among programmers of some native ability but relatively
little experience (especially new graduates; their perceptions may
be distorted by a history of excellent performance bashing toy
problems).  "Of course my program is correct, there is no need to
test it."  Or "Yes, I can see there may be a problem here, but
*I'll* never type rm -r /' while in {root}."

Perl: [Practical Extraction and Report Language, aka Pathologically
Eclectic Rubbish Lister] n. An interpreted language developed by
Larry Wall (lwall@jpl.nasa.gov, author of patch(1)' and
rn(1)') and distributed over USENET.  Superficially resembles
awk(1)', but is much hairier (see {awk}).  UNIX sysadmins,
who are almost always incorrigible hackers, increasingly consider
it one of the {languages of choice}.  Perl has been described, in
a parody of a famous remark about lex(1)', as the "Swiss-army
chainsaw" of UNIX programming.

pessimal: /pes'i-ml/ [Latin-based antonym for optimal'] adj.
Maximally bad.  "This is a pessimal situation."  Also pessimize'
vt. To make as bad as possible.  These words are the obvious
Latin-based antonyms for optimal' and optimize', but for some
reason they do not appear in most English dictionaries, although
pessimize' is listed in the OED.

pessimizing compiler: /pes'i-miez-ing kuhm-pie'lr/ [antonym of
optimizing compiler'] n. A compiler that produces object code that
is worse than the straightforward or obvious hand translation.  The
implication is that the compiler is actually trying to optimize the
program, but through excessive cleverness is doing the opposite.  A
few pessimizing compilers have been written on purpose, however, as
pranks or burlesques.

peta-: /pe't*/ pref. See {{quantifiers}}.

PETSCII: /pet'skee/ [abbreviation of PET ASCII] n. The variation
(many would say perversion) of the {{ASCII}} character set used by
the Commodore Business Machines PET series of personal computers
and the later Commodore C64, C16, and C128 machines.  The PETSCII
set used left-arrow and up-arrow (as in old-style ASCII) instead of
underscore and caret, placed the unshifted alphabet at positions
65--90, and put the shifted alphabet at positions
193--218, and also added graphics characters.

phase: 1. n. The phase of one's waking-sleeping schedule with
respect to the standard 24-hour cycle.  This is a useful concept
among people who often work at night and/or according to no fixed
schedule.  It is not uncommon to change one's phase by as much as
six hours/day on a regular basis.  "What's your phase?"  "I've
been getting in about 8 PM lately, but I'm going to {wrap around}
to the day schedule by Friday."  A person who is roughly 12 hours
out of phase is sometimes said to be in night mode'.  (The
term day mode' is also (but less frequently) used, meaning
you're working 9 to 5 (or, more likely, 10 to 6)).  The act of
altering one's cycle is called changing phase'; phase
shifting' has also been recently reported from Caltech.
2. change phase the hard way': to stay awake for a very long
time in order to get into a different phase.  3. change phase
the easy way': To stay asleep etc.  However, some claim that either
staying awake longer or sleeping longer is easy, and that it's
*shortening* your day or night that's hard (see {wrap
around}).  The phenomenon of jet lag' that afflicts travelers who
cross many time-zone boundaries may be attributed to two distinct
causes: the strain of travel per se, and the strain of changing
phase.  Hackers who suddenly find that they must change phase
drastically in a short period of time, particularly the hard way,
experience something very like jet lag without travelling.

phase of the moon: n. Used humorously as a random parameter on which
something is said to depend.  Sometimes implies unreliability of
whatever is dependent, or that reliability seems to be dependent on
conditions nobody has been able to determine.  "This feature
depends on having the channel open in mumble mode, having the foo
switch set, and on the phase of the moon."

True story: Once upon a time there was a bug that really did depend
on the phase of the moon!  There is a little subroutine that had
traditionally been used in various programs at MIT to calculate an
approximation to the moon's true phase.  GLS incorporated this
routine into a LISP program that, when it wrote out a file, would
print a timestamp' line almost 80 characters long.  Very
occasionally the first line of the message would be too long and
would overflow onto the next line, and when the file was later read
back in the program would {barf}.  The length of the first line
depended on both the precise date and time and the length of the
phase specification when the timestamp was printed, and so the bug
literally depended on the phase of the moon!

The first paper edition of the Jargon File (Steele-1983) included
an example one of the timestamp lines that exhibited this bug, but
the typesetter corrected' it.  This has since been described as
the phase-of-the-moon-bug bug.

phreaking: [from "phone phreak"] n. 1. The art and science of
cracking the phone network (so as, for example, to make free
long-distance calls).  2. By extension, security-cracking in any
other context (especially, but not exclusively, on communications
networks).

At one time phreaking was a semi-respectable activity among
hackers; there was a gentleman's agreement that phreaking as an
intellectual game and a form of exploration was O.K., but serious
theft of services was taboo.  There was significant crossover
between the hacker community and the hard-core phone phreaks who
ran semi-underground networks of their own like the legendary TAP
Newsletter'.  This ethos began to break down in the mid-1980s as
wider dissemination of the techniques put them in the hands of less
responsible phreaks.  Around the same time, changes in the phone
network made old-style technical ingenuity less effective as a way
of hacking it, so phreaking came to depend more on overtly criminal
acts like stealing phone-card numbers.  The crimes and punishments
of gangs like the 414 group' turned that game very ugly.  A few
old-time hackers still phreak casually just to keep their hand in,
but most these days have hardly even heard of blue boxes' or any
of the other paraphernalia of the great phreaks of yore.

pico-: [in measurement, a quantifier meaning * 10 ^ -12']
pref.  Smaller than {nano-}; used in the same rather loose and
connotative way as {nano-} and {micro-}.  This usage is not yet
common in the way {nano-} and {micro-} are, but should be
{micro-}.

pig, run like a: v. To run very slowly on given hardware, said of
software.  Distinct from {hog}.

pilot error: [Sun; from aviation] n. A user's misconfiguration or
misuse of a piece of software, producing apparently buglike results
(compare {UBD}).  "Joe Luser reported a bug in sendmail that
causes it to generate bogus headers."  "That's not a bug, that's
pilot error.  His sendmail.cf is hosed."

ping: /ping/ [from TCP/IP terminology, prob. originally contrived
to match the submariners' term for a sonar pulse.]  1. n.
Slang term for a small network message (ICMP ECHO) sent by a
computer to check for the presence and aliveness of another.
Occasionally used as a phone greeting.  See {ACK}, also {ENQ}.
2. vt. To verify the presence of.  3. vt. To get the attention of.
From the UNIX command by the same name (an acronym of Packet
INternet Groper') that sends an ICMP ECHO packet to another host.
4. vt. To send a message to all members of a {mailing list}
requesting an {ACK} (in order to verify that everybody's
addresses are reachable).  "We haven't heard much of anything from
Geoff, but he did respond with an ACK both times I pinged
jargon-friends."

The funniest use of ping' to date was described in January 1991 by
Steve Hayman on the USENET group comp.sys.next.  He was trying to
isolate a faulty cable segment on a TCP/IP Ethernet hooked up to a
NeXT machine, and got tired of having to run back to his console
after each cabling tweak to see if the ping packets were getting
through.  So he used the sound-recording feature on the NeXT, then
wrote a script that repeatedly invoked ping, listened for an echo,
and played back the recording on each returned packet.  Result?  A
program that caused the machine to repeat, over and over, "Ping
... ping ... ping ..." as long as the network was up.
He turned the volume to maximum, ferreted through the building with
one ear cocked, and found a faulty tee connector in no time.

Pink-Shirt Book: The Peter Norton Programmer's Guide to the IBM
PC'.  The original cover featured a picture of Peter Norton with a
silly smirk on his face, wearing a pink shirt.  Perhaps in
recognition of this usage, the current edition has a different

PIP: /pip/ [Peripheral Interchange Program] vt.,obs. To copy; from
the program PIP on CP/M, RSX-11, RSTS/E and OS/8 (derived from a
utility on the PDP-6) that was used for file copying (and in OS/8
and RT-11 for just about every other file operation you might want
to do).  It is said that when the program was originated during the
development of the PDP-6 in 1963 it was called ATLATL (Anything,
Lord, to Anything, Lord').

pipeline: [UNIX, orig. by Doug McIlroy; now also used under MS-DOS
and elsewhere] n. A chain of {filter} programs connected
head-to-tail' so that the output of one becomes the input of the
next.  Under UNIX, user utilities can often be implemented or at
least prototyped by a suitable collection of pipelines and
temp-file grinding encapsulated in a shell script (this is called
{plumbing}); this is much less effort than writing C every time,
and the capability is considered one of UNIX's major winning
features.

pistol: [IBM] n. A tool that makes it all too easy for you to
shoot yourself in the foot.  "UNIX rm *' makes such a nice
pistol!"

pizza box: [Sun] n. The largish thin box housing the electronics
in (especially Sun) desktop workstations, so named because of its
size and shape, and the dimpled pattern that looks like air holes.

2 meg single-platter removable disk packs used to be called pizzas,
and the huge drive they were stuck into was referred to as a pizza
oven.  It's an index of progress that in the old days just the disk
was pizza-sized, while now the entire computer is.

pizza, ANSI standard: /an'see stan'd*rd peet'z*/ [CMU] Pepperoni
and mushroom pizza.  Coined allegedly because most pizzas ordered
by CMU hackers during some period leading up to mid-1990 were of
standard cup of}.

plain-ASCII: Syn. {flat-ASCII}.

plan file: [UNIX] n. On systems that support {finger}, the
.plan' file in a user's home directory is displayed when he or she
is fingered.  This feature was originally intended to be used to
keep potential fingerers apprised of one's location and near-future
plans, but has been turned almost universally to humorous and
self-expressive purposes (like a {sig block}).  See {Hacking X
for Y}.

platinum-iridium: adj. Standard, against which all others of the
same category are measured.  Usage: silly.  The notion is that one
of whatever it is has actually been cast in platinum-iridium alloy
and placed in the vault beside the Standard Kilogram at the
International Bureau of Weights and Measures near Paris.  (From
1889 to 1960, the meter was defined to be the distance between two
scratches in a platinum-iridium bar kept in the same place.  From
1960 to 1984 it was defined to be 1650763.73 wavelengths of the
orange-red line of krypton-86 propagating in a vacuum, but it is
now defined as the length of the path traveled by light in a vacuum
in the time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.  The kilogram is
now the only unit of measure officially defined in terms of a
unique artifact.)  "This garbage-collection algorithm has been
tested against the platinum-iridium cons cell in Paris."  Compare
{golden}.

playpen: [IBM] n. A room where programmers work.  Compare {salt
mines}.

playte: /playt/ 16 bits, by analogy with {nybble} and {{byte}}.  Usage:

plingnet: /pling'net/ n. Syn. {UUCPNET}.  Also see
{{Commonwealth Hackish}}, which uses pling' for bang' (as in
{bang path}).

plokta: /plok'tuh/ [Acronym for "Press Lots Of Keys To Abort"] v.
To press random keys in an attempt to get some response from the
system.  One might plokta when the abort procedure for a program is
not known, or after the system hangs to figure out if the system is
just sluggish or really hung.  Plokta can also be used while trying
to figure out any unknown key sequence for a particular operation.
When someone goes into plokta mode' they usualy place both hands
flat on the keyboard and press down hoping for some useful
response.

plonk: [USENET; possibly influenced by British slang plonk' for
cheap booze] The sound a {newbie} makes as he falls to the bottom
of a {kill file}.  Almost exclusively used in the {newsgroup}
talk.bizarre', this term (usually written "*plonk*") is a
form of public ridicule.

plugh: /ploogh/ [from the {ADVENT} game] v. See {xyzzy}.

plumbing: [UNIX] n. Term used for {shell} code, so called
because of the prevalence of {pipeline}s that feed the output
of one program to the input of another.  Esp. used in the
construction hairy plumbing' (see {hairy}).  "You can kluge
together a basic spell-checker out of sort(1)',
comm(1)', and tr(1)' with a little plumbing."

PM: /pee em/ 1. v. (from preventive maintenance') To bring
down a machine for inspection or test purposes; see {scratch
monkey}.  2. n. Abbrev. for Presentation Manager', an
{provocative maintenance}.

pod: [allegedly from acronym POD for Prince Of Darkness'] n. A
Diablo 630 (or, latterly, any letter-quality impact printer).  From
the DEC-10 PODTYPE program used to feed formatted text to same.

poke: n.,vt. See {peek}.

poll: v.,n. 1. [techspeak] The action of checking the status of
an input line, sensor, or memory location to see if a particular
external event has been registered.  2. To repeatedly call or
check with someone, e.g., "I keep polling him, but he's not
"Lunch?  I poll for a takeout order daily."

polygon pusher: n. A chip designer who spends most of his/her time at
the physical layout level (which requires drawing *lots* of
multi-colored polygons).  Also rectangle slinger'.

POM: /pee-oh-em/ n. Common acronym for {phase of the moon}.
Usage: usually used in the phrase POM-dependent' which means
{flaky}.

pop: /pop/ [from the operation that removes the top of a stack,
and the fact that procedure return addresses are saved on the
stack] (also capitalized POP') 1. vt. To remove something from a
{stack} or {pdl}.  If a person says he has popped something
from his stack, he means he has finally finished working on it and
can now remove it from the list of things hanging over his head.
2. When a discussion gets to too deep a level of detail such that
the main point of the discussion is being lost, someone will shout
"Pop!" meaning "Get back up to a higher level!".  The shout is
frequently accompanied by an upthrust arm with a finger pointing to
the ceiling.

POPJ: /pop'jay/ [from a {PDP-10} return-from-subroutine
instruction] n.v. To return from a digression.  By verb doubling,
"Popj, popj" means roughly, "Now let's see, where were we?"
See {RTI}.

posing: n. On a {MUD}, the use of :' or an equivalent
command to announce to other players that one is taking a certain
physical action, which however has no effect on the game.  For
example, if one's character name is Firechild, one might type :
begins hacking on the nearest terminal' to broadcast a message that
says Firechild begins hacking on the nearest terminal'.

post: v. To send a message to a {mailing list} or {newsgroup}.
Distinguished in context from mail'; one might ask, for
example, "Are you going to post the patch or mail it to known
users?"

posting: n. Noun corresp. to v. {post} (but note that the
{post} can be nouned).  Distinguished from a letter' or ordinary
{email} message by the fact that it's broadcast rather than
point-to-point.  It is unclear whether messages sent to a small
mailing list are postings or email; perhaps the best dividing line
is that if you don't know the names of all the potential
recipients, it's a posting.

postmaster: n. The email contact and maintenance person at a site
connected to the Internet or UUCPNET.  Often, but not always, the
same as the {admin}.  It is conventional for each machine to have
a postmaster' address that is aliased to this person.

pound on: vt.  Syn. {bang on}.

power cycle: vt. (also, cycle power' or just cycle') To
power off a machine and then power it on immediately, with the
intention of clearing some kind of {hung} or {gronk}ed state.
nerve pinch}, {bounce}, {boot}, and see the AI Koan in Appendix
A about Tom Knight and the novice.

PPN: /pip'n/ [from Project-Programmer Number'] n. A user-ID under
{TOPS-10} and its various mutant progeny at SAIL, BBN,
CompuServe, and elsewhere.  Old-time hackers from the PDP-10 era
sometimes use this to refer to user IDs on other systems as well.

precedence lossage: /pre's*-dens los'j/ [C programmers] n. Coding
error in an expression due to unexpected grouping of arithmetic or
logical operators by the compiler.  Used esp. of certain common
coding errors in C due to the nonintuitively low precedence levels
of &', |', ^', <<', and >>' (for this
reason, experienced C programmers deliberately forget the
language's {baroque} precedence hierarchy and parenthesize
defensively).  Can always be avoided by suitable use of
parentheses.  {LISP} fans enjoy pointing out that this can't
happen in *their* favorite language, which eschews precedence
entirely, requiring one to use explicit parentheses everywhere.
See {aliasing bug}, {memory leak}, {smash the stack},
{fandango on core}, {overrun screw}.

prepend: /preepend'/ [by analogy with append'] vt. To prefix.
Like append', but (unlike prefix' or suffix' as a
verb) the direct object is always the thing being added and not the
original word (character string, etc).  No, this is *not*
standard English, yet!

pretty pictures: n. [scientific computation] The next step up from
{numbers}.  Interesting graphical output from a program which may
not have any sensible relationship to the system the program is
intended to model.  Good for showing to {management}.

prettyprint: /prit'ee-print/ (alt. pretty-print') v. 1. To
generate pretty' human-readable output from a {hairy} internal
representation; esp. used for the process of {grind}ing (sense
#2) LISP code.  2. To format in some particularly slick and
nontrivial way.

prime time: [from TV programming] n. Normal high-usage hours on a
timesharing system; the day shift.  Avoidance of prime time is a
major reason for {night mode} hacking.

priority interrupt: [from the hardware term] n. Describes any
stimulus compelling enough to yank one right out of {hack mode}.
Classically used to describe being dragged away by an {SO} for
immediate sex, but may also refer to more mundane interruptions
such as a fire alarm going off in the near vicinity.  Also called
an {NMI} (non-maskable interrupt), especially in PC-land.

profile: [UNIX] n. 1. A control file for a program, esp. a text
file automatically read from each user's home directory and
intended to be easily modified by the user in order to customize
the program's behavior.  Used to avoid {hardcoded} choices.
2. [techspeak] A report on the amounts of time spent in each
routine of a program, used to find and {tune} away the {hot
spot}s in it.  This sense is often verbed.  Some profiling modes
report units other than time (such as call counts) and/or at
granularities other than per-routine, but the idea is similar.

proglet: [Britain] n. A short extempore program written to
meet an immediate, transient need.  Often written in BASIC,
rarely more than a dozen lines long, and contains no subroutines.
The largest amount of code that can be written off the top of one's
head that does not need any editing and that runs correctly the
first time.  Compare {toy program}, {one-liner wars}.

program: n. 1. A magic spell cast over a computer allowing it to
turn one's input into error messages.  2. An exercise in
experimental epistemology.  3. A form of art, ostensibly intended
for the instruction of computers, which is nevertheless almost
inevitably a failure if other programmers can't understand it.

Programmer's Cheer: "Shift to the left!  Shift to the right!  Pop
up, push down!  Byte!  Byte!  Byte!"  A joke so old it has hair on
it....

programming: n. 1. In folklore, this was classically defined as
"the art of debugging a blank sheet of paper".  Following the
rise of on-line editing this should probably be recast as "The art
of debugging an empty source file."  2. n. A pastime similar to
banging one's head against a wall, but with fewer opportunities for
reward.  3. n. The most fun you can have with your clothes on
(although clothes are not mandatory).

propeller head: n. Used by hackers, this is syn. with {computer
geek}.  Non-hackers sometimes use it to describe all techies.
Prob. derives from SF fandom's tradition (originally invented by
old-time fan Ray Faraday Nelson) of propeller beanies as fannish
insignia (though nobody actually wears them except as a joke).

proprietary: adj. 1. In {marketroid}-speak, superior; implies a
product imbued with exclusive magic by the unmatched brilliance of
their employer's hardware or software designers.  2. In the
language of hackers and users, inferior; implies a product not
conforming to open-systems standards, and thus one which puts the
customer at the mercy of a vendor able to gouge freely on service
and upgrade charges after the initial sale has locked the customer
in (that's assuming it wasn't too expensive in the first place).

protocol: n. As used by hackers, this never refers to niceties
about the proper form for addressing letters to the Papal Nuncio or
the order in which one should use the forks in a Russian-style
place setting; hackers don't care about such things.  It is used
instead to describe any set of rules that allow different machines
or pieces of software to coordinate with each other without
ambiguity.  So for example, it does include niceties about the
proper form for addressing packets on a network or the order in
which one should use the forks in the Dining Philosophers Problem.
It implies that there's some common message format and accepted set
of primitives or commands that all parties involved understand, and
that transactions among them follow predictable logical sequences.

provocative maintenance: [common ironic mutation of preventive
maintenance'] n. Actions performed upon a machine at regularly
scheduled intervals to insure that the system remains in a usable
state.  So called because its all too frequently performed by a
{field servoid} who doesn't know what he is doing; this results
in the machine remaining in an *un*usable state for an
indeterminate amount of time.

prowler: [UNIX] n. A {daemon} that is run periodically (typically once
a week) to seek out and erase core files (see {core}), truncate
administrative logfiles, nuke lost+found' directories, and otherwise
clean up the {cruft} that tends to pile up in the corners of a file

pseudo: /soo'doh/ [USENET] n. 1. An electronic-mail or {USENET}
persona adopted by a human for amusement value or as a means of
avoiding negative repercussions of his/her net.behavior; a nom de
USENET', often associated with forged postings designed to conceal
message origins.  Perhaps the best-known and funniest hoax of this
type is {BIFF}.  2. Notionally, a {flamage}-generating AI
program simulating a USENET user.  Many flamers have been accused
of actually being such entities, despite the fact that no AI
program of the required sophistication exists.  However, in 1989
there was a famous series of forged postings that used a
phrase-frequency-based travesty generator to simulate the styles of
several well-known flamers based on large samples of their back
postings (compare {Dissociated Press}).  A significant number of
people were fooled by these, and the debate over their authenticity
was only settled when the perpetrator of the hoax came forward to

pseudoprime: n. A backgammon prime (six consecutive occupied
points) with one point missing.  This term is an esoteric pun
derived from a mathematical method which, rather than determining
precisely whether a number is prime (has no divisors), uses a
statistical technique to decide whether the number is probably'
prime.  A number that passes this test is called a pseudoprime.
The hacker backgammon usage stems from the idea that a pseudoprime
is almost as good as a prime: it does the job of a prime until
proven otherwise, and that probably won't happen.

pseudosuit: n. A {suit} wannabee; a hacker who's decided that he
wants to be in management or administration and begins wearing
ties, sport coats, and (shudder!) suits voluntarily.  It's his

psychedelicware: /siek*-del'-ik-weir/ [Great Britain] n. Syn.

psyton: [TMRC] n. Elementary particle carrying the sinister force.
The probability of a process losing is proportional to the number
of psytons falling on it.  [This term appears to have been largely
superseded by {bogon} -- ESR]

pubic directory: [NYU] (also pube directory' /pyoob/) n. The
pub' (public) directory on a machine that allows {FTP}
access.  So called because it is the default location for {SEX}
(sense #1).  "I'll have the source in the /pyoob/ directory by
Friday."

puff: vt. To decompress data that has been crunched by Huffman
coding.  At least one widely distributed Huffman decoder program
was actually *named* PUFF', but these days it is usually
packaged with the encoder.  Oppose {huff}.

punched card:: alt. punch card' [techspeak] n.obs. The
signature medium of computing's {Stone Age}, now obsolescent
outside of some IBM shops.  The punched card actually predated
computers considerably, originating as a control device for
mechanical looms.  The version patented by Hollerith and used with
mechanical tabulating machines in the 1890 U.S. Census was a piece
of cardboard about 90 mm by 215 mm, designed to fit exactly in the
currency trays used for that era's larger dollar bills.

IBM (which originated as a tabulating-machine manufacturer) married
the punched card to computers, encoding binary information as
patterns of small rectangular holes; one character per column, 80
columns per card.  Later, other coding schemes, sizes of card, and
hole shape were tried.

The 80-column width of most character terminals is a legacy of the
punched card; so is the size of the quick reference cards
distributed with many varieties of computers even today.  See
{dusty deck}, {lace card}, {card walloper}.

punt: [from the punch line of an old joke referring to American
football: "Drop back 15 yards and punt"] vt. 1. To give up,
typically without any intention of retrying.  "Let's punt the
movie tonight."  "I was going to hack all night to get this
feature in, but I decided to punt." may mean that you've decided
not to stay up all night, and may also mean you're not ever even
going to put in the feature.  2. More specifically, to give up on
figuring out what the {Right Thing} is and resort to an
inefficient hack.  3. A design decision to defer solving a
problem, typically because one cannot define what is desirable
sufficiently well to frame an algorithmic solution.  "No way to
know what the right form to to dump the graph in is --- we'll punt
that for now."  4. To hand a tricky implementation problem off
to some other section of the design.  "It's too hard to get the
compiler to do that; let's punt to the runtime system."

Purple Book: n. The System V Interface Definition'.  The covers
of the first editions were an amazingly nauseating shade of

push: [from the operation that puts the current information on a
stack, and the fact that procedure return addresses are saved on
the stack] Also PUSH or PUSHJ /push-jay/ (the latter based on the
PDP-10 procedure call instruction).  1. To put something onto a
{stack} or {pdl}.  If a person says something has been pushed
onto his stack, it means the Damoclean list lof things hanging over
his head has grown longer and heavier yet.  This may also imply
that he will deal with it *before* other pending items;
otherwise he might say the thing was "added to his queue".
2. vi. To enter upon a digression, to save the current discussion

= Q =
=====

quad: n. 1. Two bits; syn. for {quarter}, {crumb},
{tayste}.  2. A four-pack of anything (compare {hex}, sense
#2).  3. The rectangle or box glyph used in the APL language for
various arcane purposes mostly related to I/O.  Ex-Ivy-Leaguers and
Oxbridge types are said to associate it with nostalgic memories of
dear old University.

use of all four of the shifting keys control, meta, hyper, and
super while typing a character key.  2. On a Stanford or MIT
keyboard in {raw mode}, use of four shift keys while typing a
fifth character, where the four shift keys are the control and meta
keys on *both* sides of the keyboard.  This was very difficult
to do!  One accepted technique was to press the left-control and
left-meta keys with your left hand, the right-control and
right-meta keys with your right hand, and the fifth key with your
nose.

Quadruple-bucky combinations were very seldom used in practice,
because when one invented a new command one usually assigned it to
some character that was easier to type.  If you want to imply that
a program has ridiculously many commands or features, you can say
something like "Oh, the command that makes it spin the tapes while
whistling Beethoven's 5th Symphony is quadruple-bucky-cokebottle."
See {double bucky}, {bucky bits}, {cokebottle}.

quantifiers:: n. In techspeak and jargon, the standard metric
prefixes used in scientific measurement have dual uses.  With units
of time or things that come in powers of 10, such as money, they
retain their usual meanings of multiplication by powers of
1000 = 10 ^ 3'.  But when used with bytes or other things
that naturally come in powers of 2, they usually denote
multiplication by powers of 1024 = 2 ^ 10'.  Here are the
magnifying prefixes in jargon use:

prefix  decimal           binary
kilo-   1000^1   1024^1 = 2^10 = 1,024
mega-   1000^2   1024^2 = 2^20 = 1,048,576
giga-   1000^3   1024^3 = 2^30 = 1,073,741,824
tera-   1000^4   1024^4 = 2^40 = 1,099,511,627,776
peta-   1000^5   1024^5 = 2^50 = 1,125,899,906,842,624
exa-    1000^6   1024^6 = 2^60 = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976

Here are the fractional prefixes:

{prefix  decimal     jargon usage}
milli-  1000^-1     (not used in jargon)
micro-	1000^-2     small or human-scale (see {micro-})
nano-   1000^-3     even smaller (see {nano-})
pico-   1000^-4     even smaller yet (see {pico-})
femto-  1000^-5     (not used in jargon -- yet)
femto-  1000^-6     (not used in jargon -- yet)

The binary peta- and exa- loadings are not yet in common use, and
the prefix milli- denoting multiplication by 1000^-1' has
always been rare.  See the entries on {micro-}, {pico-}, and
terms.  The remaining standard quantifiers are femto'
(10 ^ -15') and atto' (10 ^ -18'); these,
interestingly, derive not from Greek but from Danish.  They have
not yet acquired jargon loadings, though it is easy to predict what
those will be once computing technology enters the required realms
of magnitude (however, see {attoparsec}).

There are, of course, some standard unit prefixes for powers of ten.  In
the following table, the decimal prefix' column is the
international standard suffix for the appropriate power of ten; the
second column lists jargon abbreviations and words for the
corresponding power of 2.  The B-suffixed forms are commonly used
for byte quantities; the words meg' and gig' are nouns which may
(but do not always) pluralize with s'.

prefix   decimal   binary suffixes & words    pronunciation
kilo-       k              K, KB,                 /kay/
mega-       M              M, MB, meg             /meg/
giga-       G              G, GB, gig           /gig/,/jig/

Confusingly, hackers often use K as though it were a suffix or
numeric multiplier rather than a prefix; thus "2K dollars".

K, M, and G used alone refer to quantities of bytes; thus, 64G is
64 gigabytes and a K' is a kilobyte (compare mainstream use of a
G' as short for a grand', that is 1000). Whether one pronounces gig' with hard or soft g' depends on what one thinks the proper pronunciation of giga-' is. Confusion of 1000 and 1024 (or other powers of 2 and 10 close in magnitude), for example, describing memory in units of 500K or 524K instead of 512K, is a sure sign of the {marketroid}. quantum bogodynamics: /kwon'tm bohgoh-die-nam'iks/ n. A theory that characterizes the universe in terms of bogon sources (such as politicians, used-car salesmen, TV evangelists, and {suit}s in general), bogon sinks (such as taxpayers and computers), and bogosity potential fields. Bogon absorption, of course, causes human beings to behave mindlessly and machines to fail (and may also cause them to emit secondary bogons); however, the precise mechanics of the bogon-computron interaction are not yet understood and remain to be elucidated. Quantum bogodynamics is most frequently invoked to explain the sharp increase in hardware and software failures in the presence of suits; the latter emit bogons which the former absorb. See {bogon}, {computron}, {suit}. quarter: n. Two bits. This in turn comes from the pieces of eight' famed in pirate movies --- Spanish gold pieces that could be broken into eight pie-slice-shaped bits' to make change. Early in the U.S.'s history the coin was considered equal to a dollar, so each of these bits' was considered worth 12.5 cents. Syn. {tayste}, {crumb}, {quad}. Usage: rare. See also {nickle}, {nybble}, {{byte}}, {dynner}. ques: /kwess/ 1. n. The question mark character (?', ASCII #b0111111). 2. interj. What? Also frequently verb-doubled as "Ques ques?" See {wall}. quick and dirty: adj. Describes a {crock} put together under time or user pressure. Used esp. when you want to convey that you think the fast way might lead to trouble further down the road. "I can have a quick-and-dirty fix in place tonight, but I'll have to rewrite the whole module to solve the underlying design problem." See also {kluge}. quote chapter and verse: [by analogy with the mainstream phrase] v. To reproduce a relevant excerpt from an appropriate {bible}. "I don't care if rn gets it wrong; Followup-To: poster' is explicitly permitted by RFC1036. I'll quote chapter and verse if you don't believe me." quux: /kwuhks/ Mythically, from the Latin semi-deponent verb quuxo, quuxare, quuxandum iri; noun form variously quux' (plural quuces', anglicized to quuxes') and quuxu' (genitive plural is quuxuum', for four u-letters out of seven total, using up all the u' letters in Scrabble in one swell foop).] 1. Originally, a metasyntactic variable like {foo} and {foobar}. Invented by Guy Steele for precisely this purpose when he was young and naive and not yet interacting with the real computing community. Many people invent such words; this one seems simply to have been lucky enough to have spread a little. In an eloquent display of poetic justice, it has returned to the originator in the form of a nickname. 2. interj. See {foo}; however, denotes very little disgust, and is uttered mostly for the sake of the sound of it. 3. Guy Steele in his persona as The Great Quux', which is somewhat infamous for light verse and for the Crunchly' cartoons. 4. In some circles, quux is used as a punning opposite of crux'. "Ah, that's the quux of the matter!" implies that the point is *not* crucial (compare {tip of the ice-cube}). 5. quuxy: adj. Of or pertaining to a quux. qux: /kwuhks/ The fourth of the standard metasyntactic variables, after {baz} and before the quu(u...)x series. See {foo}, {bar}, {baz}, {quux}. Note that this appears to be a recent mutation from {quux}, and that many versions of the standard series just run {foo}, {bar}, {baz}, {quux}, .... QWERTY: /kwer'tee/ [from the keycaps at the upper left] adj. Pertaining to a standard English-language typewriter keyboard (sometimes called the Sholes keyboard after its inventor), as opposed to Dvorak or foreign-language layouts or a {space-cadet keyboard} or APL keyboard. Historical note: the QWERTY layout was designed to be deliberately slow, because fast typing jammed up early mechanical typewriters. = R = ===== rain dance: n. 1. Any ceremonial action taken to correct a hardware problem, with the expectation that nothing will be accomplished. This especially applies to reseating printed circuit boards, reconnecting cables, etc. "I can't boot up the machine. We'll have to wait for Greg to do his rain dance." 2. Any arcane sequence of actions performed with computers or software in order to achieve some goal; the term is usually restricted to rituals that include both an {incantation} or two and physical activity or motion. Compare {magic}, {voodoo programming}, {black art}. random: adj. 1. Unpredictable (closest to mathematical definition); weird. "The system's been behaving pretty randomly." 2. Assorted; undistinguished. "Who was at the conference?" "Just a bunch of random business types." 3. (pejorative) Frivolous; unproductive; undirected. "He's just a random loser." 4. Incoherent or inelegant; not well organized. "The program has a random set of misfeatures." "That's a random name for that function." "Well, all the names were chosen pretty randomly." 5. In no particular order, though deterministic. "The I/O channels are in a pool, and when a file is opened one is chosen randomly." 6. Arbitrary. "It generates a random name for the scratch file." 7. Gratuitously wrong, i.e., poorly done and for no good apparent reason. For example, a program that handles file name defaulting in a particularly useless way, or an assembler routine that could easily have been coded using only three registers, but redundantly uses seven for values with non-overlapping lifetimes, so that no one else can invoke it without first saving four extra registers. What {randomness}! 8. n. A random hacker; used particularly of high school students who soak up computer time and generally get in the way. 9. n. Anyone who is not a hacker (or, sometimes, anyone not known to the hacker speaking); the noun form of sense #2. "I went to the talk, but the audience was full of randoms asking bogus questions". 10. n. (occasional MIT usage) One who lives at Random Hall. See also {J. Random}, {some random X}. random numbers:: n. When one wishes to specify a large but random number of things, and the context is inappropriate for {N}, certain numbers are preferred by hacker tradition (that is, easily recognized as placeholders). These include 17 Long described at MIT as the least random number', see 23. 23 Sacred number of Eris, Goddess of Discord (along with 17 and 5). 42 The Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe and Everything. (Note that this answer is completely fortuitous.) 69 From the sexual act. This one was favored in MIT's ITS culture. 105 69 hex = 105 decimal, and 69 decimal = 105 octal. 666 The Number of the Beast. For further enlightenment, consult the Principia Discordia', The Hitchhiker's Guide To The Galaxy', The Joy of Sex', and the Christian Bible's Book Of Revelations' (chapter 13, verse 18). See also {Discordianism} or consult your pineal gland. One common rhetorical maneuver uses any of the canonical random numbers as placeholders for variables. One might hear "The max function takes 42 arguments, for arbitrary values of 42." or "There are 69 ways to leave your lover, for 69 = 50." This is especially likely when the speaker has uttered a random number and realizes that it was not recognized as such, but even non-random' numbers are occasionally used in this fashion. A related joke is that "Pi equals 3 --- for small values of pi and large values of 3." randomness: n. An unexplainable misfeature; gratuitous inelegance. Also, a {hack} or {crock} which depends on a complex combination of coincidences (or possibly, the combination upon which the crock depends for its accidental failure to malfunction). "This hack can output characters 40--57 by putting the character in the accumulator field of an XCT and then extracting 6 bits --- the low two bits of the XCT opcode are the right thing." "What randomness!" rape: vt. 1. To {screw} someone or something, violently; in particular, to destroy a program or information irrecoverably. Usage: often used in describing file-system damage. "So-and-so was running a program that did absolute disk I/O and ended up raping the master directory." 2. To strip a piece of hardware for parts. rare: [UNIX] adj. CBREAK mode (character-by-character with interrupts enabled). Distinguished from {raw mode} and cooked mode'; the phrase "a sort of half-cooked (rare?) mode" is used in the V7/BSD manuals to describe the mode. Usage: rare. raster blaster: n. [Cambridge] Specialized hardware for {bitblt} operations (a {blitter}). Allegedly inspired by analogy with Rasta Blasta', British slang for the sort of portable stereo/radio/tapedeck Americans call a boom box' or ghetto blaster'. raster burn: n. Eyestrain brought on by too many hours of looking at low-res, poorly tuned, or glare-ridden monitors, esp. graphics monitors. See {terminal illness}. rat belt: n. A cable tie, esp. the sawtoothed, self-locking plastic kind that you can only remove by cutting (as opposed to a random twist of wire or a baggie tie or one of those humongous metal clip frobs). Small cable ties are mouse belts'. rave: [WPI] vi. 1. To persist in discussing a specific subject. 2. To speak authoritatively on a subject about which one knows very little. 3. To complain to a person who is not in a position to correct the difficulty. 4. To purposely annoy another person verbally. 5. To evangelize. See {flame}. 6. Also used to describe a less negative form of blather, such as friendly bullshitting. Rave' differs slightly from {flame} in that rave' implies that it is the persistence or obliviousness of the person speaking that is annoying, while {flame} implies somewhat more strongly that the tone is offensive as well. rave on!: imp. Sarcastic invitation to continue a {rave}, often by someone who wishes the raver would get a clue but realizes this is unlikely. ravs: /ravz/, also Chinese ravs' n. Jiao-zi (steamed or boiled) or Guo-tie (pan-fried). A Chinese appetizer, known variously in the plural as dumplings, pot stickers (the literal translation of guo-tie), and (around Boston) Peking Ravioli'. The term rav' is short for ravioli', which among hackers always means the Chinese kind rather than the Italian kind. Both consist of a filling in a pasta shell, but the Chinese kind includes no cheese, uses a thinner pasta, a pork-vegetable filling (good ones include Chinese chives), and is cooked differently, either by steaming or frying. A rav or dumpling can be cooked any way, but a potsticker is always the fried kind (so called because it sticks to the frying pot and has to be scraped off). "Let's get hot-and-sour soup and three orders of ravs." See also {{Oriental Food}}. raw mode: n. A mode that allows a program to transfer bits directly to or from an I/O device without any processing, abstraction, or interpretation by the operating system. Compare {rare}. This is techspeak under UNIX, jargon elsewhere. RE: /ar-ee/ n. Common spoken and written shorthand for {regexp}. read-only user: n. Describes a {luser} who uses computers almost exclusively for reading USENET, bulletin boards, and/or email, as opposed to writing code or purveying useful information. See {twink}, {terminal junkie}, {lurker}. README file: n. By convention, the top-level directory of a UNIX source distribution always contains a file named README' (or READ.ME, or (rarely) ReadMe or some other variant) which is a hacker's-eye introduction containing a pointer to more detailed documentation, credits, miscellaneous revision history notes, etc. When asked, hackers invariably relate this to the famous scene in Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures In Wonderland' in which Alice confronts magic munchies labelled "Eat Me" and "Drink Me". real estate: n. May be used for any critical resource measured in units of area. Most frequently used of chip real estate', the area available for logic on the surface of an integrated circuit (see also {nanoacre}). May also be used of floor space in a {dinosaur pen} or even space on a crowded desktop (whether physical or electronic). real hack: n. A {crock}. This is sometimes used affectionately; see {hack}. real operating system: n. An OS sharing characteristics of whichever one a given user is accustomed to, and subject to wild variation. People from the academic community are likely to issue comments like "System V? Why don't you use a *real* operating system?", people from the commercial/industrial UNIX sector are known to complain, "BSD? Why don't you use a *real* operating system?", and people from IBM probably think, "UNIX? Why don't you use a *real* operating system?" See {holy wars}, {religious issues}, {proprietary}, {Get a real computer!}. real programmer: [indirectly, from the book Real Men Don't Eat Quiche'] n. A particular sub-variety of hacker, one possessed of a flippant attitude towards complexity that is arrogant even when justified by experience. The archetypal real programmer' likes to program on the {bare metal} and is very good at same, remembers the binary opcodes for every machine he's ever programmed, thinks that HLLs are sissy, and uses a debugger to edit his code because full-screen editors are for wimps. Real Programmers aren't satisfied with code that hasn't been {bum}med into a state of {tense}ness just short of rupture. Real Programmers never use comments or write documentation: "If it was hard to write", says the Real Programmer, "it should be hard to understand." Real Programmers can make machines do things that were never in their spec sheets; in fact, they're seldom really happy unless doing so. A Real Programmer's code can awe with its fiendish brilliance, even as its crockishness appalls. Real Programmers live on junk food and coffee, hang line-printer art on their walls, and terrify the crap out of other programmers --- because someday, somebody else might have to try to understand their code in order to change it. Their successors generally consider it a {Good Thing} that there aren't many Real Programmers around any more. For a famous (and somewhat more positive) portrait of a Real Programmer, see The Story of Mel' in Appendix A. Real Soon Now: [orig. from SF's fanzine community, popularized by Jerry Pournelle's BYTE column] adj. 1. Supposed to be available (or fixed, or cheap, or whatever) real soon now according to somebody, but the speaker is quite skeptical. 2. When one's gods/fates/other time commitments permit one to get to it (in other words don't hold your breath). Often abbreviated RSN. real time: adv. Doing something while people are watching or waiting. "I asked her how to find the calling procedure's program counter on the stack and she came up with an algorithm in real time." real user: n. 1. A commercial user. One who is paying real' money for his computer usage. 2. A non-hacker. Someone using the system for an explicit purpose (research project, course, etc.). See {user}. Hackers who are also students may also be real users. "I need this fixed so I can do a problem set. I'm not complaining out of randomness, but as a real user." See also {luser}. Real World: n. 1. In programming, those institutions at which programming may be used in the same sentence as FORTRAN, {COBOL}, RPG, {IBM}, DBASE, etc. Places where programs do such commercially necessary but intellectually uninspiring things as compute payroll checks and invoices. 2. To programmers, the location of non-programmers and activities not related to programming. 3. A bizarre dimension in which the standard dress is shirt and tie and in which a person's working hours are defined as 9 to 5 (see {code grinder}). 4. The location of the status quo. 5. Anywhere outside a university. "Poor fellow, he's left MIT and gone into the real world." Used pejoratively by those not in residence there. In conversation, talking of someone who has entered the real world is not unlike speaking of a deceased person. See also {fear and loathing}, {mundane}, and {uninteresting}. reality check: n. 1. The simplest kind of test of software or hardware; doing the equivalent of asking it what 2 + 2' is and seeing if you get 4'. The software equivalent of a {smoke test}. 2. The act of letting a {real user} try out prototype software. Compare {sanity check}. reaper: n. A {prowler} that {GFR}s files. A file removed in this way is said to have been reaped'. rectangle slinger: n. See {polygon pusher}. recursion: n. See {recursion}. See also {tail recursion}. recursive acronyms:: pl.n. A hackish (and especially MIT) tradition is to choose acronyms that refer humorously to themselves or to other acronyms. The classic examples were two MIT editors called EINE ("EINE Is Not EMACS") and ZWEI ("ZWEI Was EINE Initially"). More recently, there is a Scheme compiler called LIAR (Liar Imitates Apply Recursively), and {GNU} (q.v., sense #1) is said to stand for "GNU's Not UNIX!" See also {mung}, {EMACS}. Red Book: n. 1. Informal name for one of the three standard references on PostScript (PostScript Language Reference Manual', Adobe Systems, Addison-Wesley 1985 QA76.73.P67P67, ISBN 0-201-10174-2); the others are known as the {Green Book} and {Blue Book}. 2. Informal name for one of the three standard references on Smalltalk (Smalltalk-80: The Interactive Programming Environment', Adele Goldberg, Addison-Wesley 1984, QA76.8.S635G638, ISBN 0-201-11372-4; this is also associated with blue and green books). 3. Any of the 1984 standards issued by the CCITT 8th plenary assembly. Until now, these have changed color each review cycle (1988 was {Blue Book}, 1992 will be {Green Book}); however, it is rumored that this convention is going to be dropped before 1992. These include, among other things, the X.400 email spec and the Group 1 through 4 fax standards. 4. The new version of the {Green Book} (sense #4), IEEE 1003.1-1990, aka ISO 9945-1, is (because of the color and the fact that it is printed on A4 paper), known in the USA as "The Ugly Red Book That Won't Fit On The Shelf", and in Europe as "The Ugly Red Book That's A Sensible Size". See also {{book titles}}. regexp: /reg'eksp/ [UNIX] n. (alt. regex' or reg-ex') 1. Common written and spoken abbreviation for regular expression', one of the wildcard patterns used, e.g., by UNIX utilities such as grep(1)', sed(1)', and awk(1)'. These use conventions similar to but more elaborate than those described under {glob}. For purposes of this lexicon, it is sufficient to note that regexps also allow complemented character sets using ^'; thus, one can specify any non-alphabetic character with [^A-Za-z]'. 2. Name of a well-known PD regexp-handling package in portable C, written by revered USENETter Henry Spencer (henry@zoo.toronto.edu). reincarnation, cycle of: n. See {cycle of reincarnation}. reinvent the wheel: v. To design or implement a tool equivalent to an existing one or part of one, with the implication that doing so is silly or a waste of time. This is frequently a valid criticism; however, automobiles don't use wooden rollers, and some kinds of wheel have to be re-invented many times before you get it right. On the other hand, it has often been pointed out that people reinventing the wheel tend to come up with the moral equivalent of a trapezoid with an offset axle.... religious issues: n. Questions which seemingly cannot be raised without touching off {holy wars}, such as "What is the best operating system (or editor, language, architecture, shell, mail reader, news reader)?" and "What about that Heinlein guy, eh?". See {holy wars}; see also {theology}, {bigot}. This term is an example of {ha ha only serious}. People actually develop the most amazing and religiously intense attachments to their tools, even when the tools are intangible. The most constructive thing one can do when one stumbles into the crossfire is mumble {Get a life!} and leave --- unless of course one's *own* unassailably rational and obviously correct choices are being slammed.... replicator: n. Any construct that acts to produce copies of itself; this could be a living organism, an idea (see {meme}), a program (see {worm}, {wabbit}, and {virus}), a pattern in a cellular automaton (see {life}, sense #1), or (speculatively) a robot or {nanobot}. It is even claimed by some that {UNIX} and {C} are the symbiotic halves of an extremely successful replicator; see {UNIX conspiracy}. reply: n. See {followup}. restriction: n. A {bug} or design error that limits a program's capabilities, and which is sufficiently egregious that nobody can quite work up enough nerve to describe it as a {feature}. Often used (esp. by {marketroid} types) to make it sound as though some crippling bogosity had been intended by the designers all along, or was forced upon them by arcane technical constraints of a nature no mere user could possibly comprehend (these claims are almost invariably false). Old-time hacker Joseph M. Newcomer (jn11+@andrew.cmu.edu) passes along this wisdom: "Whenever choosing a quantifiable restriction, make it either a power of 2 or a power of 2 minus 1. If you impose a limit of 17 items in a list, everyone knows it is a random number. If the limit is 15 or 16, there is clearly some deep reason and you will get less {flamage}." It has been further observed that this is especially true if 17 = 20 (see {{random numbers}}) or some other round' number in base 10. retcon: /ret'kon/ [retroactive continuity', from USENET's rec.arts.comics] 1. n. The common situation in pulp fiction (esp. comics or soap operas) where a new story reveals' things about events in previous stories, usually leaving the facts' the same (thus preserving continuity) while completely changing their interpretation. E.g., revealing that a whole season of Dallas was a dream was a retcon. 2. vt. To write such a story about (a character or fictitious object). "Byrne has retconned Superman's cape so that it is no longer unbreakable." "Marvelman's old adventures were retconned into synthetic dreams." "Swamp Thing was retconned from a transformed person into a sentient vegetable." [This is included because it's a good example of hackish linguistic innovation in a field completely unrelated to computers. The word retcon' will probably spread through comics fandom and lose its association with hackerdom within a couple of years; for the record, it started here. --- ESR] retrocomputing: /ret'-roh-k*m-pyoo'ting/ n. Refers to emulations of way-behind-the-state-of-the-art hardware or software, or implementations of never-was-state-of-the-art; esp. if such implementations are elaborate practical jokes and/or parodies of more serious' designs. Perhaps the most widely distributed retrocomputing utility was the pnch(6)' or bcd(6)' program on V7 and other early UNIX versions, which would accept up to 80 characters of text argument and display the corresponding pattern in {{punched card}} code. Other well-known retrocomputing hacks have included the programming language {INTERCAL}, a {JCL}-emulating shell for UNIX, the card-punch-emulating editor named 029, and various elaborate PDP-11 hardware emulators and RT-11 OS emulators written just to keep an old, sourceless {Zork} binary running. RFC: /ahr ef see/ [Request For Comment] n. One of a long-established series of numbered Internet standards widely followed by commercial and PD software in the Internet and UNIX communities. Perhaps the single most influential one has been RFC-822 (the Internet mail-format standard). The RFCs are unusual in that they are floated by technical experts acting on their own initiative and reviewed by the Internet at large, rather than formally promulgated through an institution such as ANSI. For this reason, they remain known as RFCs even once adopted. RFE: n. 1. [techspeak] Request For Enhancement. 2. [from Radio Free Europe' Bellcore and Sun] Radio Free Ethernet, a system (originated by Peter Langston) for broadcasting audio among Sun SPARCstations over the ethernet. rib site: [by analogy with {backbone site}] n. A machine which has an on-demand high-speed link to a {backbone site} and serves as a regional distribution point for lots of third-party traffic in email and USENET news. Compare {leaf site}, {backbone site}. rice box: [from ham radio slang] n. Any Asian-made commodity computer, esp. an 80*86-based machine built to IBM PC-compatible ISA or EISA-bus standards. Right Thing: n. That which is *compellingly* the correct or appropriate thing to use, do, say, etc. Often capitalized, always emphasized in speech as though capitalized. Use of this term often implies that in fact reasonable people may disagree. "What's the right thing for LISP to do when it sees (mod a 0)'? Should it return a', or give a divide-by-zero error?" Antonym: {Wrong Thing}. RL: [MUD community] n. Real Life. "Firiss laughs in RL." means Firiss's player is laughing. Oppose {VR}. roach: [Bell Labs] vt. To destroy, esp. of a data structure. Hardware gets {toast}ed or {fried}, software gets roached. robust: adj. Said of a system that has demonstrated an ability to recover gracefully from the whole range of exceptional inputs and situations in a given environment. One step below {bulletproof}. Compare {smart}, oppose {brittle}. rococo: adj. {Baroque} in the extreme. Used to imply that a program has become so encrusted with the software equivalent of gold leaf and curlicues that they have completely swamped the underlying design. Called after the later and more extreme forms of Baroque architecture and decoration prevalent during the mid-1700s in Europe. rogue: [UNIX] n. Dungeons-And-Dragons-like game using character graphics, written under BSD UNIX and subsequently ported to other UNIX systems. The original BSD curses(3)' screen-handling package was hacked together by Ken Arnold to support rogue(6)' and has since become one of UNIX's most important and heavily used application libraries. Nethack, Omega, Larn, and an entire subgenre of computer dungeon games all took off from the inspiration provided by rogue(6)'. See {nethack}. room-temperature IQ: [IBM] quant. 80 or below. Used in describing the expected intelligence range of the {luser}. As in "Well, but how's this interface gonna play with the room-temperature IQ crowd?" See {drool-proof paper}. This is a much more insulting phrase in countries that use Celsius thermometers. root: [UNIX] n. 1. The {superuser} account that ignores permission bits, user number zero on a UNIX system. This account has the user name root'. The term {avatar} is also used. 2. The top node of the system directory structure (home directory of the root user). 3. By extension, the privileged system-maintenance login on any OS. See {root mode}. root mode: n. Syn. with {wizard mode} or wheel mode'. Like these, it is often generalized to describe privileged states in systems other than OSes. rot13: /rot ther'teen/ [USENET, from rotate alphabet 13 places'] n.,v. The simple Caesar-cypher encryption that replaces each English letter with the one 13 places forward or back along the alphabet, so that "The butler did it!" becomes "Gur ohgyre qvq vg!" Most USENET news reading and posting programs include a rot13 feature. It is used to enclose the text in a sealed wrapper that the reader must choose to open, e.g. for posting things that might offend some readers or answers to puzzles and the like. A major advantage of rot13 over rot(N) for other N is that it is self-inverse --- thus the same code can be used for encoding and decoding. rotary debugger: [Commodore] n. Essential equipment for those late night or early morning debugging sessions. Mainly used as sustenance for the hacker. Comes in many decorator colors such as Sausage, Pepperoni, and Garbage. See {pizza, ANSI standard}. RSN: adj. See {Real Soon Now}. RTFAQ: /ahr-tee-ef-ay-kyoo/ [USENET; primarily written, by analogy with {RTFM}] imp. Abbrev. for Read the FAQ!', an exhortation that the person addressed ought to read the newsgroup's {FAQ list} before posting questions. RTFM: /ahr-tee-ef-em/ [UNIX] imp. Abbrev. for Read The Fucking Manual'. 1. Used by GURUs to brush off questions they consider trivial or annoying. Compare {Don't do that, then!}. 2. Used when reporting a problem to indicate that you aren't just asking out of {randomness}. "No, I can't figure out how to interface UNIX to my toaster, and yes, I have RTFM." Unlike sense #1, this use is considered polite. See also {RTFAQ}, {RTM}. RTI: /ahr-tee-ie/ interj. The mnemonic for the return from interrupt' instruction on many computers including the 6502 and Z80. Equivalent to "Now, where was I?" or used to end a conversational digression. See {pop}; see also {POPJ}. RTM: /ahr-tee-em/ [USENET, acronym for Read The Manual'] 1. Politer variant of {RTFM}. 2. Robert T. Morris, perpetrator of the great Internet worm of 1988; villain to many, naive hacker gone wrong to a few. Morris claimed that the worm which brought the Internet to its knees was a benign experiment that got out of control due to a coding error. After the storm of negative publicity that followed this blunder Morris's name on ITS was hacked from RTM to {RTFM}. rude: [WPI] adj. 1. (of a program) Badly written. 2. Functionally poor, e.g. a program which is very difficult to use because of gratuitously poor (random?) design decisions. See {cuspy}. runes: pl.n. 1. Anything that requires {heavy wizardry} or {black art} to {parse}; core dumps, JCL commands, or even code in a language you hacen't a clue how to {parse}. Compare {casting the runes}, {Great Runes}. 2. Special display characters (for example, the high-half graphics on an IBM PC). runic: adj. Syn. {obscure}. VMS fans sometimes refer to UNIX as Runix'; UNIX fans return the compliment by expanding VMS to Very Messy Syntax' or Vachement Mauvais Systeme' (French, lit. "Cowlike Bad System", idiomatically "Bitchy Bad System"). rusty iron: n. Syn. {tired iron}. It has been claimed that this is the inevitable fate of {water MIPS}. rusty memory: n. Mass-storage that uses iron-oxide-based magnetic media (esp. tape and the pre-Winchester removable disk packs used in {washing machine}s). Compare {donuts}. = S = ===== s/n ratio: n. (also s:n ratio'). Syn. {signal-to-noise ratio}. Often abbreviated SNR'. sacred: adj. Reserved for the exclusive use of something (an extension of the standard meaning). Often means that anyone may look at the sacred object, but clobbering it will screw whatever it is sacred to. Example: The comment "Register 7 is sacred to the interrupt handler." appearing in a program would be interpreted by a hacker to mean if any *other* part of the program changes the contents of register 7 dire consequences are likely to ensue. saga: [WPI] n. A cuspy but bogus raving story dealing with N random broken people. Here is a classic example of the saga form, as told by Guy L. Steele: Jon L. White (login name JONL) and I (GLS) were office mates at MIT for many years. One April we both flew from Boston to California for a week on research business, to consult face-to-face with some people at Stanford, particularly our mutual friend Richard P. Gabriel (RPG; see {Gabriel}). RPG picked us up at the San Francisco airport and drove us back to Palo Alto (going {logical} south on route 101, parallel to {El Camino Bignum}). Palo Alto is adjacent to Stanford University, and about forty miles south of San Francisco. We ate at The Good Earth, a health food' restaurant, very popular, the sort whose milkshakes all contain honey and protein powder. JONL ordered such a shake --- the waitress claimed the flavor of the day was "lalaberry". I still have no idea what that might be, but it became a running joke. It was the color of raspberry, and JONL said it tasted rather bitter. I ate a better tostada there than I have ever had in a Mexican restaurant. After this we went to the local Uncle Gaylord's Old Fashioned Ice Cream Parlor. They make ice cream fresh daily, in a variety of intriguing flavors. It's a chain, and they have a slogan: "If you don't live near an Uncle Gaylord's --- MOVE!" Also, Uncle Gaylord (a real person) wages a constant battle to force big-name ice cream makers to print their ingredients on the package (like air and plastic and other non-natural garbage). JONL and I had first discovered Uncle Gaylord's the previous August, when we had flown to a computer science conference in Berkeley, California, the first time either of us had been on the West Coast. When not in the conference sessions, we had spent our time wandering the length of Telegraph Street, which, like Harvard Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in summer was lined with picturesque street vendors and interesting little shops. On that street we discovered Uncle Gaylord's Berkeley store. The ice cream there was very good. During that August visit JONL went absolutely bananas (so to speak) over one particular flavor, ginger honey. Therefore, after eating at The Good Earth --- indeed, after every lunch and dinner and before bed during our April visit --- a trip to Uncle Gaylord's (the one in Palo Alto) was mandatory. We had arrived on a Wednesday, and by Thursday evening we had been there at least four times. Each time JONL would get ginger honey ice cream, and proclaim to all bystanders that "Ginger was the spice that drove the Europeans mad! That's why they sought a route to the East! They used it to preserve their otherwise off-taste meat." After the third or fourth repetition RPG and I were getting a little tired of this spiel, and began to paraphrase him: "Wow! Ginger! The spice that makes rotten meat taste good!" "Say! Why don't we find some dog that's been run over and sat in the sun for a week and put some *ginger* on it for dinner?!" "Right! With a lalaberry shake!" And so on. This failed to faze JONL; he took it in good humor, as long as we kept returning to Uncle Gaylord's. He loves ginger honey ice cream. Now RPG and his wife KBT (Kathy Tracy) were putting us up (putting up with us?) in their home for our visit, so to thank them JONL and I took them out to a nice French restaurant of their choosing. I unadventurously chose the filet mignon, and KBT had je ne sais quoi du jour', but RPG and JONL had lapin' (rabbit). (Waitress: "Oui', we have fresh rabbit, fresh today." RPG: "Well, JONL, I guess we won't need any *ginger*!") We finished the meal late, about 11 PM, which is 2 AM Boston time, so JONL and I were rather droopy. But it wasn't yet midnight. Off to Uncle Gaylord's! Now the French resturant was in Redwood City, north of Palo Alto. In leaving Redwood City, we somehow got onto route 101 going north instead of south. JONL and I woudln't have known the difference had RPG not mentioned it. We still knew very little of the local geography. I did figure out, however, that we were headed in the direction of Berkeley, and half-jokingly suggested that we continue north and go to Uncle Gaylord's in Berkeley. RPG said "Fine!" and we drove on for a while and talked. I was drowsy, and JONL actually dropped off to sleep for five minutes. When he awoke, RPG said, "Gee, JONL, you must have slept all the way over the bridge!" referring to the one spanning San Francisco Bay. Just then we came to a sign that said "University Avenue". I mumbled something about working our way over to Telegraph Street; RPG said "Right!" and maneuvered some more. Eventually we pulled up in front of an Uncle Gaylord's. Now I hadn't really been paying attention because I was so sleepy, and I didn't really understand what was happening until RPG let me in on it a few moments later, but I was just alert enough to notice that we had somehow some to the Palo Alto Uncle Gaylord's after all. JONL noticed the resemblance to the Palo Alto store, but hadn't caught on. (The place is lit with red and yellow lights at night, and looks much different from the way it does in daylight.) He said, "This isn't the Uncle Gaylord's I went to in Berkeley! It looked like a barn! But this place looks *just like* the one back in Palo Alto!" RPG deadpanned, "Well, this is the one *I* alwasy come to when I'm in Berkeley. They've got two in San Francisco, too. Remember, they're a chain." JONL accepted this bit of wisdom. And he was not totally ignorant --- he knew perfectly well that University Avenue was in Berkeley, not far from Telegraph Street. What he didn't know was that there is a completely different University Avenue in Palo Alto. JONL went up to the counter and asked for ginger honey. The guy at the counter asked whether JONL would like to taste it first, evidently their standard procedure with that flavor, as not too many people like it. JONL said, "I'm sure I like it. Just give me a cone." The guy behind the counter insisted that JONL try just a taste first. "Some people think it tastes like soap." JONL insisted, "Look, I /love/ ginger. I eat Chinese food. I eat raw ginger roots. I already went through this hassle with the guy back in Palo Alto. I *know* I like that flavor!" At the words "back in Palo Alto" the guy behind the counter got a very strange look on his face, but said nothing. KBT caught his eye and winked. Through my stupor I still hadn't quite grasped what was going on, and thought RPG was rolling on the floor laughing and clutching his stomach just because JONL had launched into his spiel ("makes rotten meat a dish for princes") for the forty-third time. At this point RPG clued me in fully. RPG, KBT, and I retreated to a table, trying to stifle our chuckles. JONL remained at the counter, talking about ice cream with the guy b.t.c., comparing Uncle Gaylord's to other ice cream shops and generally having a good old time. At length the g.b.t.c. said, "How's the ginger honey?" JONL said, "Fine! I wonder what exactly is in it?" Now Uncle Gaylord publishes all his recipes and even teaches classes on how to make his ice cream at home. So the g.b.t.c. got out the recipe, and he and JONL pored over it for a while. But the g.b.t.c. could contain his curiosity no longer, and asked again, "You really like that stuff, huh?" JONL said, "Yeah, I've been eating it constantly back in Palo Alto for the past two days. In fact, I think this batch is about as good as the cones I got back in Palo Alto!" G.b.t.c. looked him straight in the eye and said, "You're *in* Palo Alto!" JONL turned slowly around, and saw the three of us collapse in a fit of giggles. He clapped a hand to his forehead and exclaimed, "I've been {hack}ed!" sagan: /say'gn/ [from Carl Sagan's TV series Cosmos'; think Billions and Billions'] n. A large quantity of anything. "There's a sagan different ways to tweak EMACS." "The US Government spends sagans on bombs and welfare --- hard to say which is more destructive." SAIL: /sayl/, not /ess ay ie el/ n. 1. Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab. An important site in the early development of LISP; with the MIT AI Lab, BBN, CMU, and the UNIX community, one of the major wellsprings of technical innovation and hacker-culture traditions (see the {WAITS} entry for details). The SAIL machines were shut down in late May 1990, scant weeks after the MIT AI lab's ITS cluster were officially decommissioned. 2. The Stanford Artificial Intelligence Language used at SAIL (sense #1). It was an Algol-60 derivative with a coroutining facility and some new data types intended for building search trees and association lists. salescritter: /sayls'kritr/ n. Pejorative hackerism for a computer salesperson. Hackers tell the following joke: Q. What's the difference between a used-car dealer and a computer salesman? A. The used-car dealer knows he's lying. This reflects the widespread hacker belief that salescritters are self-selected for stupidity (after all, if they had brains and the inclination to use them, they'd be in programming). The terms salesthing' and salesdroid' are also common. Compare {marketroid}, {suit}, {droid}. salt mines: n. Dense quarters housing large numbers of programmers working long hours on grungy projects, with some hope of seeing the end of the tunnel in N years. Noted for their absence of sunshine. Compare {playpen}, {sandbox}. salt substrate: [MIT] n. Collective noun used to refer to potato chips, pretzels, saltines, or any other form of snack food designed primarily as a carrier for sodium chloride. From the technical term chip substrate', used to refer to the silicon on the top of which the active parts of integrated circuits are deposited. same-day-service: n. Ironic term is used to describe slow response time, particularly with respect to {MS-DOS} system calls. Such response time is a major incentive for programmers to write programs that are not {well-behaved}. See also {PC-ism}. sandbender: [IBM] n. A person involved with silicon lithography and the physical design of chips. Compare {ironmonger}, {polygon pusher}. sandbox: n. (or sandbox, the') Common term for the R&D department at many software and computer companies (where hackers in commercial environments are likely to be found). Half-derisive, but reflects the truth that research is a form of creative play. Compare {playpen}. sanity check: n. 1. The act of checking a piece of code for completely stupid mistakes. Implies that the check is to make sure the author was sane when it was written; e.g., if a piece of scientific software relied on a particular formula and was giving unexpected results, one might first look at the nesting of parentheses or the coding of the formula, as a {sanity check}, before looking at the more complex I/O or data structure manipulation routines, much less the algorithm itself. Compare {reality check}. 2. A run-time test, either validating input or ensuring that the program hasn't screwed up internally (producing an inconsistent value or state). Saturday night special: [from police slang for a cheap handgun] n. A program or feature kluged together during off hours, under a deadline, and in response to pressure from a {salescritter}. Such hacks are dangerously unreliable, but all too frequently sneak into a production release after insufficient review. say: vt. In some contexts, to type to a terminal. "To list a directory verbosely, you have to say ls -l'." Tends to imply a {newline}-terminated command (a sentence'). A computer may also be said to say' things to you even if it doesn't have a speech synthesizer, by displaying them on a terminal in response to your commands. Hackers find it odd that this usage confuses {mundane}s. Science-Fiction Fandom:: n. Another voluntary subculture having a very heavy overlap with hackerdom; most hackers read SF and/or fantasy fiction avidly, and many go to cons' (SF conventions) or are involved in fandom-connected activities like the Society for Creative Anachronism. Some hacker jargon originated in SF fandom; see {defenestration}, {great-wall}, {cyberpunk}, {h}, {ha ha only serious}, {IMHO}, {mundane}, {neep-neep}, {Real Soon Now}. Additionally, the jargon terms {cowboy}, {cyberspace}, {de-rezz}, {go flatline}, {ice}, {virus}, {wetware}, {wirehead}, and {worm} originated in SF stories. scram switch: [from the nuclear power industry] n. An emergency-power-off switch (see {Big Red Switch}), esp. one positioned to be easily hit by evacuating personnel. In general, this is *not* something you {frob} lightly; these often initiate expensive events like Halon dumps and are installed in a {dinosaur pen} for use in case of electrical fire or in case some luckless {field servoid} should put 120 volts across himself while {Easter egging}. scratch: 1. [from scratchpad'] adj. Describes a data structure or recording medium attached to a machine for testing or temporary-use purposes; one that can be {scribble}d on without loss. Usually in the combining forms scratch memory', scratch register', scratch disk', scratch tape', scratch volume'. See {scratch monkey}. 2. [primarily IBM] vt. To delete (as in a file). scratch monkey: n. As in, "Before testing or reconfiguring, always mount a scratch monkey.", a proverb used to advise caution when dealing with irreplaceable data or devices. Used to refer to any non-expendable device or scratch volume hooked to a computer, in memory of Mabel, the Swimming Wonder Monkey who expired when a computer vendor {PM}ed a machine which was regulating the gas mixture that the monkey was breathing at the time. See Appendix A. See {scratch}. screw: [MIT] n. A {lose}, usually in software. Especially used for user-visible misbehavior caused by a bug or misfeature. This use has become quite widespread outside MIT. screwage: /skroo'*j/ n. Like {lossage} but connotes that the failure is due to a designed-in misfeature rather than a simple inadequacy or mere bug. scribble: n. To modify a data structure in a random and unintentionally destructive way. "Bletch! Somebody's disk-compactor program went berserk and scribbled on the i-node table." "It was working fine until one of the allocation routines scribbled on low core." Synonymous with {trash}; compare {mung}, which conveys a bit more intention, and {mangle}, which is more violent and final. scrog: /skrog/ [Bell Labs] vt. To damage, trash, or corrupt a data structure. "The cblock got scrogged." Also reported as skrog', and ascribed to The Wizard of Id' comix. Equivalent to {scribble} or {mangle} scrozzle: /skroz'l/ vt. Used when a self-modifying code segment runs incorrectly and corrupts the running program or vital data. "The damn compiler scrozzled itself again!" SCSI: [Small Computer System Interface] n. A bus-independent standard for system-level interfacing between a computer and intelligent devices. Typically annotated in literature with sexy' (/sek'see/), sissy' (/sis'ee/) and scuzzy' (/skuhz'zee/) as pronunciation guides --- the last being the overwhelmingly predominant form, much to the dismay of the designers and their marketing people. One can usually assume that a person who pronounces it /ess see ess eye/ is clueless. search-and-destroy mode: n. Hackerism for the search-and-replace facility in an editor, so called because an incautiously chosen match pattern can cause {infinite} damage. second-system effect: n. (sometimes, more euphoniously, second-system syndrome'.) When designing the successor to a relatively small, elegant, and successful system, there is a tendency to become grandiose in one's success and design an {elephantine} feature-laden monstrosity. The term was first used by Fred Brooks in his classic book The Mythical Man-Month'. It described the jump from a set of nice, simple, operating monitors on the IBM 70xx series to OS/360 on the 360 series. A similar effect can also happen in an evolving system; see {creeping elegance}, {creeping featurism}. See also {Multics}, {OS/2}, {X}, {software bloat}. This version of the jargon lexicon has been described (with altogether too much truth for comfort) as an example of second-system effect run amok on jargon-1.... secondary damage: n. When a fatal error occurs (esp. a {segfault}) the immediate cause may be that a pointer is damaged due to a {fandango on core}. However, this fandango may have been due to an *earlier* fandango, so no amount of analysis will reveal (directly) how the damage occurred. "The data structure was clobbered, but it was secondary damage." This generalizes. The corruption resulting from N cascaded fandangoes on core is Nth-level damage'. There is at least one case on record in which 17 hours of {grovel}ling with adb' actually dug up the underlying bug behind an instance of 7th-level damage! The hacker who accomplished this near-superhuman feat was presented with an award by his fellows. security through obscurity: n. A name applied by hackers to most OS vendors' favorite way of coping with security holes --- namely, ignoring them and not documenting them and trusting that nobody will find out about them and that people who do find out about them won't exploit them. This never works for long and occasionally sets the world up for debacles like the {RTM} worm of 1988, but once the brief moments of panic created by such events subside most vendors are all too willing to turn over and go back to sleep. After all, actually fixing the bugs would siphon off the resources needed to implement the next user-interface frill on Marketing's wish list --- besides, if they started fixing security bugs customers might begin to *expect* it and imagine that their warranties of merchantability gave them some sort of *right* to a system with fewer holes in it than a shotgunned Swiss cheese, and then where would we be? Historical note: this term was first used in the USENET newsgroup in comp.sys.apollo' during a campaign to get HP/Apollo to fix rampant security problems in its UNIX-lookalike Aegis/DomainOS. They didn't change a thing. SED: [TMRC] /ess-ee-dee/ n. Smoke emitting diode. A {friode} that lost the war. segfault: n.,vi. Syn. {segment}, {seggie}. seggie: /seg'ee/ [UNIX] n. Shorthand for {segmentation fault} reported from Britain. segment: /seg'ment/ vi. To experience a {segmentation fault}. Confusingly, this is often prnounced more like the noun segment' than like mainstream v. segment; this is because it's actually a noun shorthand that has been verbed. segmentation fault: n. [UNIX] 1. Error in which a running program attempts to access memory not allocated to it and {core dump}s with a segmentation violation error. 2. To lose a train of thought or a line of reasoning. Also uttered as an exclamation at the point of befuddlement. segv: /seg'vee/ n.,vi. Yet another synonym for {segmentation fault}. self-reference: n. See {self-reference}. selvage: /sel'v*j/ [from sewing] n. See {chad} (sense #1). semi: /se'mee/ or /se'mie/ 1. n. Abbreviation for semicolon', when speaking. "Commands to {grind} are prefixed by semi-semi-star." means that the prefix is ;;*', not 1/4 of a star. 2. Prefix with words such as immediately', as a qualifier. "When is the system coming up?" "Semi-immediately." (that is, maybe not for an hour). "We did consider that possibility semi-seriously." See also {infinite}. senior bit: [IBM] n. Syn. {meta bit}. server: n. A kind of {daemon} that performs a service for the requester, which often runs on a computer other than the one on which the server runs. A particularly common term on the Internet, which is rife with name servers', domain servers', news servers', finger servers', and the like. SEX: [Sun User's Group & elsewhere] n. 1. Software EXchange. A technique invented by the blue-green algae hundreds of millions of years ago to speed up their evolution, which had been terribly slow up until then. Today, SEX parties are popular among hackers and others (of course, these are no longer limited to exchanges of genetic software). 2. The rather Freudian mnemonic often used for Sign EXtend, a machine instruction found in the PDP-11 and many architectures. DEC's engineers nearly got a PDP-11 assembler that used the SEX' mnemonic out the door at one time, but (for once) marketing wasn't asleep and forced a change. That wasn't the last time this happened, either. The author of The Intel 8086 Primer', who was one of the original designers of the 8086, noted that there was originally a SEX' instruction on that processor, too. He says that Intel management got cold feet and decreed that it be changed, and thus the instruction was renamed CBW' and CWD' (depending on what was being extended). Amusingly, the Intel 8048 (the microcontroller used in IBM PC keyboards) is also missing straight SEX' but has logical-or and logical-and instructions ORL' and ANL'. sex changer: n. Syn. {gender mender}. shareware: n. {Freeware} (sense #1) for which the author requests some payment, usually in the accompanying documentation files or in an announcement made by the software itself. Such payment may or may not buy additional support or functionality. See {guiltware}, {crippleware}. shelfware: n. Software purchased on a whim (by an individual user) or in accordance with policy (by a corporation or government), but not actually required for any particular use. Therefore, it often ends up on some shelf. shell: [UNIX, now used elsewhere] n. 1. [techspeak] The command interpreter used to pass commands to an operating system; so called because it's the part of the operating system that interfaces to the outside world. 2. More generally, any interface program which mediates access to a special resource or {server} for convenience, efficiency, or security reasons; for this meaning, the usage is usually a shell around' whatever. This sort of program is also called a wrapper'. shell out: [UNIX] n. To spawn an interactive {subshell} from within a program (e.g. a mailer or editor). "Bang foo runs foo in a subshell, while bang alone shells out." shift left (or right) logical: [from any of various machines' instruction sets] 1. vi. To move oneself to the left (right). To move out of the way. 2. imper. "Get out of that (my) seat! You can shift to that empty one to the left (right)." Usage: often used without the logical', or as left shift' instead of shift left'. Sometimes heard as LSH /l*sh/, from the PDP-10 instruction set. See {Programmer's Cheer}. shitogram: /shit'oh-gram/ n. A *really* nasty piece of email. Compare {nastygram}, {flame}. short card: n. A half-length IBM PC expansion card or adapter that will fit in one of the two short slots located towards the right rear of a standard chassis (tucked behind the floppy disk drives). See also {tall card}. shotgun debugging: n. The software equivalent of {Easter egging}; the making of relatively undirected changes to software in the hope that a bug will be perturbed out of existence. This almost never works, and usually introduces more bugs. showstopper: n. A hardware or (especially) software bug that makes an implementation effectively unusable; one that absolutely has to be fixed before development can go on. Opposite in connotation from its original theatrical use, which refers to something stunningly *good*. shriek: n. See {excl}. Occasional CMU usage, also in common use among APL fans and mathematicians, especially category theorists. Shub-Internet: [MUD; from H. P. Lovecraft's evil fictional deity Shub-Niggurath', the Black Goat with a Thousand Young] pn. The harsh personification of the Internet, Beast of a Thousand Processes, Eater of Characters, Avatar of Line Noise, and Imp of Call Waiting; the hideous multi-tendriled entity formed of all the manifold connections of the net. A sect of MUDders worships Shub-Internet, sacrificing objects and praying for good connections. To no avail -- its purpose is malign and evil, and is the cause of all network slowdown. Often heard as in, "Freela casts a tac nuke at Shub-Internet for slowing her down." (A forged message often follows, "Shub-Internet gulps down the tac nuke and burps happily.") Also cursed by users of {FTP} and {telnet} when the system slows down. The dread name of Shub-Internet is seldom spoken aloud, as it is said that repeating it three times will cause the being to wake, deep within its lair beneath the Pentagon. sidecar: n. 1. Syn. {slap on the side}. Esp. used of add-ons for the late and unlamented IBM PCjr. 2. The IBM PC compatibility box that could be bolted on to the side of an Amiga. Designed and produced by Commodore and broke all of their design rules. If it worked with any other peripherals, it was by {magic}. sig block: /sig blok/ [UNIX; often written ".sig" there] n. Short for signature', used specifically to refer to the electronic signature block that most UNIX mail- and news-posting software will allow you to automatically append to outgoing mail and news. The composition of one's sig can be quite an art form, including an ASCII logo or one's choice of witty sayings (see {sig quote}); but many consider large sigs a waste of {bandwidth}, and it has been observed that the size of one's sig block is usually inversely proportional to one's longevity and level of prestige on the net. sig quote: /sig kwoht/ [USENET] n. A maxim, quote, proverb, joke, or slogan embedded in one's {sig block} and intended to convey something of one's philosophical stance, pet peeves, or sense of humor. "Calm down, it's only ones and zeroes." signal-to-noise ratio: [from analog electronics] n. Used by hackers in a generalization of its technical meaning. Signal' refers to useful information conveyed by some communications medium and noise' to anything else on that medium. Hence a low ratio implies that it is not worth paying attention to the medium in question. Figures for such metaphorical ratios are never given. The term is most often applied to {USENET} newsgroups during {flame war}s. Compare {bandwidth}. See also {coefficient of x}, {lost in the noise}. silicon: n. Hardware, esp. ICs or microprocessor-based computer systems (compare {iron}). Contrasted with software. See also {sandbender}. silicon foundry: n. A company that {fab}s chips to the designs of others. As of the late 1980s, the combination of silicon foundries and good computer-aided design software made it much easier for hardware-designing startup companies to come into being. The downside of using a silicon foundry is that the distance from the actual chip fabrication processes reduces designers' leverage. This is somewhat analogous to the use of a {HLL} versus coding in assembler. silly walk: [from Monty Python's Flying Circus] vi. A ridiculous procedure required to accomplish a task. Like {grovel}, but more {random} and humorous. "I had to silly-walk through half the /usr directories to find the maps file." silo: n. The FIFO input-character buffer in an RS-232 line card. So called from DEC terminology used on DH and DZ line cards for the VAX and PDP-11, presumably because it was a storage space for fungible stuff that you put in the top and took out the bottom. Silver Book: n. Jensen & Wirth's infamous Pascal User Manual and Report', so called because of the silver cover of the widely distributed Springer-Verlag second edition of 1978 (ISBN 0-387-90144-2). See {{book titles}}. since time T equals minus infinity: adj. A long time ago; for as long as anyone can remember; at the time that some particular frob was first designed. Usually the word time' is omitted. See also {time T}. sitename: [UNIX/Internet] n. The unique electronic name of a computer system, used to identify it in UUCP mail, USENET, or other forms of electronic information interchange. The folklore interest of sitenames stems from the creativity and humor they often display. Interpreting a sitename is not unlike interpreting a vanity license plate; one has to mentally unpack it, allowing for mono-case and length restrictions and the lack of whitespace. Hacker tradition deprecates dull, institutional-sounding names in favor of punchy, humorous, and clever coinages (except that it is considered appropriate for the official public gateway machine of an organization to bear the organization's name or acronym). Mythological references, cartoon characters, animal names, and allusions to SF or fantasy literature are probably the most popular sources for sitenames (in roughly descending order). The obligatory comment when discussing these is Harris's Lament: "All the good ones are taken!" See also {network address}. skulker: n. Syn. {prowler}. slap on the side: n. (also called a {sidecar}, or abbreviated SOTS'.) A type of external expansion hardware marketed by computer manufacturers (e.g. Commodore for their Amiga 500/1000 series and IBM for the hideous failure they called PCjr'). Various SOTS boxes provided necessities such as memory, hard drive controllers, and conventional expansion slots. sleep: vi. 1. [techspeak] On a timesharing system, a process that relinquishes its claim on the scheduler until some given event occurs or a specified time delay elapses is said to go to sleep'. 2. In jargon, used very similarly to v. {block}; also in sleep on', syn. with block on'. Often used to indicate that the speaker has relinquished a demand for resources until some (possibly unspecified) external event: "They can't get the fix I've been asking for into the next release, so I'm going to sleep on it until the release, then start hassling them again." slim: n. A small, derivative change (e.g., to code). slop: n. 1. A one-sided {fudge factor}, that is, an allowance for error but only in one of two directions. For example, if you need a piece of wire ten feet long and have to guess when you cut it, you make very sure to cut it too long, by a large amount if necessary, rather than too short by even a little bit, because you can always cut off the slop but you can't paste it back on again. When discrete quantities are involved, slop is often introduced to avoid the possibility of being on the losing side of a {fencepost error}. 2. The percentage of extra' code code generated by a compiler over the size of equivalent assembler code produced by {hand-hacking}; i.e., the space (or maybe time) you lose because you didn't do it yourself. This number is often used as a measure of the goodness of a compiler; slop below 5% is very good, and 10% is usually acceptable. With modern compiler technology, esp. on RISC machines, the compiler's slop may actually be *negative*; that is, humans may be unable to generate code as good. This is one of the reasons assembler programming is no longer common. slopsucker: n. A lowest-priority task that must wait around until everything else has had its fill' of machine resources. Only when the machine would otherwise be idle is the task allowed to suck up the slop.' Also called a {hungry puppy}. One common variety of slopsucker hunts for large prime numbers. Compare {background}. slurp: vt. To read a large data file entirely into core before working on it. This may be contrasted with the strategy of reading a small piece at a time, processing it, and then reading the next piece. "This program slurps in a 1K-by-1K matrix and does an FFT." smart: adj. Said of a program that does the {Right Thing} in a wide variety of complicated circumstances. There is a difference between calling a program smart and calling it intelligent; in particular, there do not exist any intelligent programs (yet) (see also {AI-complete}). Compare {robust} (smart programs can be {brittle}). smart terminal: n. A terminal that has enough computing capability to render graphics or offload some kind of front-end processing from the computer it talks to. The development of workstations and personal computers has made this term and the product it describes semi-obsolescent, but one may still hear variants of the phrase "act like a smart terminal" used to describe the behavior of workstations/PCs with respect to programs that execute almost entirely out of a remote {server}'s storage, using said devices as displays. Compare {glass tty}. There's a classic quote from Rob Pike (inventor of the {blit} terminal): "A smart terminal is not a smart*ass* terminal, but rather a terminal you can educate." This illustrates a common design problem; the attempt to make peripherals (or anything else) intelligent sometimes results in finicky, rigid "special features" that become just so much dead weight if you try to use the device in any way the designer didn't anticipate. Flexibility and programmability, on the other hand, are *really* smart. Compare {hook}. smash case: vi. To lose or obliterate the uppercase/lowercase distinction in text input. "MS-DOS will automatically smash case in the names of all the files you create." Compare {fold case}. smash the stack: [C programming] n. On many C implementations it is possible to corrupt the execution stack by writing past the end of an array declared auto' in a routine. Code that does this is said to smash the stack', and can cause return from the routine to jump to a random address. This can produce some of the most insidious data-dependent bugs known to mankind. Variants include trash' the stack, {scribble} the stack, {mangle} the stack; {mung} the stack is not used as this is never done intentionally. See {spam}; see also {aliasing bug}, {fandango on core}, {memory leak}, {precedence lossage}, {overrun screw}. smiley: n. See {emoticon}. smoke test: n. 1. A rudimentary form of testing applied to electronic equipment following repair or reconfiguration, in which power is applied and the tester checks for sparks, smoke, or other dramatic signs of fundamental failure. See {magic smoke}. 2. By extension, the first run of a piece of software after construction or a critical change. See and compare {reality check}. Note: There is an interesting parallel to this term among typographers and printers. When punchcutting new typefaces by hand, a smoke test' (hold the letter in candle smoke, then press onto paper) is used to check out new dies. smoking clover: [ITS] n. A {display hack} originally due to Bill Gosper. Many convergent lines are drawn on a color monitor in {AOS} mode (so that every pixel struck has its color incremented). The lines all have one endpoint in the middle of the screen; the other endpoints are spaced one pixel apart around the perimeter of a large square. The color map is then repeatedly rotated. This results in a striking, rainbow-hued, shimmering four-leaf clover. Gosper joked about keeping it hidden from the FDA (the U.S.'s Food and Drug Administration) lest it be banned. SMOP: /smop/ [Simple (or Small) Matter of Programming] n. 1. A piece of code, not yet written, whose anticipated length is significantly greater than its complexity. Usage: used to refer to a program that could obviously be written, but is not worth the trouble. It is also used ironically to imply that a difficult problem can be easily solved because a program can be written to do it; the irony is that it is very clear that writing such a program will be a great deal of work. Example: "It's easy to enhance a FORTRAN compiler to compile COBOL as well; it's just a SMOP." 2. Often used ironically by the intended victim when a suggestion for a program is made which seems easy to the suggester, but is obviously (to the victim) a lot of work. SNAFU principle: [from WWII army acronym for "Situation Normal, all Fucked Up"] n. "True communication is only possible between equals, because inferiors are more consistently rewarded for telling their superiors pleasant lies than for telling the truth." --- a central tenet of {Discordianism} often invoked by hackers to explain the reason authoritarian hierarchies screw up so reliably and systematically. This lightly adapted version of a fable dating back to the early 1960s illustrates the phenomenon perfectly: In the beginning was the plan, and then the specification; And the plan was without form, and the specification was void. And darkness was on the faces of the implementors thereof; And they spake unto their leader, saying: "It is a crock of shit, and smells as of a sewer." And the leader took pity on them, and spoke to the project leader: "It is a crock of excrement, and none may abide the odor thereof." And the project leader spake unto his section head, saying: "It is a container of excrement, and it is very strong, such that none may abide it." The section head then hurried to his department manager, and informed him thus: "It is a vessel of fertilizer, and none may abide its strength." The department manager carried these words to his general manager, and spoke unto him saying: "It containeth that which aideth the growth of plants, and it is very strong." And so it was that the General manager rejoiced and delivered the good news unto the Vice President. "It promoteth growth, and it is very powerful." The Vice President rushed to the President's side, and joyously exclaimed: "This powerful new software product will promote the growth of the company!" And the President looked upon the product, and saw that it was very good. After the subsequent disaster, the {suit}s protect themselves by saying "I was misinformed!", and the implementors are demoted or fired. snail: vt. To {snail-mail} something. "Snail me a copy of those graphics, will you?" snail-mail: n. Paper mail, as opposed to electronic. Sometimes written as the single word SnailMail'. One's postal address is, correspondingly, a snail address'. Derives from earlier coinage USnail' for which there have been parody posters and stamps made. Oppose {email}. snarf: /snarf/ vt. 1. To grab, esp. a large document or file for the purpose of using it with or without the author's permission. See also {BLT}. Variant: snarf down', to snarf, sometimes with the connotation of absorbing, processing, or understanding. "I think I'll snarf down the list of DDT commands so I'll know what's changed recently." 2. [in the UNIX community] to fetch a file or set of files across a network. See also {blast}. This term was mainstream in the late 1960s, meaning to eat piggishly'. It may still have this connotation in context. "He's in the snarfing phase of hacking --- ftping megs of stuff a day." snarf & barf: /snarf'n-barf/ n. Under a {WIMP environment}, the act of grabbing a region of text and then stuffing the contents of that region into another region (or the same one) to avoid re-typing a command line. In the late 1960s this was a mainstream expression for an eat now, regret it later' cheap-restaurant expedition. snark: [Lewis Carroll, via the Michigan Terminal System] n. 1. A system failure. When a user's process bombed, the operator would get a message "Help, Help, Snark in MTS!". 2. More generally, any kind of unexplained or threatening event on a computer (especially if it might be a boojum). Often used to refer to an event or log file entry that might indicate an attempted security violation. 3. UUCP name of snark.thyrsus.com, home site of the Jargon File 2.*.* versions (i.e., this lexicon). sneakernet: n. Term used (generally with ironic intent) for transfer of electronic information by physically carrying tape, disks, or some other media from one machine to another. "Never underestimate the bandwidth of a station wagon filled with magtape, or a 747 filled with CD-ROMs." Also called Tennis-Net', Armpit-Net', Floppy-Net'. sniff: v.,n. Synonym for {poll}. snivitz: /sniv'itz/ n. A hiccup in hardware or software; a small, transient problem of unknown origin (less serious than a {snark}). SO: /ess-oh/ n. 1. (also S.O.') Abbrev for Significant Other, almost invariably written abbreviated and pronounced /ess-oh/ by hackers. Used to refer to one's primary relationship, esp. a live-in to whom one is not married. See {MOTAS}, {MOTOS}, {MOTSS}. 2. The Shift Out control character in ASCII (^N, #b0001110). social science number: [IBM] n. A statistic which is {content-free}, or nearly so. A measure derived via methods of questionable validity from data of a dubious and vague nature. Predictively, having a social science number in hand is seldom much better than nothing, and can be considerably worse. {Management} loves them. See also {numbers}, {math-out}, {pretty pictures}. softcopy: n. [by analogy with hardcopy'] A machine-readable form of corresponding hardcopy. See {bits}, {softcopy}. software bloat: n. The results of {second-system effect} or {creeping featuritis}. Commonly cited examples include ls(1)', {X}, {BSD}, {Missed'em-five}, and {OS/2}. software rot: n. Term used to describe the tendency of software which has not been used in a while to {lose}; such failure may be semi-humorously ascribed to {bit rot}. More commonly, software rot' strikes when a program's assumptions become out of date. If the design was insufficiently {robust}, this may cause it to fail in mysterious ways. For example, due to endemic shortsightedness in the design of COBOL programs, most will succumb to software rot when their two-digit year counters {wrap around} at the beginning of the year 2000. Actually, related lossages often afflict centenarians that have to deal with computer software designed by unimaginative clods. One such incident became the focus of a minor public flap in 1990, when a gentleman born in 1889 applied for a driver's license renewal in Raleigh, NC. The new system refused to issue the card, probably because it did something like if (birthyear < (thisyear - 100)) reject();'. Historical note: software rot in an even funnier sense than the mythical one was a real problem on early research computers (e.g., the R1, see {grind crank}). If a program that depended on a peculiar instruction hadn't been run in quite a while, the user might discover that the opcodes no longer did the same things they used to. ("Hey, so-and-so needs an instruction to do such-and-such. We can snarf this opcode, right? No one uses it.") Another classic example of this sprang from the time an MIT hacker found a simple way to double the speed of the unconditional jump instruction on a PDP-6, so he patched the hardware. Unfortunately, this broke some fragile timing software in a music-playing program, throwing its output out of tune. This was fixed by adding a defensive initialization routine to compare the speed of a timing loop with the real-time clock; in other words, it figured out how fast the PDP-6 was that day, and corrected appropriately. Compare {bit rot}. softwarily: /soft-weir'i-lee/ adv. In a way pertaining to software. "The system is softwarily unreliable." The adjective softwary' is *not* used. See {hardwarily}. softy: [IBM] n. Hardware hackers' term for a software expert who is largely ignorant of the mysteries of hardware. some random X: adj. Used to indicate a member of class X, with the implication that Xs are fungible. "I think some random cracker tripped over the guest timeout last night." See also {J. Random}. sorcerer's apprentice mode: [from Fantasia'] n. A bug in a protocol where, under some circumstances, the receipt of a message causes more than one message to be sent, each of which, when received, triggers the same bug. Used esp. of such behavior caused by {bounce message} loops in {email} software. Compare {broadcast storm}, {network meltdown}. SOS: n.,obs. /ess-oh-ess/ 1. An infamously {losing} text editor. Once, back in the 1960s, when a text editor was needed for the PDP-6, a hacker crufted together a {quick and dirty} stopgap editor' to be used until a better one was written. Unfortunately, the old one was never really discarded when new ones (in particular, {TECO}) came along. SOS is a descendant (Son of Stopgap') of that editor; SOS and many PDP-10 users gained the dubious pleasure of its acquaintance. Since then other programs similar in style to SOS have been written, notably the early font editor BILOS /bye'lohs/ the Brother-In-Law Of Stopgap (the expansion Bastard Issue, Loins of Stopgap' has been proposed). See also {TECO}. 2. /sos/ n. Inverse of {AOS}, from the PDP-10 instruction set. source of all good bits: n. A person from whom (or place from which) useful information may be obtained. If you need to know about a program, a {wizard} might be the source of all good bits. The title is often applied to a particularly competent secretary. space-cadet keyboard: n. The Knight keyboard, a now-legendary device used on MIT LISP machines, which inspired several still-current jargon terms and influenced the design of {EMACS}. It was inspired by the Stanford keyboard and equipped with no fewer than *seven* shift keys: four keys for {bucky bits} (control', meta', hyper', and super') and three like regular shift keys, called shift', top', and front'. Many keys had three symbols on them: a letter and a symbol on the top, and a Greek letter on the front. For example, the L' key had an L' and a two-way arrow on the top, and the Greek letter lambda on the front. If you press this key with the right hand while playing an appropriate chord' with the left hand on the shift keys, you can get the following results: L lower-case "l" shift-L upper-case "L" front-L Greek lower-case lambda front-shift-L Greek upper-case lambda top-L two-way arrow (front and shift are ignored) And of course each of these might also be typed with any combination of the control, meta, hyper, and super keys. On this keyboard, you could type over 8000 different characters! This allowed the user to type very complicated mathematical text, and also to have thousands of single-character commands at his disposal. Many hackers were actually willing to memorize the command meanings of that many characters if it reduced typing time (this attitude obviously shaped the interface of EMACS). Other hackers, however, thought having that many bucky bits was overkill, and objected that such a keyboard can require three or four hands to operate. See {bucky bits}, {cokebottle}, {double bucky}, {meta bit}, {quadruple bucky}. SPACEWAR: n. A space-combat simulation game inspired by E. E. "Doc" Smith's Lensman' books in which two spaceships duel around a central sun, shooting torpedoes at each other and jumping through hyperspace. This game was first implemented on the PDP-1 at MIT in 1960--61. SPACEWAR aficionados formed the core of the early hacker culture at MIT. Nine years later, a descendant of the game motivated Ken Thompson to build, in his spare time on a scavenged PDP-7, the operating system that became {UNIX}. Less than nine years after that, SPACEWAR was commercialized as one of the first video games; descendants are still {feep}ing in video arcades everywhere. spaghetti code: n. Describes code with a complex and tangled control structure, esp. one using many GOTOs, exceptions, or other unstructured' branching constructs. Pejorative. The synonym kangaroo code' has been reported. spaghetti inheritance: n. [Encountered among users of object-oriented languages that use inheritance, such as Smalltalk] A convoluted class-subclass graph, often resulting from carelessly deriving subclasses from other classes just for the sake of reusing their code. Coined in a (successful) attempt to discourage such practice, through guilt-by-association with {spaghetti code}. spam: [from the {MUD} community] vt. To crash a program by overrunning a fixed-size buffer with excessively large input data. See also {buffer overflow}, {overrun screw}, {smash the stack}. special-case: vt. To write unique code to handle input to or situations arising in program that are somehow distinguished from normal processing. This would be used for processing of mode switches or interrupt characters in an interactive interface (as opposed, say, to text entry or normal commands), or for processing of {hidden flag}s in the input of a batch program or {filter}. spell: n. Syn. {incantation}. spiffy: /spi'fee/ adj. 1. Said of programs having a pretty, clever, or exceptionally well-designed interface. "Have you seen the spiffy {X} version of {empire} yet?" 2. Said sarcastically of programs that are perceived to have little more than a flashy interface going for them. Which meaning should be drawn depends delicately on tone of voice and context. This word was common mainstream slang during the 1940s, in a sense close to #1. spin: vi. Equivalent to {buzz}. More common among C and UNIX programmers. spl: /ess-pee-ell/ [abbrev, from Set Priority Level] The way traditional UNIX kernels implement mutual exclusion by running code at high interrupt levels. Used in jargon to describe the act of tuning in or tuning out ordinary communication. Classically, spl levels run from 1 to 7; "Fred's at spl 6 today." would mean he's very hard to interrupt. "Wait till I finish this; I'll spl down then." See also {interrupts locked out}. splat: n. 1. Name used in many places (DEC, IBM, and others) for the asterisk (*') character (ASCII #b0101010). This may derive from the squashed-bug' appearance of the asterisk on many early line printers. 2. [MIT] Name used by some people for the #' character (ASCII #b0100011). 3. [Rochester Institute of Technology] The command key on a Mac (same as {ALT}, sense #2). 4. [Stanford] Name used by some people for the Stanford/ITS extended ASCII circle-x character. This character is also called blobby', and frob', among other names; it is used by mathematicians as a notation for cross-product'. 5. [Stanford] Name for the semi-mythical extended ASCII circle-plus character. 6. Canonical name for an output routine that outputs whatever the local interpretation of splat' is. With ITS and WAITS gone, senses 4--6 are now obsolete. See also {{ASCII}}. spooge: /spooj/ 1. n. Inexplicable or arcane code, or random and probably incorrect output from a computer program. 2. vi. To generate spooge (sense #1). spool: [from early IBM Simultaneous Peripheral Operation Off-Line', but this acronym is widely thought to have been contrived for effect] vt. To send files to some device or program (a spooler') that queues them up and does something useful with them later. The spooler usually understood is the print spooler' controlling output of jobs to a printer, but the term has been used in connection with other peripherals (especially plotters and graphics devices). See also {demon}. stack: n. A person's stack is the set of things he/she has to do in the future. One speaks of the next project to be attacked as having risen to the top of the stack. "I'm afraid I've got real work to do, so this'll have to be pushed way down on my stack." "I haven't done it yet because every time I pop my stack something new gets pushed." If you are interrupted several times in the middle of a conversation, "My stack overflowed." means "I forget what we were talking about." The implication is that too many items were pushed onto the stack than could be remembered, so the least recent items were lost. The usual physical example of a stack is to be found in a cafeteria: a pile of plates or trays sitting on a spring in a well, so that when you put one on the top they all sink down, and when you take one off the top the rest spring up a bit. See also {push} and {pop}. At MIT, {pdl} used to be a more common synonym for {stack} in all these contexts, and this may still be true. Everywhere else {stack} seems to be the preferred term. {Knuth} writes (in The Art of Computer Programming', 2nd edition, vol 1, page 236 in section 2.2.1): Many people who realized the important of stacks and queues independently have given other names to these structures: stacks have been called push-down lists, reversion storages, cellars, nesting stores, piles, last-in-first-out ("LIFO") lists, and even yo-yo lists! stack puke: n. Some computers are said to puke their guts onto the stack' to save their internal state during exception processing. On a pipelined machine this can take a while (up to 92 bytes for a bus fault on the 68020, for example). stale pointer bug: n. Synonym for {aliasing bug} used esp. among microcomputer hackers. state: n. 1. Condition, situation. "What's the state of your latest hack?" "It's winning away." Or "The system tried to read and write the disk simultaneously and got into a totally wedged state." A standard question is "What's your state?" which means "What are you doing?" or "What are you about to do?" Typical answers might be "about to gronk out", or "hungry". Another standard question is "What's the state of the world?" meaning "What's new?" or "What's going on?". The more terse and humorous way of asking these questions would be state-p?'. Another way of phrasing the question under sense #1 would be "state-p latest hack?". 2. Information being maintained in non-permanent memory (electronic or human). stiffy: [University of Lowell] n. 3.5-inch {microfloppies}, so called because their jackets are more firm than the 5.25-inch and 8-inch floppy. stir-fried random: alt. stir-fried mumble' n. Term used for frequent best dish of those hackers who can cook. Consists of random fresh veggies and meat wokked with random spices. Tasty and economical. See {random}, {great-wall}, {ravs}, {{Oriental Food}}; see also {mumble}. stomp on: vt. To inadvertently overwrite something important, usually automatically. Example: "All the work I did this weekend got stomped on last night by the nightly server script." Compare {scribble}, {mangle}, {trash}, {scrog}, {roach}. Stone Age: n.,adj. 1. In computer folklore, an ill-defined period from ENIAC (c.1943) to the mid-1950s; the great age of electromechanical {dinosaur}s. Sometimes used for the entire period up to 1960--61 (see {Iron Age}); however, it is funnier and more descriptive to characterize the latter period in terms of a Bronze Age' era of transistor-logic, pre-ferrite-core machines with drum or CRT mass storage (as opposed to just mercury delay lines and/or relays). See also {Iron Age}. 2. More generally, a pejorative for any crufty, ancient piece of hardware or software technology. Note that this is used even by people who were there for the {Stone Age} (sense #1). stoppage: /sto'p*j/ n. Extreme {lossage} resulting in something (usually vital) becoming completely unusable. "The recent system stoppage was caused by a {fried} transformer." store: [poss. from techspeak main store'] n. Preferred Commonwealth synonym for {core}. Thus, bringing a program into store' means not that one is returning shrink-wrapped software but that a program is being {swapped in}. stubroutine: /stuhb'roo-teen/ [contr. of stub routine'] n. Tiny, often vacuous placeholder for a subroutine which is to be written or fleshed out later. studlycaps: /stuhd'lee-kaps/ n. A hackish form of silliness similar to {BiCapitalization} for trademarks, but applied randomly to arbitrary text rather than to trademarks. ThE oRigiN and SigNificaNce of thIs pRacTicE iS oBscuRe. stunning: adj. Mind-bogglingly stupid. Usually used in sarcasm. "You want to code *what* in ADA? That's...a stunning idea!" See also {non-optimal solution}. subshell: [UNIX, MS-DOS] n. An OS command interpreter (see {shell}) spawned from within a program, such that exit from the command interpreter returns one to the parent program in a state that allows it to continue execution. Compare {shell out}; oppose {chain}. sucking mud: [Applied Digital Research] adj. (also pumping mud') Crashed or wedged. Usually said of a machine that provides some service to a network, such as a file server. This Dallas regionalism derives from the East Texas oil field lament, "Shut 'er down, Ma, she's a-suckin' mud." Often used as a query. "We are going to reconfigure the network, are you ready to suck mud?" sufficiently small: adj. Syn. {suitably small}. suit: n. 1. Ugly and uncomfortable business clothing' often worn by non-hackers. Invariably worn with a tie', a strangulation device which partially cuts off the blood supply to the brain. It is thought that this explains much about the behavior of suit-wearers. Compare {droid}. 2. A person who habitually wears suits, as distinct from a techie or hacker. See {loser}, {burble} and {brain-damaged}. English, BTW, is relatively kind; our Soviet correspondent informs us that the corresponding idiom in Russian hacker jargon is sovok', lit. a tool for grabbing garbage. suitable win: n. See {win}. suitably small: [perverted from mathematical jargon] adj. An expression used ironically to characterize non-quantifiable behavior which differs from expected or required behavior. For example, suppose a newly-created program came up with a correct full screen display, and one publicly exclaimed "It works!". Then, if the program dumps core on the first mouse click, one might add "Well, for suitably small values of works'...". Compare the characterization of pi under {{random numbers}}. sun-stools: n. Unflattering hackerism for SunTools, a pre-X windowing environment notorious in its day for size, slowness, and misfeatures. {X}, however, is larger and slower; see {second-system effect}. sunspots: n. 1. Notional cause of an odd error. "Why did the program suddenly turn the screen blue?" "Sunspots, I guess". 2. Also the cause of {bit rot}, from the myth that sunspots will increase {cosmic rays} that can flip single bits in memory. See {cosmic rays}, {phase of the moon}. superprogrammer: n. A prolific programmer; one who can code exceedingly well and quickly. Not all hackers are superprogrammers, but many are. (Productivity can vary from one programmer to another by three orders of magnitude. For example, one programmer might be able to write an average of 3 lines of working code in one day, while another, with the proper tools, might be able to write 3,000. This range is astonishing, matched in very few other areas of human endeavor.) The term superprogrammer is more commonly used within such places as IBM than in the hacker community. It tends to stress naive measures of productivity and to underweight creativity, ingenuity and getting the job *done*. Hackers tend to prefer the terms {hacker} and {wizard}. superuser: [UNIX] n. Syn. {root}, {avatar}. This usage has spread to non-UNIX environments; the superuser is any account with all {wheel} bits on. A more specific term than {wheel}. support: n. After-sale handholding; something many software vendors promise, but few deliver. To hackers, most support people are useless --- because by the time a hacker calls support he/she will usually know the relevant manuals better than the support people; sadly, this is *not* a joke or exaggeration. A hacker's idea of support' is a tete-a-tete with the software's designer. Suzie COBOL: /soo'zee koh'bol/ 1. [IBM, prob. from Frank Zappa's Suzy Creamcheese'] n. A coder straight out of training school who knows everything except the benefits of comments in plain English. Also (fashionable among personkind wishing to avoid accusations of sexism) Sammy Cobol' or (in some non-IBM circles) Cobol Charlie'. 2. [proposed] Meta-name for any {code grinder}, analogous to {J. Random Hacker}. swab: /swob/ [From the mnemonic for the PDP-11 SWap Byte' instruction, as immortalized in the dd(1) option conv=swab' (see {dd})] 1. vt. To solve the {NUXI problem} by swapping bytes in a file. 2. n. The program in V7 UNIX used to perform this action, or anything functionally equivalent to it. See also {big-endian}, {little-endian}, {middle-endian}, {bytesexual}. swap: vt. 1. [techspeak] To move information from a fast-access memory to a slow-access memory (swap out'), or vice versa (swap in'). Often refers specifically to the use of disks as virtual memory'. As pieces of data or program are needed, they are swapped into {core} for processing; when they are no longer needed they may be swapped out again. 2. The jargon use of these terms analogizes people's short-term memories with core. Cramming for an exam might be spoken of as swapping in. If you temporarily forget someone's name, but then remember it, your excuse is that it was swapped out. To keep something swapped in' means to keep it fresh in your memory: "I reread the TECO manual every few months to keep it swapped in." If someone interrupts you just as you got a good idea, you might say, "Wait a moment while I swap this out", implying that the piece of paper is your extra-somatic memory and if you don't swap the info out by writing it down, it will get overwritten and lost as you talk. Compare {page in}, {page out}. swap space: n. Storage space, especially temporary storage space used during a move or reconfiguration. "I'm just using that corner of the machine room for swap space." swapped in: n. See {swap}. See also {page in}. swapped out: n. See {swap}. See also {page out}. swizzle: v. To convert external names or references within a data structure into direct pointers when the data structure is brought into main memory from external storage; also called pointer swizzling'; the converse operation is sometimes termed unswizzling'. sync: /sink/ (var. synch') n.,vi. 1. To synchronize, to bring into syncronization. 2. [techspeak] To force all pending I/O to the disk; see {flush}, sense #2. 3. More generally, to force a number of competing processes or agents to a state that would be safe' if the system were to crash; thus, to checkpoint (in the database-theory sense). syntactic sugar: [coined by Peter Landin] n. Features added to a language or formalism to make it sweeter' for humans, that do not affect the expressiveness of the formalism (compare {chrome}). Used esp. when there is an obvious and trivial translation of the sugar' feature into other constructs already present in the notation. Example: C's a[i]' notation is syntactic sugar for *(a + i)'. "Syntactic sugar causes cancer of the semicolon." --- Alan Perlis. sys-frog: /sis'frog/ [the PLATO system] n. Playful hackish variant of sysprog', which is in turn short for systems programmer'. sysop: /sis'op/ n. [BBS] The operator (and usually owner) of a bulletin-board system. A common neophyte mistake on {FidoNet} is to address a message to sysop' in an international {echo}, thus sending it to hundreds of sysops world-wide. system: n. 1. The supervisor program or OS on a computer. 2. The entire computer system, including input/output devices, the supervisor program or OS, and possibly other software. 3. Any large-scale program. 4. Any method or algorithm. 5. (slang) The way things are usually done. Usage: a fairly ambiguous word. "You can't beat the system." 6. System hacker': one who hacks the system (in senses #1 and #2 only; for sense #3 one mentions the particular program: e.g., LISP hacker') system mangler: n. Humorous synonym for system manager', poss. from the fact that one major IBM OS had a root' account called SYSMANGR. Refers specifically to a systems programmer in charge of administration, software maintainance, and updates at some site. Unlike {admin}, this term emphasizes the technical end of the skills involved. = T = ===== T: /tee/ 1. [from LISP terminology for true'] Yes. Usage: used in reply to a question (particularly one asked using the -P' convention). In LISP, the constant T means true', among other things. Some hackers use T' and NIL' instead of Yes' and No' almost reflexively. This sometimes causes misunderstandings. When a waiter or flight attendant asks whether a hacker wants coffee, he may well respond T', meaning that he wants coffee; but of course he will be brought a cup of tea instead. As it happens, most hackers (particularly those who frequent Chinese restaurants) like tea at least as well as coffee --- so it's not that big a problem. 2. See {time T} (also {since time T equals minus infinity}). 3. [techspeak] In transaction-processing circles, an abbreviation for the noun transaction'. 4. [Purdue] Alternate spelling of {tee}. tail recursion: n. If you aren't sick of it already, see {tail recursion}. talk mode: n. A feature supported by UNIX, ITS and some other OSes which allows two or more logged-in users to set up a real-time on-line conversation. Talk mode has a special set of jargon words, used to save typing, which are not used orally. Some of these are identical to (and probably derived from) Morse-code jargon used by ham-radio amateurs going back to the 1920s. BCNU Be seeing you. BTW By the way... Lower-case also works. BYE? Are you ready to unlink? (This is the standard way to end a talk mode conversation; the other person types BYE to confirm, or else continues the conversation.) CUL See you later. ENQ? Are you busy? Expects ACK or NAK in return. FOO? A greeting, also meaning R U THERE? Often used in the case of unexpected links, meaning also "Sorry if I butted in..." (linker) or "What's up?" (linkee). FYI For your information... FYA For your amusement... GA Go ahead (used when two people have tried to type simultaneously; this cedes the right to type to the other). GRMBL grumble --- expresses disquiet or disagreement. HELLOP A greeting, also meaning R U THERE? (An instance of the "-P" convention.) JAM Just a minute... Equivalent to SEC... MIN Same as JAM. NIL No (see {NIL}). O Over (lower-case works too). OO Over and out (lower-case works too). / Another form of "Over to you" (from x/y as "x over y") \ Lambda (used in discussing LISPy things). OBTW Oh, by the way... R U THERE? Are you there? SEC Wait a second (sometimes written SEC...). T Yes (see the main entry for {T}). TNX Thanks. TNX 1.0E6 Thanks a million (humorous). TNXE6 Ditto. WRT With Regard To or With Respect To. WTF The universal interrogative particle. WTF knows what it means? WTH What the hell? <double newline> When the typing party has finished, he types two newlines to signal that he is done; this leaves a blank line between individual "speeches" in the conversation, making it easier to re-read the preceding text. <name>: When three or more terminals are linked, each speech is preceded by the typist's login name or handle and a colon (or a hyphen) to indicate who is typing. The login name often is shortened to a unique prefix (possibly a single letter) during a very long conversation. /\/\/\ A giggle or chuckle. On a MUD, this usually means earthquake fault'. Most of the above sub-jargon is used at both Stanford and MIT. Several of these are also common in {email}, esp. FYI, FYA, BTW, BCNU, WTF, and CUL. A few other abbreviations have been reported from commercial networks such as GEnie and CompuServe where on-line live' chat including more than two people is common and usually involves a more social' context, notably: <g> grin <gr&d> grinning, running and ducking BBL be back later BRB be right back HHOJ ha ha only joking HHOS {ha ha only serious} IMHO in my humble opinion (see {IMHO}) LOL laughing out loud ROTF rolling on the floor ROTFL rolling on the floor laughing AFK away from keyboard b4 before CU l8tr see you later MORF Male or Female? TTFN ta-ta for now OIC Oh, I see rehi hello again Most of hese are not used at universities or in the UNIX world, though IMHO, ROTF, and TTFN have gained some currency there; conversely, most of the people who know these are unfamiliar with FOO?, BCNU, HELLOP, {NIL}, and {T}. The {MUD} community uses a mixture of USENET/Internet emoticons, a few of the more natural of the old-style talk mode abbrevs, and some of the social' list above; specifically, MUD respondents report use of BBL, BRB, LOL, b4, BTW, WTF, TTFN, and WTH. The use of rehi is also common; in fact, mudders are fond of re- compounds and will frequently rehug' or rebonk' (see {bonk/oif}) people. The word re' by itself is taken as re-greet'. In general, though, MUDders express a preference for typing things out in full rather than using abbreviations; this may be due to the relative youth of the MUD cultures, which tend to include many touch typists and assume high-speed links. The following uses specific to MUDs are reported: UOK? Are you OK? THX Thanks (mutant of TNX). Clearly this comes in batches of 1138 (the Lucas K). CU l8er See you later (mutant of CU l8tr) OTT Over the top (excessive, uncalled for) Some {BIFF}isms (notably the variant spelling d00d') appear to be passing into wider use among some subgroups of mudders. See also {hakspek}, {emoticon}, {bonk/oif}. talker system: n. British hackerism for software that enables real-time chat or {talk mode}. tall card: n. A PC/AT-sized expansion card (these can be larger than IBM PC or XT cards because the AT case is bigger). See also {short card}. When IBM introduced the PS/2 model 30 (their last gasp at supporting the ISA) they made the case lower and many industry-standard tall cards wouldn't fit; this was felt to be a reincarnation of the {connector conspiracy}, done with less style. tanked: adj. Same as {down}, used primarily by UNIX hackers. See also {hosed}. Popularized as a synonym for drunk' by Steve Dallas in the late lamented Bloom County' comics. tar and feather: [from UNIX tar(1)'] vt. To create a transportable archive from a group of files by first sticking them together with tar(1)' (the Tape ARchiver) and then compressing the result (see {compress}). The latter is dubbed feathering' by analogy to what you do with an airplane propeller to decrease wind resistance, or with an oar to reduce water resistance; smaller files, after all, slip through comm links more easily. taste: [primarily MIT] n. 1. The quality in programs which tends to be inversely proportional to the number of features, hacks, and kluges programmed into it. Also, tasty', tasteful', tastefulness'. "This feature comes in N tasty flavors." Although tasteful' and flavorful' are essentially synonyms, taste' and {flavor} are not. Taste refers to sound judgement on the part of the creator; a program or feature can *exhibit* taste but cannot have' taste. On the other hand, a feature can have {flavor}. Also, {flavor} has the additional meaning of kind' or variety' not shared by taste'. {Flavor} is a more popular word than taste', though both are used. See also {elegant}. 2. Alt. sp. of {tayste}. tayste: n. Two bits; also as {taste}. Syn. {crumb}, {quarter}. Compare {{byte}}, {dynner}, {playte}, {nybble}, {quad}. TCB: /tee see bee/ [IBM] n. 1. Trouble Came Back. Intermittent or difficult-to reproduce problem which has failed to respond to neglect. Compare {heisenbug}. Not to be confused with: 2. Trusted Computing Base, an official' jargon term from the {Orange Book}. tea, ISO standard cup of: [South Africa] n. A cup of tea with milk and one teaspoon of sugar, where the milk is poured into the cup before the tea. Variations are ISO 0, with no sugar; ISO 2, with two spoons of sugar; and so on. Note: like many ISO standards, this one has a faintly alien ring in North America, wherein hackers generally shun the decadent British practice of adulterating perfectly good tea with *dairy products* and prefer instead to add a wedge of lemon, if anything. If one were feeling extremely silly, one might hypothesize an analogous ANSI standard cup of tea' and wind up with a political situation distressingly similar to several that arise in much more serious technical contexts. Milk and lemon don't mix very well. TechRef: [MS-DOS] n. The original IBM PC Technical Reference Manual', including the BIOS listing and complete schematics for the PC. The only PC documentation in the issue package that's considered serious by real hackers. TECO: /tee'koh/ obs. 1. vt. Originally, to edit using the TECO editor in one of its infinite variations (see below); sometimes still used to mean to edit' even when not using TECO! Usage: rare and now primarily historical. 2. [originally an acronym for (paper) Tape Editor and COrrector'; later, Text Editor and Corrector'] n. A text editor developed at MIT and modified by just about everybody. If all the dialects are included, TECO might have been the single most prolific editor in use before {EMACS}, to which it was directly ancestral. Noted for its powerful programming-language-like features and its unspeakably hairy syntax. It is literally the case that every string of characters is a valid TECO program (though probably not a useful one); one common hacker game used to be mentally working out what the TECO commands corresponding to human names did. As an example of TECO's obtusosity, here is a TECO program that takes a list of names like this: Loser, J. Random Quux, The Great Dick, Moby sorts them alphabetically according to last name, and then puts the last name last, removing the comma, to produce this: Moby Dick J. Random Loser The Great Quux The program is: [1 J^PL$$J <.-Z; .,(S, -D .)FX1 @F^B K :L I  G1 L>$$

(where ^B means Control-B' (ASCII #b0000010) and $is actually an {ALT} or escape (ASCII #b0011011) character). In fact, this very program was used to produce the second, sorted list from the first list. The first hack at it had a {bug}: GLS (the author) had accidentally omitted the @' in front of F^B', which as anyone can see is clearly the {Wrong Thing}. It worked fine the second time. There is no space to describe all the features of TECO, but it may be of interest that ^P' means sort' and J<.-Z; ... L>' is an idiomatic series of commands for do once for every line'. In mid-1991, TECO is now pretty much one with the dust of history, having been replaced in the affections of hackerdom by {EMACS}. It can still be found lurking on VMS and a couple of crufty PDP-11 operating systems, however, and remains the focus of some antiquarian interest. See also {write-only language}. tee: n.,vt. [Purdue] A carbon copy of an electronic transmission. "Oh, you're sending him the {bits} to that? Slap on a tee for me." From the UNIX command tee(1)', itself named after a pipe fitting (see {plumbing}, {pipeline}). Can also mean save one for me' as in "Tee a slice for me!". Also spelled T'. Telerat: /tel'*-rat/ n. Unflattering hackerism for Teleray', a line of extremely losing terminals. See also {terminak}, {sun-stools}, {HP-SUX}. TELNET: /tel'net/ vt. To communicate with another Internet host using the {TELNET} program. TOPS-10 people used the word IMPCOM since that was the program name for them. Sometimes abbreviated to TN. "I usually TN over to SAIL just to read the AP News." ten-finger interface: n. The interface between two networks which cannot be directly connected for security reasons; refers to the practice of placing two terminals side by side and having an operator read from one and type into the other. tense: adj. Of programs, very clever and efficient. A tense piece of code often got that way because it was highly {bum}med, but sometimes it was just based on a great idea. A comment in a clever routine by Mike Kazar, once a grad-student hacker at CMU: "This routine is so tense it will bring tears to your eyes." A tense programmer is one who produces tense code. tenured graduate student: n. One who has been in graduate school for ten years (the usual maximum is five or six): a ten-yeared' student (get it?). Actually, this term may be used of any grad student beginning in his seventh year. Students don't really get tenure, of course, the way professors do, but a tenth-year graduate student has probably been around the university longer than any non-tenured professor. tera-: /te'r*/ pref. See {{quantifiers}}. teraflop club: /ter'a-flop kluhb/ [FLOP = Floating Point Operation] n. Mythical association of people who consume outrageous amounts of computer time in order to produce a few simple pictures of glass balls with intricate ray tracing techniques. Caltech professor James Kajiya is said to have been the founding member. See also {tera-}. terminak: /ter'mi-nak/ [Caltech, ca. 1979] n. Any malfunctioning computer terminal. A common failure mode of Lear-Siegler ADM3a terminals caused the L' key to produce the K' code instead; complaints about this tended to look like "Terminak #3 has a bad keyboard. Pkease fix." See {sun-stools}, {Telerat}, {HP-SUX}. terminal brain death: n. Extreme form of {terminal illness} (sense #1). terminal illness: n. 1. Syn. {raster burn}. 2. The burn-in' condition your CRT tends to get if you don't have a screen saver. terminal junkie: [Great Britain] n. A {wannabee} or early {larval stage} hacker who spends most of his/her time wandering the directory tree and writing {noddy} programs just to get his/her fix of computer time. Variants include terminal jockey', console junkie', or {console jockey}. The term console jockey' seems to imply more expertise than the other three (possibly because of the exalted status of the {{console}} relative to an ordinary terminal). See also {twink}, {read-only user}. terpri: /ter'pree/ [from LISP 1.5 (and later, MacLISP)] vi. To output a {newline}. Now rare as jargon, though still used as techspeak in Common Lisp. It is a contraction of TERminate PRInt line', named for the fact that on early OSes, no characters would be printed until a complete line was formed, so this operation terminated the line and emitted the output. test: n. 1. Real users bashing on a prototype for long enough to get thoroughly acquainted with it, with careful monitoring and followup of the results. 2. Some bored random user trying a couple of the simpler features with a developer looking over his/her shoulder, ready to pounce on mistakes. Judging by the quality of most software, the second definition is far more prevalent. See also {demo}. TeX: /tekh/ n. An extremely powerful {macro}-based text-formatter written by Donald E. Knuth, very popular in the computer-science community (it is good enough to have displaced UNIX troff(1)', the other favored formatter, even at many UNIX installations). TeX fans insist on the correct (guttural) pronunciation and spelling (all caps, with the E depressed below the baseline) of the name (the mixed-case TeX' is considered an acceptable kluge on ASCII-only devices). They like to proliferate names from the word TeX' --- such as TeXnician (TeX user), TeXhacker (TeX programmer), TeXmaster (competent TeX programmer), TeXhax, TeXnique, TeXpert. text: n. 1. [techspeak] Executable code, esp. a pure code' portion shared between multiple instances of a program running in a multitasking OS (compare {English}). 2. Textual material in the mainstream sense; data in ordinary, e.g., {{ASCII}} or {{EBCDIC}} representation (syn. {flat-ASCII}). "Those are text files; you can review them using the editor." These two contradictory senses confuse hackers, too. thanks in advance: [USENET] Conventional net.politeness ending a posted request for information or assistance. Sometimes written advTHANKSance' or aTdHvAaNnKcSe' or abbreviated TIA'. See {net.-}, {netiquette}. theology: n. 1. Ironically used to refer to {religious issues}. 2. Technical fine points of an abstruse nature, esp. those where the resolution is of theoretical interest but relatively {marginal} with respect to actual use of a design or system. Used esp. around software issues with a heavy AI or language design component. Example: the smart-data vs. smart-programs dispute in AI. theory: n. Used in the general sense of consensus, idea, plan, story, or set of rules that is currently being used to inform a behavior. This is a generalization and abuse of the technical meaning. "What's the theory on fixing this TECO loss?" "What's the theory on dinner tonight?" ("Chinatown, I guess.") "What's the current theory on letting lusers on during the day?" "The theory behind this change is to fix the following well-known screw...." thinko: /thing'koh/ [by analogy with typo'] n. A momentary, correctable glitch in mental processing, especially one involving recall of information learned by rote; a bubble in the stream of consciousness. Syn. {braino}. Compare {mouso}. This time, for sure!: excl. Ritual affirmation frequently uttered during protracted debugging sessions involving numerous small obstacles (e.g. attempts to bring up a UUCP connection). For the proper effect, this must be uttered in a fruity imitation of Bullwinkle J. Moose. Also heard: "Hey, Rocky! Watch me pull a rabbit out of my hat!". The {canonical} response is, of course, "But that trick *never* works!". See {{Humor, Hacker}}. thrash: vi. To move wildly or violently, without accomplishing anything useful. Paging or swapping systems that are overloaded waste most of their time moving data into and out of core (rather than performing useful computation) and are therefore said to thrash. Someone who keeps changing his mind (esp. about what to work on next) is said to be thrashing. A person frantically trying to execute too many tasks at once (and not spending enough time on any single task) may also be described as thrashing. Compare {multitask}. thread: /thred/ n. [USENET, GEnie, CI$] Common abbreviation of
topic thread', a more or less continuous chain of postings on a
single topic.

three-finger salute: n. Syn. {vulcan nerve pinch}.

thud: n. Yet another meta-syntactic variable (see {foo}).  It is
reported that at CMU in the mid-70s the canonical series of these
was foo', bar', thud', blat'.

thunk: /thuhnk/ [mythically, the sound made by data hitting the
stack] n. 1. " ... a piece of coding which provides an
address." --- P. Z. Ingerman, who invented thunks in 1961 as a way
of binding actual parameters to their formal definitions in
Algol-60 procedure calls.  If a procedure is called with an
expression in the place of a formal parameter, the compiler
generates a {thunk} to compute the expression and leave the
address of the result in some standard location.  2. Later
generalized into: an expression, frozen together with its
environment, for later evaluation if and when needed (similar to
what in techspeak is called a closure').  The process of
unfreezing these thunks is called forcing'.  3. A {stubroutine},
in an overlay programming environment, that loads and jumps to the
correct overlay.  Compare {trampoline}.  4. People and activities
scheduled in a thunklike manner.  "It occurred to me the other day
that I am rather accurately modelled by a thunk --- I frequently
need to be forced to completion."  --- paraphrased from a {plan
file}.

tick: n. 1. A {jiffy} (sense #1).  2. In simulations, the
discrete unit of time that passes between' iterations of the
simulation mechanism.  In AI applications, this amount of time is
often left unspecified, since the only constraint of interest is
the ordering of events.  This sort of AI simulation is often
pejoratively referred to as tick-tick-tick' simulation,
especially when the issue of simultaneity of events with long,
independent chains of causes is {handwave}d.

tick-list features: [Acorn Computers] n. Features in software or
hardware that customers insist on but never use (calculators in
desktop TSRs and that sort of thing).  The American equivalent
would be checklist features', but this jargon sense of the
phrase has not been reported.

tickle a bug: vt. To cause a normally hidden bug to manifest
through some known series of inputs or operations.  "You can
tickle the bug in the Paradise VGA card's highlight handling by
trying to set bright yellow reverse video".

tiger team: [U.S. military jargon] n. A team whose purpose is to
penetrate security, and thus test security measures.  These people
are paid professionals who do hacker-type tricks, e.g., leave
cardboard signs saying "bomb" in critical defense installations,
hand-lettered notes saying "Your codebooks have been stolen"
(they usually haven't been) inside safes, etc.  After a successful
penetration, some high-ranking security type shows up the next
morning for a security review', finds the sign, note, etc., and
all hell breaks loose.  Serious successes of tiger teams sometimes
lead to early retirement for base commanders and security officers.

A subset of tiger teams are professional {cracker}s, testing the
security of military computer installations.  Some of their
escapades, if declassified, would probably rank among the greatest
hacks of all times.  The term has been adopted in commercial
computer-security circles in this more specific sense.

time sink: [poss. by analogy with heat sink'] n. A project which
consumes unbounded amounts of time.

time T: /tiem tee/ n. 1. An unspecified but usually
well-understood time, often used in conjunction with a later time
T+1.  "We'll meet on campus at time T or at Louie's at time T+1."
means, in the context of going out for dinner, "We can meet on
campus and go to Louie's, or we can meet at Louie's itself a bit
later."  (Louie's is a Chinese restaurant in Palo Alto that is a
favorite with hackers.  Had the number 30 been used instead of the
number 1, it would have implied that the travel time from campus to
Louie's is thirty minutes; whatever time T is (and that hasn't been
decided on yet), you can meet half an hour later at Louie's than
you could on campus and end up eating at the same time. See also
{since time T equals minus infinity}.

tinycrud: /tie'nee-kruhd/ n. Pejorative used by habitues of older
game-oriented {MUD} versions for TinyMUDs and other
user-extensible {MUD} variants; esp. common among users of the
rather violent and competitive AberMUD and MIST systems.  These
people justify the slur on the basis of how (allegedly)
inconsistent and lacking in genuine atmosphere the scenarios
generated in user extensible muds can be.  Other common knocks on
them are that they feature little overall plot, bad game topology,
little competitive interaction, etc. --- not to mention the alleged
horrors of the TinyMUD code itself.  This dispute is one of the MUD
world's hardiest perennial {holy wars}.

tip of the ice-cube: [IBM] n. The visible part of something small and
insignificant.  Used as an ironic comment in situations where tip
of the iceberg' might be appropriate if the subject were actually
nontrivial.

tired iron: [IBM] n. Hardware that is perfectly functional but
enough behind the state of the art to have been superseded by new
products, presumably with enough improvement in bang-per-buck that
the old stuff is starting to look a bit like a {dinosaur}.

tits on a keyboard: n. Small bumps on certain keycaps to keep
touch-typists registered (usually on the 5' of a numeric keypad,
and on the F' and J' of a QWERTY keyboard).

TLA: /tee el ay/ [Three-Letter Acronym] n. 1. Self-describing
acronym for a species with which computing terminology is infested.
2. Any confusing acronym at all.  Examples include MCA, FTP, SNA,
CPU, MMU, SCCS, DMU, FPU, TLA, NNTP.  People who like this looser
usage argue that not all TLAs have three letters, just as not all
four-letter words have four letters.  One also hears of ETLA'
(Extended Three Letter Acronym, pronounced /ee tee el ay/) being
used to describe four-letter acronyms.  The term SFLA' (Stupid

The self-effacing phrase "TDM TLA" (Too Damn Many...) is often
used to bemoan the plethora of TLAs in use.  In 1989, a random of
the journalistic persuasion asked hacker Paul Boutin "What do you
think will be the biggest problem in computing in the 90s?"
Paul's straight-faced response: "There are only seventeen thousand
three-letter acronyms."

to a first approximation: 1. [techspeak] when doing certain
numerical computations, an approximate solution may be computed by
any of several heuristic methods, then refined to a final value.
By using the technique of a first approximation of the answer, an
algorithm can be written that converges more quickly to the correct
result.  2. In jargon, a preface to any comment that indicates that
the comment is only approximately true.  The remark "To a first
approximation, I feel good" might indicate that deeper questioning
would reveal that all is not perfect (e.g., a nagging cough still
remains after an illness).

toast: 1. n. Any completely inoperable system, esp. one that has
just crashed; "Uh, oh...I think the serial board is toast."
2. vt. To cause a system to crash accidentally, especially in a
manner that requires manual rebooting.  "Rick just toasted the
{firewall machine} again."

toaster: n. 1. The archetypal really stupid application for an
embedded microprocessor controller; often used in comments which
imply that a scheme is inappropriate technology (but see
{elevator controller}).  "{DWIM} for an assembler?  That'd be
as silly as running UNIX on your toaster!"  2. A very, very dumb
computer. "You could run this program on any dumb toaster."  See
{bitty box}, {Get a real computer!}, {toy}, {beige toaster}.
3. A Macintosh, esp. the Classic Mac.  Some hold that this is
implied by sense #2.  4. A peripheral device.  "I bought my box
without toasters, but since then I've added two boards and a second
disk drive."

toeprint: n. A {footprint} of especially small size.

toggle: vt. To change a {bit} from whatever state it is in to the
other state; to change from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1. This probably
comes from toggle switches', such as standard light switches,
though the word toggle' actually refers to the mechanism that
keeps the switch in the position to which it is flipped, rather
than to the fact that the switch has two positions.  There are four
things you can do to a bit: set it (force it to be 1), clear (or
zero) it, leave it alone, or toggle it.  (Mathematically, one would
say that there are four distinct boolean-valued functions of one
boolean argument, but saying that is much less fun than talking

tool: 1. n. A program primarily used to create, manipulate, modify,
or analyze other programs, such as a compiler or editor or
cross-referencing program.  Oppose {app}, {operating system}.
2. [UNIX] An application program with a simple, transparent'
(typically text-stream) interface designed specifically to be used
in programmed combination with other tools (see {filter}).
3. [MIT] vi. To work; to study (connotes tedium).  The TMRC
Dictionary defined this as "to set one's brain to the
grindstone".  See {hack}.  4. [MIT] n. A student who studies too
much and hacks too little.

toolsmith: n. The software equivalent of a tool-and-die specialist;
one who specializes in making the {tool}s with which other

TOPS-10: /tops-ten/ n. DEC's proprietary OS for the fabled {PDP-10}
machines, long a favorite of hackers but now effectively extinct.
{TOPS-20}, {TWENEX}, {VMS}, {operating system}.  TOPS-10 was
sometimes called BOTS-10 (from bottoms-ten') as a comment on the
inappropriateness of describing it as the top of anything.

TOPS-20: /tops-twen'tee/ n. See {TWENEX}.

toto: n. This is reported to be the default scratch file name among
French-speaking programmers; in other words, a Francophone {foo}.

tourist: [from MIT's ITS system] n. A guest on the system,
especially one who generally logs in over a network from a remote
location for {comm mode}, email, games and other trivial
purposes.  One step below {luser}.  Note: hackers often spell
this turist', perhaps by some sort of tenuous analogy with luser'
(this also expresses the ITS culture's penchant for

tourist information: n. Information in an on-line display that is
not immediately useful, but contributes to a viewer's gestalt of
what's going on with the software or hardware behind it.  Whether a
given piece of info falls in this category or not partly depends on
what the user is looking for at any given time.  The bytes free'
information at the bottom of an MS-DOS dir' display is
tourist information; so (most of the time) is the TIME information
in a UNIX ps(1)' display.

touristic: adj. Having the quality of a {tourist}.  Often used as
a pejorative, as in the phrase losing touristic scum'.  Often
spelled turistic' or turistik', so that phrase might be more
properly rendered lusing turistic scum'.

toy: n. A computer system; always used with qualifiers.
1. nice toy': One that supports the speaker's hacking style
adequately.  2. just a toy': A machine that yields
insufficient {computron}s for the speaker's preferred uses.  This
is not condemnatory as is {bitty box}; toys can at least be fun.
It is also strongly conditioned by one's expectations; Cray XMP
users sometimes consider the Cray-1 a toy', and certainly all RISC
a real computer!}.

toy language: n. A language useful for instructional purposes or as
a proof-of-concept for some aspect of computer science theory, but
Thing}s can result when a toy language is promoted as a general
purpose solution for programming (see {bondage-and-discipline
language}); the classic example is {{Pascal}}.  Several moderately
well-known formalisms for conceptual tasks like programming Turing
machines also qualify as toy languages in a less negative sense.

toy problem: [AI] n. A deliberately simplified or even
oversimplified case of a challenging problem used to investigate,
prototype, or test algorithms for a real problem.  Sometimes used

toy program: n. 1. One that can be readily comprehended; hence, a
trivial program (compare {noddy}).  2. One for which the effort
of initial coding dominates the costs through its life cycle.

trampoline: n. An incredibly {hairy} technique found in some
{HLL} and program-overlay implementations (e.g., on the
Macintosh) that involves on-the-fly generation of small executable
(and, like as not, self-modifying) code objects to do indirection
between code sections.  These pieces of {live data} are called
trampolines'.  Trampolines are notoriously difficult to understand
in action; in fact, it is said by those who use this term that the
trampoline which doesn't bend your brain is not the true
trampoline.

trap: 1. n. A program interrupt, usually used specifically to refer
to an interrupt caused by some exceptional situation in the user
program.  In most cases, the OS performs some action, then returns
control to the program.  2. vi. To cause a trap.  "These
instructions trap to the monitor."  Also used transitively to
indicate the cause of the trap.  "The monitor traps all
input/output instructions."

This term is associated with assembler programming (interrupt'
is more common among {HLL} programmers) and appears to be fading
into history among programmers as the role of assembler continues
to shrink.  However, it is still important to computer architects
and systems hackers (see {system}, sense #1), who use it to
distinguish deterministically repeatable exceptions from
timing-dependent ones (such as I/O interrupts).

trap door: alt. trapdoor' n. Syn. {back door}.

trash: vt. To destroy the contents of (said of a data structure).
The most common of the family of near-synonyms including {mung},
{mangle}, and {scribble}.

tree-killer: [Sun] n. 1. A printer.  2. A person who wastes paper.
This should be interpreted in a broad sense; wasting paper'
includes the production of {spiffy} but {content-free} documents.
Thus, most {suit}s are tree-killers.

trit: [by analogy with bit'] n. One base-3 digit; the amount of
information conveyed by a selection among one of three equally
the context of a {flag} that should actually be able to assume
*three* values --- yes, no, or unknown.  Trits are sometimes
jokingly called "three-state bits".  A trit may be semi-seriously
referred to as "a bit and a half" though it is linearly
equivalent to 1.5849625 bits (that is,
log2(3)
bits).

trivial: adj. 1. Too simple to bother detailing.  2. Not worth the
speaker's time.  3. Complex, but solvable by methods so well-known
that anyone not utterly {cretinous} would have thought of them
already.  Hackers' notions of triviality may be quite at variance
with those of non-hackers.  See {nontrivial}, {uninteresting}.

troglodyte: [Commodore] n. 1. A hacker who never leaves his cubicle.
The term Gnoll' (from D&D) is also reported.  2. A curmudgeon
attached to an obsolescent computing environment.  The combination
ITS troglodyte' got flung around some during the USENET and
email wringle-wrangle attending the 2.x.x revision of the Jargon
File; at least one of the people it was intended to describe

troglodyte mode: [Rice University] n. Programming with the lights
turned off, sunglasses on, and the terminal inverted (black on
white) because you've been up for so many days straight that your
eyes hurt (see {raster burn}).  Loud music blaring from a stereo
stacked in the corner is optional but recommended.  See {larval
stage}, {hack mode}.

Trojan horse: [coined by MIT-hacker-turned-NSA-spook Dan Edwards]
n. A program designed to break security or damage a system that is
disguised as something else benign, such as a directory lister,
archiver, or game (in one notorious 1990 case, a Trojan Horse was
found in an anti-{virus} program for the Mac).  See {back
door}, {virus}, {worm}.

true-hacker: [analogy with trufan' from SF fandom] n. One who
exemplifies the primary values of hacker culture, esp. competence
and helpfulness to other hackers.  A high compliment.  "He spent
six hours helping me bring up UUCP and netnews on my FOOBAR 4000
last week --- manifestly the act of a true-hacker."  Compare
{demigod}, oppose {munchkin}.

tty: /tee-tee-wie/ [UNIX], /ti'tee/ [ITS, but some UNIX people
say it this way as well; this pronunciation is not considered to
have sexual undertones] n. 1. Terminal of the teletype variety,
characterized by a noisy mechanical printer, a very limited
character set, and poor print quality.  Usage: antiquated (like the
2. [especially UNIX] Any terminal at all; sometimes used to refer
to the particular terminal controlling a given job.

tube: 1. n. A CRT terminal.  Never used in the mainstream sense of
TV; real hackers don't watch TV, except for Loony Toons and Rocky &
Bullwinkle and Trek Classic and the occasional cheesy old
swashbuckler (see Appendix B).  2. [IBM] To send a copy of
something to someone else's terminal.  "Tube me that note?"

tube time: n. Time spent at a terminal or console; more inclusive
than hacking time.  Commonly used in discussions of what parts of
one's environment one uses most heavily.  "I find I'm spending too
much of my tube time reading mail since I started this revision."

tunafish: n. In hackish lore, refers to the mutated punchline of an
age-old joke to be found at the bottom of the man pages of
tunefs(8)' in the original {BSD} 4.2 distribution.  The
joke was removed in later releases once commercial sites started
developing in 4.2.  Tunefs relates to the tuning' of file-system
parameters for optimum performance, and at the bottom of a few
pages of wizardly inscriptions was a BUGS' section consisting of
the line "You can tune a filing system, but you can't tunafish."
Variants of this can be seen in other BSD versions, though some
have had it excised by humorless management {droid}s.  The
[nt]roff source for SunOS 4.1.1 contains a comment apparently
designed to prevent this: "Take this out and a Unix Demon will dog
your steps from now until the time_t's wrap around."

tune: [from automotive or musical usage] vt. To optimize a program
or system for a particular environment, esp. by adjusting numerical
parameters designed as {hook}s for tuning, e.g. by changing
#define lines in C.  One may tune for time' (fastest
execution), tune for space' (least memory utilization), or
tune for configuration' (most efficient use of hardware).  See
{bum}, {hot spot}, {hand-hacking}.

turbo nerd: n. See {computer geek}.

turist: n. Var. sp. of {tourist}, q.v.  Also in adjectival form,
turistic'.  Poss. influenced by {luser} and Turing'?

tweak: vt. 1. To change slightly, usually in reference to a value.
Also used synonymously with {twiddle}.  If a program is almost
correct, rather than figuring out the precise problem, you might
just keep tweaking it until it works.  See {frobnicate} and
{fudge factor}; also see {shotgun debugging}.  2. To {tune}
or {bum} a program.  This is preferred usage in Great Britain.

TWENEX: /twe'neks/ n. The TOPS-20 operating system by DEC.
TOPS-10 was a typically crufty DEC operating system for the PDP-10,
so TOPS-20 was the obvious name for the DECSYSTEM-20 OS.  Bolt,
Beranek, and Newman (BBN) had developed its own system, called
*TENEX* (TEN EXecutive), and in creating TOPS-20 DEC copied
TENEX and adapted it for the '20.  The term TWENEX was therefore a
contraction of twenty TENEX'.  DEC people cringed when they heard
TOPS-20 referred to as TWENEX', but the term caught on
nevertheless.  The written abbreviation 20x' was also used.
TWENEX was successful and very popular; in fact, there was a period
in the early 1980s when it commanded as fervent a culture of
partisans as UNIX or ITS --- but DEC's decision to scrap all the
internal rivals to the VAX architecture and its relatively stodgy
VMS OS killed the DEC-20 and put a sad end to TWENEX's brief day in
the sun.

twiddle: n. 1. Tilde (ASCII #b1111110, ~').  Also called
squiggle', sqiggle' (sic --- pronounced /skig'l/), and
twaddle', but twiddle is the most common term.  2. A small
and insignificant change to a program.  Usually fixes one bug and
generates several new ones.  3. vt. To change something in a
small way.  Bits, for example, are often twiddled.  Twiddling a
switch or knob implies much less sense of purpose than toggling or
tweaking it; see {frobnicate}.  To speak of twiddling a bit
connotes aimlessness, and at best doesn't specify what you're doing
to the bit; by contrast, toggling a bit has a more specific meaning
(see {bit twiddling}, {toggle}).

twink: /twink/ [UCSC] n. Equivalent to {read-only user}.

two pi: quant. The number of years it takes to finish one's thesis.
Occurs in stories in the form: "He started on his thesis; two pi
years later...".

two-to-the-n: quant. An amount much larger than {N}, but smaller
than {infinity}.  "I have two-to-the-N things to do before I can
go out for lunch." means you probably won't show up.

twonkie: n. The software equivalent of a Twinkie; a useless
feature' added to look sexy and placate a {marketroid}.  This
may be related to the The Twonky', title menace of a classic
SF short story by Lewis Padgett (Henry Kuttner & C. L. Moore),
first published in the September 1942 Astounding Science
Fiction' and subsequently much anthologized.

= U =
=====

UBD: /yoo-bee-dee/ [abbreviation for User Brain Damage'] An
abbreviation used to close out trouble reports obviously due to
utter cluelessness on the user's part.  Compare {pilot error};

UN*X: n. Used to refer to the UNIX operating system (a trademark of
AT&T) in writing, but avoiding the need for the ugly
{(TM)} typography.
Also used to refer to any or all varieties of Unixoid operating
systems.  Ironically, lawyers now say (1990) that the requirement
for the tm-postfix has no legal force, but the asterisk usage is
entrenched anyhow.  It has been suggested that there may be a
psychological connection to practice in certain religions
(especially Judaism) where the name of the deity is never written
out in full, e.g., YHWH or G-d is used.  See also {glob}.

undefined external reference: excl. [UNIX] A message from UNIX's
linker.  Used in speech to {flag} loose ends or dangling
references in an argument or discussion.

under the hood: prep. [hot-rodder talk] 1. Used to introduce the
underlying implementation of a product (hardware, software, or
idea).  Implies that the implementation is not intuitively obvious
from the appearance, but the speaker is about to enable the
listener to {grok} it.  "Let's now look under the hood to see
how ...."  2. Can also imply that the implementation is much
simpler than the appearance would indicate, as in "Under the hood,
we are just fork/execling the shell."  3. Inside a chassis, as in
"Under the hood, this baby has a 40MHz 68030!"

undocumented feature: n. See {feature}.

uninteresting: adj. 1. Said of a problem that, while
{nontrivial}, can be solved simply by throwing sufficient
resources at it.  2. Also said of problems for which a solution
would neither advance the state of the art nor be fun to design and
code.

Hackers regard uninteresting problems as an intolerable waste of
time, to be solved (if at all) by lesser mortals.  *Real*
hackers (see {toolsmith}) generalize uninteresting problems
enough to make them interesting and solve them --- thus solving the
original problem as a special case.  See {WOMBAT}, {SMOP};
compare {toy problem}, oppose {interesting}.

UNIX: /yoo'niks/ [In the authors' words, "A weak pun on
Multics"] n. (also Unix') A popular interactive time-sharing
system originally invented in 1969 by Ken Thompson after Bell Labs
left the Multics project, mostly so he could play {SPACEWAR} on
his scavenged PDP-7.  Dennis Ritchie, the inventor of C, is
considered a co-author of the system.  The turning point in UNIX's
history came when it was reimplemented almost entirely in C during
1972--1974, making it the first source-portable OS.  In 1991, UNIX
is the most widely used multiuser general-purpose operating system
in the world.  Many people consider this the single most important
victory yet of hackerdom over industry opposition (but see {UNIX
weenie} for an opposing point of view).  See {Version 7},
{BSD}, {USG UNIX}.

{UNIX brain damage} n. Something that has to be done to {break} a
network program (typically a mailer) on a non-UNIX system so that
it will interoperate with UNIX systems, often over the vehement
objections of its author, who points out that the program conforms
to published standards and the UNIX program in question does not.
UNIX brain damage happens because it's much easier for other
(minority) systems to change their ways to match non-conforming
behavior than it is to change all the hundreds of thousands of UNIX
systems out there.

An example of UNIX brain damage is a {kludge} in a mail server to
recognize bare line feed (the UNIX newline) as an equivalent form
to the Internet standard newline, which is a carriage return
followed by a line feed.  Such things can make even a hardened
{jock} weep.

UNIX conspiracy: [ITS] n. According to a conspiracy theory long
popular among {ITS} and {TOPS-20} fans, UNIX's growth is the
result of a plot hatched during the 1970s at Bell Labs, whose
intent was to hobble AT&T's competitors by making them dependent
upon a system whose future evolution was to be under AT&T control.
This would be accomplished by disseminating an operating system
that is seemingly inexpensive and easily portable, but relatively
unreliable and insecure.  This theory was lent a substantial
impetus in 1984 by the paper referenced in the {back door} entry.

In this view, UNIX was designed to be one of the first computer
viruses (see {virus}), but a virus spread to computers indirectly
by people and market forces, rather than directly through disks and
networks.  Adherents of this UNIX virus' theory like to cite the
fact that the well-known quotation "UNIX is snake oil" was
uttered by DEC president Kenneth Olsen shortly before DEC began
actively promoting its own family of UNIX workstations (Olsen now
claims to have been misquoted).

UNIX weenie: [ITS] n. 1. A derogatory play on UNIX wizard', common
among hackers who use UNIX by necessity but would prefer
alternatives.  The implication is that while the person in question
may consider mastery of UNIX arcana to be a wizardly skill, the
only real skill involved is the ability to tolerate (and the bad
taste to wallow in) the incoherence and needless complexity that is
alleged to infest many UNIX programs.  "This shell script tries to
parse its arguments in 69 bletcherous ways.  It must have been
written by a real UNIX weenie."  2. A derogatory term for anyone
who engages in uncritical praise of UNIX.  Often appearing in the
context "stupid UNIX weenie".  See {Weenix}, {UNIX

unixism: n. A piece of code or coding technique that depends on the
protected multi-tasking environment with relatively low
process-spawn overhead that exists on virtual-memory UNIX systems.
Common {unixism}s include: gratuitous use of fork(2)'; the
assumption that certain undocumented but well-known features of
UNIX libraries like stdio(3)' are supported elsewhere;
reliance on {obscure} side-effects of system calls (use of
sleep(2)' with a zero argument to clue the scheduler that
you're willing to give up your time-slice, for example); the
assumption that freshly allocated memory is zeroed; the assumption
that fragmentation problems won't arise from never free()ing memory
memory; etc.  Compare {vaxocentrism}; see {New Jersey}.

unwind the stack: vi. 1. During the execution of a procedural
language one is said to unwind the stack' from a called
procedure up to a caller when one discards the stack frame and any
number of frames above it, popping back up to the level of the
given caller.  In C this is done with longjmp/setjmp, in LISP with
the stack as well, by quickly dealing with a bunch of problems:
"Oh heck, let's do lunch.  Just a second while I unwind my
stack."

unwind-protect: [MIT, from the name of a LISP operator] n. A task you
must remember to perform before you leave a place or finish a
project.  "I have an unwind-protect to call my advisor."

up: adj. 1. Working, in order.  "The down escalator is up."
Oppose {down}.  2. bring up': vt. To create a working
version and start it.  "They brought up a down system."

upload: /uhp'lohd/ v. 1. To transfer programs or data over a
digital communications link from a smaller or peripheral client'
system to a larger or central host' one.  A transfer in the other
direction is, of course, called a download'.
2. [speculatively] To move the essential patterns and algorithms
which make up one's mind from one's brain into a computer.  Only
those who are convinced that such patterns and algorithms capture
the complete essence of the self view this prospect with gusto.

{followup}.

urchin: n. See {munchkin}.

USENET: /yoos'net/ or /yooz'net/ [from Users' Network'] n.
A distributed {bboard} (bulletin board) system supported mainly
by UNIX machines, international in scope and probably the largest
anarchic information utility in existence.  As of early 1991, it
hosts well over 700 {newsgroup}s and an average of 16 megabytes
(the equivalent of several thousand paper pages) of new technical
articles, news, discussion, chatter, and {flamage} every day.

user: n. 1. Someone doing real work' with the computer, who uses a
computer as a means rather than an end.  Someone who pays to use a
computer.  See {real user}.  2. A programmer who will believe
anything you tell him.  One who asks silly questions.  [GLS
observes: This is slightly unfair.  It is true that users ask
questions (of necessity).  Sometimes they are thoughtful or deep.
Very often they are annoying or downright stupid, apparently
because the user failed to think for two seconds or look in the
documentation before bothering the maintainer.]  See {luser}.
3. Someone who uses a program from the outside, however skillfully,
without getting into the internals of the program.  One who reports

The general theory behind this term is that there are two classes
of people who work with a program: there are implementors (hackers)
and {luser}s.  The users are looked down on by hackers to a mild
degree because they don't understand the full ramifications of the
system in all its glory.  (The few users who do are known as
real winner's.)  The term is a relative one: a skilled hacker
may be a user with respect to some program he himself does not
hack.  A LISP hacker might be one who maintains LISP or one who
uses LISP (but with the skill of a hacker).  A LISP user is one who
uses LISP, whether skillfully or not.  Thus there is some overlap
between the two terms; the subtle distinctions must be resolved by
context.

user-friendly: adj. Programmer-hostile.  Generally used by hackers in
a critical tone, to describe systems which hold the user's hand so
obsessively that they make it painful for the more experienced and
knowledgeable to get any work done.  See {menuitis}, {drool-proof
paper}, {Macintrash}, {user-obsequious}.

user-obsequious: adj. Emphatic form of {user-friendly}.  Connotes
a system so verbose, inflexible, and determinedly simple-minded
that it is nearly unusable.  "Design a system any fool can use and
only a fool will want to use it."  See {WIMP environment},
{Macintrash}.

USG UNIX: /yoo-ess-jee yoo'niks/ n. Refers to AT&T UNIX commercial
versions after {Version 7}, especially System III and System V
releases 1, 2, and 3.  So called because at that time AT&T's support
crew was called the UNIX Support Group'.  See {BSD}, {UNIX}.

UUCPNET: n. The store-and-forward network consisting of all the
world's connected UNIX machines (and others running some clone of
the UUCP (UNIX-to-UNIX CoPy) software).  Any machine reachable via
a {bang path} is on UUCPNET.  See {network address}.

= V =
=====

search-and-destroy sweeps for the game] n. A leisure-time activity
of certain hackers involving the covert exploration of the secret'
parts of large buildings --- basements, roofs, freight elevators,
maintenance crawlways, steam tunnels, and the like.  A few go so
far as to learn locksmithing in order to synthesize vadding keys.
The verb is to vad' (compare {phreaking}).

The most extreme and dangerous form of vadding is elevator
rodeo', aka elevator surfing', a sport played by wrasslin'
down a thousand-pound elevator car with a three-foot piece of
string, and then exploiting this mastery in various stimulating
ways (such as elevator hopping, shaft exploration, rat-racing, and
the ever-popular drop experiments).  Kids, don't try this at home!

vanilla: [from the default flavor of ice cream in the U.S.] adj.
Ordinary {flavor}, standard.  When used of food, very often does
not mean that the food is flavored with vanilla extract!  For
example, vanilla wonton soup' means ordinary wonton soup, as
opposed to hot and sour wonton soup.  Applied to hardware and
software, as in "Vanilla Version 7 UNIX can't run on a vanilla
11/34."  Also used to orthogonalize chip nomenclature; for
instance, a 74V00 means what TI calls a 7400, as distinct from a
74LS00, etc.  This word differs from {canonical} in that the
latter means default', whereas vanilla simply means ordinary'.
For example, when hackers go on a {great-wall}, hot-and-sour
wonton soup is the {canonical} wonton soup to get (because that
is what most of them usually order) even though it isn't the
vanilla wonton soup.

vannevar: /van'*-var/ n. A bogus technological prediction or
foredoomed engineering concept, esp. one which fails by
implicitly assuming that technologies develop linearly,
incrementally, and in isolation from one another when in fact the
learning curve tends to be highly nonlinear, revolutions are
common, and competition is the rule.  The prototype was Vannevar
Bush's prediction of electronic brains' the size of the Empire
State Building with a Niagara-Falls-equivalent cooling system for
their tubes and relays, at a time when the semiconductor effect had
already been demonstrated.  Other famous vannevars have included
magnetic-bubble memory, LISP machines, videotex, and a paper from
the late 1970s that computed a purported ultimate limit on areal
density for ICs which was in fact less than the routine densities
of five years later.

vaporware: n. Products announced far in advance of any release
(which may or may not actually take place).

var: /veir/ or /vahr/ n. Short for variable'.  Compare {arg},
{param}.

VAX: /vaks/ n. 1. [from Virtual Address eXtension] The most
excepting its immediate ancestor, the PDP-11.  Between its release
in 1978 and eclipse by {killer micro}s after about 1986 the VAX
was probably the favorite hacker machine of them all, esp. after
the 1982 release of 4.2BSD UNIX (see {BSD}).  Esp. noted for its
large, assembler-programmer-friendly instruction set --- an asset
that became a liability after the RISC revolution.  2. A major
brand of vacuum cleaner in Britain.  Cited here because its alleged
sales pitch, "Nothing sucks like a VAX!"  became a sort of
battle-cry of RISC partisans.  Ironically, the slogan was actually
that of a rival brand called Electrolux (as in "Nothing sucks like
an...).  It is claimed, however, that DEC actually entered a
cross-licensing deal with the vacuum-VAX people which allowed them
to market VAX computers in the UK in return for not challenging the
VAXuum cleaner trademark in the U.S.

VAXectomy: /vak-sek't*-mee/ [by analogy with vasectomy'] n. A
VAX removal.  DEC's Microvaxen, especially, are much slower than
newer RISC-based workstations like the SPARC.  Thus, if one knows
one has a replacement coming, VAX removal can be cause for
celebration.

VAXen: /vak'sn/ [from oxen', perhaps influenced by vixen'] n.
(alt. vaxen') The plural canonically used among hackers for the
DEC VAX computers.  "Our installation has four PDP-10s and twenty
vaxen."  See {boxen}.

vaxism: n. A piece of code that exhibits {vaxocentrism} in critical
areas.  Compare {PC-ism}, {unixism}.

vaxocentrism: /vaksoh-sen'trizm/ [analogy with
ethnocentrism'] n.  A notional disease said to afflict C
programmers who persist in coding according to certain assumptions
valid (esp. under UNIX) on {VAXen}, but false elsewhere. Among
these are:

1.    The assumption that dereferencing a null pointer is safe because it
is all bits zero, and location 0 is readable and zero.  Problem:
even on VAXen under OSes other than BSD UNIX.

2.    The assumption that pointer and integer types are the same size,
and that pointers can be stuffed into integer variables (and
vice-versa) and drawn back out without being truncated or
mangled.
Problem: fails on segmented architectures or word-oriented machines
with funny pointer formats.

3.    The assumption that a data type of any size may begin at any byte
address in memory (for example, that you can freely construct and
dereference a pointer to a word- or greater-sized object at an odd
char address).  Problem: on many (esp. RISC) architectures better
optimized for {HLL} execution speed this is invalid and can cause
an illegal address fault or bus error.

4.    The (related) assumption that there is no padding' at the end
of types and that in an array you can thus step right from the last
byte of a previous component to the first byte of the next one.  This
is not only machine- but compiler-dependent.

5.    The assumption that memory address space is globally flat and that
the array reference foo[-1] is necessarily valid.  Problem: this fails
at 0, or other places on segment-addressed machines like Intel chips
(yes, segmentation is universally considered a {brain-damaged}
way to design machines, but that is a separate issue).

6.    The assumption that objects can be arbitrarily large with no
special considerations.  Problem: this fails on segmented

7.    The assumption that the stack can be as large as memory.  Problem:
fails on segmented architectures or almost anything else without
virtual addressing and a paged stack.

8.    The assumption that the parameters of a routine are stored in
memory, contiguously, and in strictly ascending or descending order
Problem: this fails on many RISC architectures.

9.    The assumption that bits and addressable units within an object
are ordered in the same way and that this order is a constant of
nature.  Problem: this fails on {big-endian} machines).

10.    The assumption that it is meaningful to compare pointers to
different objects not located within the same array, or to objects
of different types.  Problem: the former fails on segmented
architectures, the latter on word-oriented machines or others with
multiple pointer formats.

11.    The assumption that a pointer to any one type can freely be cast
into a pointer to any other type.  Problem: fails on word-oriented
machines or others with multiple pointer formats.

12.    The assumption that all pointers are the same size and format,
which means you don't have to worry about getting the types correct
in calls.  Problem: fails on word-oriented machines or others with
multiple pointer formats).

13.    The assumption that an int' is 32 bits, or (nearly
equivalently) the assumption that sizeof(int) ==
sizeof(long)'.  Problem: this fails on 286-based systems and even
on 386 and 68000 systems under some compilers.

14.    The assumption that argv[] is writable.  Problem: this fails in
some embedded-systems C environments.

15.    The assumption that characters are signed.

Note that a programmer can be validly be accused of vaxocentrism
even if he/she has never seen a VAX.  The terms vaxocentricity'
and all-the-world's-a-VAX syndrome' have been used synonymously.

vdiff: /vee'dif/ v.,n. Visual diff.  The operation of finding
differences between two files by {eyeball search}.  See {diff}.

veeblefester: /vee'b*l-festr/ [from the Born Loser' comix via
Commodore; prob. originally from Mad Magazine's Veeblefetzer' ca.
1960] n.  Any obnoxious person engaged in the alleged professions
of marketing or management.  Antonym of {hacker}.  Compare {suit},
{marketroid}.

Venus flytrap: [after the insect-eating plant] n. See {firewall
machine}.

verbage: /ver'b*j/ n. Deliberate misspelling/mispronunciation of
{verbiage} that assimilates it to the word garbage'.  Compare
{content-free}.  More pejorative than verbiage'.

verbiage: n. When the context involves a software or hardware
system, this refers to {{documentation}}.  This term borrows the
connotations of mainstream verbiage' to suggest that the
documentation is of marginal utility, and that the motives from
which it is produced have little to do with the ostensible subject.

Version 7: alt. V7 /vee se'vn/ n. The 1978 unsupported release of
{UNIX} ancestral to all current commercial versions.  Before
the release of the POSIX/SVID standards, V7's features were often
treated as a UNIX portability baseline.  See {BSD}, {USG UNIX},
{UNIX}.  Some old-timers impatient with commercialization and
kernel bloat still maintain that V7 was the Last True UNIX.

vgrep: /vee'grep/ v.,n. Visual grep.  The operation of finding
patterns in a file {by hand}.  See {grep}; compare {vdiff}.

vi: /vee ie/, *not* /vie/ and *never* /siks/ [from
Visual Interface'] n. A screen editor crufted together by Bill Joy
for an early {BSD} version.  Became the de-facto standard UNIX
editor and a nearly undisputed hacker favorite until the rise of
{EMACS} after about 1984.  Tends to frustrate new users no end,
as it will neither take commands while accepting input text nor
vice versa, and the default setup provides no indication of which
mode one is in (one correspondent accordingly reports that he has
often heard the editor's name pronounced /viel/).  Nevertheless it
is still widely used (about half the respondents in a 1991 USENET
poll preferred it), and even EMACS fans often resort to it as a
mail editor and for small editing jobs (mainly because it starts up
faster than bulky EMACS).  See {holy wars}.

videotex: n.obs. An electronic service offering people the
privilege of paying to read the weather on their television screens
their teeth.  The idea bombed, because by the time videotex was
practical the installed base of personal computers could hook up to
timesharing services and do the things videotex might have been
worthwhile for better and cheaper.  Videotex planners badly
overestimated both the appeal of getting information from a
computer and the cost of local intelligence at the user's end.
Like the {gorilla arm} effect, this has been a cautionary tale to
hackers ever since.

virgin: adj. Unused, in reference to an instantiation of a program.
"Let's bring up a virgin system and see if it crashes again."
(esp. useful after contracting a {virus} through {SEX}.)  Also,
by extension, unused buffers and the like within a program.

virtual: [via the technical term virtual memory', prob. from
the term virtual image' in optics] adj. 1. Common alternative
to {logical}.  2. Simulated; performing the functions of
something that isn't really there.  An imaginative child's doll may
be a virtual playmate.  Usage: never used with compass directions.

virtual Friday: n. The last day before an extended weekend, if that
day is not a real' Friday.  For example, the U.S. holiday
Thanksgiving is always on a Thursday.  The next day is often also
taken as a holiday or extra day off, in which case Wednesday of
that week is a virtual Friday (and Thursday is a virtual Saturday).
There are also virtual Mondays' that are actually Tuesdays,
after the three-day weekends associated with many U.S. national
holidays.

virtual reality: n. 1. Computer simulations that use 3-D graphics
and devices such as the Dataglove to allow the user to interact
with the simulation.  See {cyberspace}.  2. A form of network
interaction incorporating aspects of role-playing games,
interactive theater, improvisational comedy, and true confessions'
magazines.  In a virtual reality forum (such as USENET's
alt.callahans newsgroup or the {MUD} experiments on Internet),
interaction between the participants is written like a shared novel
complete with scenery, foreground characters' which may be
personae utterly unlike the people who write them, and common
background characters' manipulable by all parties.  The one
iron law is that you may not write irreversible changes to a
character without the consent of the person who owns' it.
Otherwise anything goes.  See {bamf}, {cyberspace}.

virus: [from the obvious analogy with biological viruses, via SF]
n. A cracker program that searches out other programs and
infects' them by embedding a copy of itself in them, so that when
these programs are executed, the embedded virus is executed, too,
thus propagating the infection'.  This normally happens
transparently to the user.  The virus may do nothing but propagate
itself.  Usually, however, after propagating silently for a while
it starts doing things like writing cute messages on the terminal
or playing strange tricks with your display (some viruses include
nice {display hack}s).  Many nasty viruses, written by
particularly perversely minded {cracker}s, do irreversible
damage, like nuking all the user's files.

In mid-1991, viruses have become a serious problem, especially
among IBM PC and Macintosh users (the lack of security on these
machines enables viruses to spread easily, even infecting the
operating system).  The production of special anti-virus software
has become an industry, and a number of exaggerated media reports
have caused outbreaks of near hysteria among users, to the point
where many {luser}s tend to blame *everything* that doesn't
work as they had expected on virus attacks.  Accordingly, this
sense of virus' has passed not only into techspeak but into
popular usage as well (where it is often incorrectly used to denote
{UNIX conspiracy}.

visionary: n. 1. One who hacks vision, in the sense of an
Artificial Intelligence researcher working on the problem of
getting computers to see' things using TV cameras.  (There isn't
any problem in sending information from a TV camera to a computer.
The problem is, how can the computer be programmed to make use of
the camera information?  See {SMOP}, {AI-complete}.)  2. [IBM]
One who reads the outside literature.  At IBM, apparently, such a
penchant is viewed with awe and wonder.

VMS: /vee em ess/ n. DEC's proprietary operating system for their VAX
minicomputer; one of the seven or so environments that loom largest
in hacker folklore.  Many UNIX fans generously concede that VMS
would probably be the hacker's favorite commercial OS if UNIX
didn't exist; though true, this makes VMS fans furious.  One major
hacker gripe with it is its slowness, thus the following limerick:

There once was a system called VMS
Of cycles by no means abstemious.
It's chock-full of hacks
And runs on a VAX
And makes my poor stomach all squeamious.
--- The Great Quux

voice: vt. To phone someone, as opposed to emailing them or
connecting in talk mode.  "I'm busy now; I'll voice you later."

voice-net: n. Hackish way of referring to the telephone system,
analogizing it to a digital network.  USENET {sig block}s not
uncommonly include the sender's phone next to a "Voice:" or
"Voice-Net:" header; common variants of this are "Voicenet" and
"V-Net".  Compare {paper-net}, {snail-mail}.

voodoo programming: [from George Bush's "voodoo economics"] n.
The use by guess or cookbook of an {obscure} or {hairy} system,
feature or algorithm that one does not truly understand.  The
implication is that the technique may not work, and if it doesn't,
one will never know why.  Almost synonymous with {black magic},
except that black magic typically isn't documented and **
understands it.  Compare {magic}, {deep magic}, {heavy
wizardry}, {rain dance}, {cargo-cult programming}, {wave a

VR: [MUD] n. On-line abbrev for Virtual Reality, as opposed to
{RL}.

vulcan nerve pinch: n. [From the old Star Trek TV series via
Commodore Amiga hackers] The keyboard combination that forces a
soft-boot or jump to ROM monitor (on machines that support such a
feature).  On many micros this is Ctrl-Alt-Del; on Suns, L1-A; on
some Macintoshes, it is <Cmd>-<Power switch>!  Also called

vulture capitalist: n. Pejorative hackerism for venture
capitalist', deriving from the common practice of pushing
contracts that deprive inventors of both control over their own
innovations and most of the money they ought to have made from
them.

= W =
=====

wabbit: /wab'it/ [almost certainly from Elmer Fudd's immortal
line "you wascawwy wabbit!"] n. 1. A legendary early hack
reported on a System/360 at RPI and elsewhere around 1978.  The
program would make two copies of itself every time it was run,
eventually crashing the system.  2. By extension, any hack that
includes infinite self-replication but is not a {virus} or

WAITS: n. The mutant cousin of {TOPS-10} used on a handful of
systems at {SAIL} up to 1990.  There was never an official'
expansion of WAITS (the name itself having been arrived at by a
rather sideways process), but it was frequently glossed as
West-Coast Alternative to ITS'.  Though WAITS was less visible
than ITS, there was frequent exchange of people and ideas between
the two communities and innovations pioneered at WAITS exerted
enormous indirect influence.  The early screen modes of {EMACS},
for example, were directly inspired by WAITS's E' editor --- one
of a family of editors which were the first to do real-time
editing', in which the editing commands were invisible and where
one typed text at the point of insertion/overwriting.  The modern
style of multi-region windowing is said to have originated there,
and WAITS alumni at XEROX PARC and elsewehere played major roles in
the developments that led to the XEROX Star, the Macintosh, and the
Sun workstations.  {Bucky bits} were also invented there ---
thus, the ALT key on every IBM PC is a WAITS legacy.  One notable
WAITS feature never duplicated elsewhere was a news-wire interface
that allowed WAITS hackers to read, store, and filter AP and UPI
dispatches from their terminals; the system also featured a
still-unusual level of support for what is now called multimedia'
computing, allowing analog and video signals to be switched to
programming terminals.

waldo: /wol'doh/ [From Robert A. Heinlein's story Waldo']
1. A waldo is a mechanical agent, such as gripper arm, controlled
by a human limb; when these were developed for the nuclear industry
in the mid-1940s they were named after the invention described by
Robert A. Heinlein in the story he wrote in 1942.  Now known by the
more generic term 'telefactoring', is of intense interest to NASA
for tasks like space station maintenance.  2. At Harvard
(particularly by Tom Cheatham and students) this is used instead of
{foobar} as a meta-syntactic variable and general nonsense word.
See {foo}, {bar}, {foobar}, {quux}.

walk: n.,vt. Traversal of an actual or {logical} data structure,
{codewalker}, {silly walk}, {clobber}.

walking drives: n. An occasional failure mode of magnetic-disk
drives back in the days when they were huge, clunky {washing
machine}s.  Those old {dinosaur} parts carried terrific angular
momentum; the combination of a misaligned spindle or worn bearings
and stick-slip interactions with the floor could cause them to
walk' across a room, lurching alternate corners forward a couple
of millimeters at a time.  There is a legend about a drive that
walked over to the only door to the computer room and jammed it
shut; the staff had to cut a hole in the wall in order to get at
it!  Walking could also be induced by certain patterns of drive
access (a fast seek across the whole width of the disk, followed by
a slow seek in the other direction).  Some bands of old-time
hackers figured out how to induce disk-accessing patterns that
would do this to particular drive models and held disk-drive races.

wall: [WPI] interj. 1. An indication of confusion, usually spoken
with a quizzical tone.  "Wall??"  2. A request for further
explication.  Compare {octal forty}.

It is said that "Wall?" really came from talking to a blank
wall'.  It was initially used in situations where, after one
carefully answered a question, the questioner stared at you
blankly, clearly having understood nothing that was explained.  One
would then throw out a "Hello, wall?" to elicit some sort of
response from the questioner.  Later, confused questioners began
voicing "Wall?" themselves.

wall follower: n. A person or algorithm which compensates for lack
of sophistication or native stupidity by efficiently following
procedures shown to have been effective in the past.  Used of an
algorithm, this is not necessarily pejorative; it recalls Harvey
Wallbanger', the winning robot in an early AI contest (named, of
course, after the cocktail).  Harvey successfully solved mazes by
keeping a finger' on one wall and running till it came out the
other end.  This was inelegant, but mathematically guaranteed to
work on simply-connected mazes --- and, in fact, Harvey
outperformed more sophisticated robots that tried to learn' each
maze by building an internal representation of it.  Used of humans,
the term *is* pejorative and implies an uncreative,

wall time: n. (also wall clock time') 1. Real world' time
(what the clock on the wall shows) as opposed to the system clock's
idea of time.  2. The real running time of a program, as opposed to
the number of {clocks} required to execute it (on a timesharing
system these will differ, as no one program gets all the
{clocks}).

wallpaper: n. 1. A file containing a listing (e.g., assembly
listing) or transcript, esp. a file containing a transcript of
all or part of a login session.  (The idea was that the paper for
such listings was essentially good only for wallpaper, as evidenced
at Stanford, where it was used as such to cover windows.)  Usage:
not often used now, esp. since other systems have developed other
terms for it (e.g., PHOTO on TWENEX).  However, the UNIX world
doesn't have an equivalent term, so perhaps {wallpaper} will take
hold there.  The term probably originated on ITS, where the
commands to begin and end transcript files were :WALBEG and
:WALEND, with default file WALL PAPER (the space was a path
delimiter).  2. The background pattern used on graphical
workstations (this is jargon under the Windows' graphical user
interface to MS-DOS).  3. wallpaper file' n. The file that
contains the wallpaper information before it is actually printed on
paper.  (Even if you don't intend ever to produce a real paper copy
of the file it is still called a wallpaper file'.)

wango: /wang'goh/ n. Random bit-level {grovel}ling going on in
a system during some unspecified operation.  Often used in
combination with mumble.  For example: "You start with the .o'
file and mumble-wango --- and it comes out a snazzy object-oriented
executable."

wank: /wangk/ [Columbia University; prob. by mutation from
Commonwealth slang v. wank', to masturbate] n.,v. Used much as
{hack} is elsewhere, as a noun denoting a clever technique or
person or the result of such clevernes.  May describe (negatively)
the act of hacking for hacking's sake ("Quit wanking, let's go get
supper!")  or (more positively) a {wizard}.  Adj.  wanky'
describes something particularly clever (a person, program, or
algorithm).  Conversations can also get wanky when there are too
many wanks involved.  This excess wankiness is signalled by an
overload of the wankometer' (compare {bogometer}).  When the
wankometer overloads, the conversation's subject must be changed,
or all non-wanks will leave.  Compare neep-neeping' (under
{neep-neep}).  Usage: U.S. only.  In Britain and the Commonwealth
this word is *extremely* rude and best avoided unless one
intends to give offense.

wannabee: [from a term recently used to describe Madonna fans who
dress, talk, and act like their idol; prob. originally from biker
slang] n. A would-be {hacker}.  The connotations of this term
differ sharply depending on the age and exposure of the subject.
Used of a person who is in or might be entering {larval stage},
it's semi-approving; such wannabees can be annoying but most
hackers remember that they, too, were once such creatures.  When
used of any professional programmer, CS academic, writer, or
{suit}, it's derogatory, implying that said person is trying to
cuddle up to the hacker mystique but doesn't, fundamentally, have a
prayer of understanding what it's all about.  Overuse of terms from
this File is often an indication of the {wannabee} nature.
Compare {newbie}.

[Historical note: the wannabee phenomenon has a bit different
flavor now (1991) than it did ten or fifteen years ago.  When the
people who are now hackerdom's tribal elders were in {larval
stage}, the process of becoming a hacker was largely unconscious
and unaffected by models known in popular culture --- communities
formed spontaneously around people who, *as individuals*, felt
irresistibly drawn to do hackerly things, and what wannabees
experienced was a fairly pure, skill-focused desire to become
similarly wizardly.  Those days of innocence are gone forever;
included the elevation of hackers as a new kind of folk hero, and
the result is that some people semi-consciously set out to *be
hackers* and borrow hackish prestige by fitting the public hacker
image.  Fortunately, to do this really well, one has to actually
become a wizard.  Nevertheless, old-time hackers tend to share a
poorly articulated disquiet about the change; among other things,
it gives them mixed feelings about the effects of public compendia
of lore like this one.]

wart: n. A small, {crock}y {feature} that sticks out of an
otherwise {clean} design.  Something conspicuous for localized
ugliness, especially a special-case exception to a general rule.
For example, in some versions of csh(1)', single-quotes
literalize every character inside them except !'.  In ANSI C,
the ??' syntax used for escapes to foreign-language alphabets is a

washing machine: n. Old-style 14-inch hard disks in floor-standing
cabinets.  So called because of the size of the cabinet and the
top-loading' access to the media packs --- and, of course, they
were always set on spin cycle'.  The washing-machine idiom
transcends language barriers; it's even used in Russian hacker
jargon.  See {walking drives}.  The thick channel cables
connecting these were called bit hoses' (see {hose}).

water MIPS: n. Large, water-cooled machines of either today's
ECL-supercomputer flavor or yesterday's traditional {mainframe}
type.

wave a dead chicken: v. To perform a ritual in the direction of
crashed software or hardware that one believes to be futile but
is nevertheless necessary so that others are satisfied that an
appropriate degree of effort has been expended.  "I'll wave a dead
chicken over the source code, but I really think we've run into an
OS bug."  Compare {voodoo programming}, {rain dance}.

weasel: n. [Cambridge] A naive user, one who deliberately or
accidentally does things that are stupid or ill-advised.  Roughly
synonymous with {loser}.

wedged: [from a common description of recto-cranial inversion] adj.
1. To be stuck, incapable of proceeding without help.  This is
different from having crashed.  If the system has crashed, then it
has become totally non-functioning.  If the system is wedged, it is
trying to do something but cannot make progress; it may be capable
of doing a few things, but not be fully operational.  For example,
a process may become wedged if it {deadlock}s with another.
{gronk}, {locked up}, {hosed}.  2. This term is sometimes used to
describe a {deadlock} condition.  3. Often refers to humans
suffering misconceptions.  4. [UNIX] Specifically used to describe
the state of a TTY left in a losing state by abort of a
screen-oriented program or one that has messed with the line
discipline in some obscure way.

wedgie: [Fairchild] n. A bug.  Prob. related to {wedged}.

wedgitude: /wedj'i-t[y]ood/ n. The quality or state of being
{wedged}.

weeble: /weeb'l/ [Cambridge] interj. Use to denote frustration,
usually at amazing stupidity.  "I stuck the disk in upside down."
"Weeble...." Compare {gurfle}.

weeds: n. Refers to development projects or algorithms that have no
possible relevance or practical application.  Comes from off in
the weeds'.  Used in phrases like "lexical analysis for microcode
is serious weeds...."

At CDC/ETA before its demise, the phrase go off in the weeds'
was equivalent to IBM's {branch to Fishkill} and mainstream
hackerdom's {jump off into never-never land}.

weenie: n. 1. The semicolon character, ;' (ASCII #b0111011).
2. When used with a qualifier (for example, as in {UNIX weenie},
VMS weenie, IBM weenie) can become either an insult or a term of
praise, depending on context, tone of voice, and whether or not it
is applied by a person who considers him/herself to be the same
sort of weenie.  Implies that the weenie has put a major investment
of time, effort, and concentration into the area indicated; whether
this is positive or negative depends on the hearer's judgement of

Weenix: [ITS] n. A derogatory term for {UNIX}, derived from
{UNIX weenie}.  According to one noted ex-ITSer, it is "The
operating system preferred by Unix Weenies: "Typified by poor
modularity, poor reliability, hard file deletion, no file version
numbers, case sensitivity everywhere, and users who believe that
these are all advantages."  Some ITS fans behave as though they
believe UNIX stole a future that rightfully belonged to them.  See
{ITS}.

well-behaved: adj. 1. [primarily {MS-DOS}] Said of software
conforming to system interface guidelines and standards.  Well
behaved software uses the operating system to do chores such as
keyboard input, allocating memory and drawing graphics.  Oppose
{ill-behaved}.  2. Software that does its job quietly and without
counterintuitive effects.  Esp. said of software having an
interface spec sufficiently simple and well-defined that it can be
used as a {tool} by other software.

well-connected: adj. Said of a computer installation, this means it
has reliable email links with the network and/or relays a large
fraction of available {USENET} newsgroups.  Well-known' can
be almost synonymous, but also implies that the site's name is
familiar to many (due perhaps to an archive service or active
USENET users).

wetware: [prob. from the novels of Rudy Rucker] n. 1. The human
nervous system, as opposed to computer hardware or software (as in
"Wetware has 7 plus or minus 2 temporary registers.").  2. Human
beings (programmers, operators, administrators) attached to a
computer system, as opposed to the system's hardware or software.

wheel: n. 1. A privilege bit that canonically allows the
possessor to perform any operation on a timesharing system, such as
read or write any file on the system regardless of protections,
change or look at any address in the running monitor, crash or
reload the system, and kill/create jobs and user accounts.  The
term was invented on the TENEX operating system, and carried over
to TOPS-20, XEROX-IFS and others.  2. A person who posses a wheel
bit.  "We need to find a wheel to unwedge the hung tape drives."

This term entered the UNIX culture from TWENEX in the mid-80s and
has been gaining popularity there (esp. at university sites).
Privilege bits are sometimes called wheel bits'.  The state of
being in a privileged logon is sometimes called wheel mode'.

wheel wars: [Stanford University] A period in {larval stage} during
which student hacks hassle with each other by attempting to log each
other out of the system, delete each other's files, and otherwise
wreak havoc, usually at the expense of the lesser users.

White Book: n. Syn. {K&R}.

whizzy: [Sun] adj. (alt. wizzy') Describes a {cuspy} program;
one that is feature-rich and well presented.

WIBNI: [Bell Labs, Wouldn't It Be Nice If] n. What most
requirements documents and specifications consist entirely of.
Compare {IWBNI}.

widget: n. 1. A meta-thing.  Used to stand for a real object in
didactic examples (especially database tutorials).  Legend has it
that the original widgets were holders for buggy whips.  2. [poss.
evoking window gadget'] A user interface object in {X} graphical
user interfaces.

wiggles: n. [scientific computation] In solving partial differential
equations by finite difference and similar methods, wiggles are
sawtooth (up-down-up-down) oscillations at the shortest wavelength
representable on the grid.  If an algorithm is unstable, this is
often the most unstable waveform, so it grows to dominate the
solution.  Alternatively, stable (though inaccurate) wiggles can be
generated near a discontinuity by a Gibbs phenomenon.

WIMP environment: n. [acronymic from Window, Icon, Menu, Pointing
device] A graphical-user-interface-based environment, as described
by a hacker who prefers command-line interfaces for their superior
{user-obsequious}.

win: [from MIT jargon] 1. vi. To succeed.  A program wins if no
unexpected conditions arise.  2. Success, or a specific instance
thereof.  A pleasing outcome.  A {feature}.  Emphatic forms:
moby win', super win', hyper-win' (often used
interjectively as a reply).  For some reason suitable win' is
also common at MIT, usually in reference to a satisfactory solution
quite just an intensification of win'.

win big: vi. See {big win}.

win win: interj. Expresses pleasure at a {win}.

Winchester:: n. Informal generic term for the now-standard
floating-head' magnetic-disk technology in which the read-write
head planes over the disk surface on an air cushion.  The name
arose because the original 1973 engineering prototype for what
later became the IBM 3340 featured two 30-megabyte volumes; 30-30
became Winchester' when somebody noticed the similarity to the
common term for a famous Winchester rifle (in the latter, the first
30 referred to caliber and the second to the grain weight of the
charge).

winged comments: n. Comments set on the same line as code, as
opposed to {boxed comments}.  In C, for example:

d = sqrt(x*x + y*y);  /* compute distance of (x,y) from origin */

Generally these refer only to the action(s) taken on that line.

winnage: /win'*j/ n. The situation when a lossage is corrected, or
when something is winning.

winner: 1. n. An unexpectedly good situation, program, programmer or
person.  2. real winner': Often sarcastic, but also used as high

winnitude: /win'i-tood/ n. The quality of winning (as opposed to
{winnage}, which is the result of winning).  "That's really great!
Boy, what winnitude!"

wired: n. See {hardwired}.

wirehead: n. [prob. from SF slang for an electrical brain
stimulation junkie] 1. A hardware hacker, especially one who
concentrates on communications hardware.  2. An expert in
local-area networks.  A wirehead can be a network software wizard
too, but will always have the ability to deal with network
hardware, down to the smallest component.  Wireheads are known for
their ability to lash up an Ethernet terminator from spare
resistors, for example.

wish list: n. A list of desired features or bug fixes that probably
won't get done for a long time, usually because the person
responsible for the code is too busy or can't think of a clean way
to do it.  Compare {tick-list features}.

wizard: n. 1. A person who knows how a complex piece of software
or hardware works (that is, who {grok}s it); esp. someone who
can find and fix bugs quickly in an emergency.  This term differs
somewhat from {hacker}.  Someone is a hacker if he has general
hacking ability, but is only a wizard with respect to something if
he has specific detailed knowledge of that thing.  A good hacker
could become a wizard for something given the time to study it.
2. A person who is permitted to do things forbidden to ordinary
people.  For example, an Adventure wizard at Stanford may play the
Adventure game during the day, which is forbidden (the program
simply refuses to play) to most people because it consumes too many
{cycle}s.  3. A UNIX expert, esp. a UNIX systems programmer.
This usage is well enough established that UNIX Wizard' is a
recognized job title at some corporations and to most headhunters.
{heavy wizardry}, {incantation}, {magic}, {mutter}, {rain
dance}, {voodoo programming}, {wave a dead chicken}.

Wizard Book: n. Abelson and Sussman's Structure and
Interpretation of Computer Programs' (McGraw-Hill 1985, ISBN
0-07-000-422-6, QA76.6.A255), an excellent CS text used in
introductory courses at MIT.  So called because of the wizard on
the cover of the MIT Press edition.  One of the {bible}s of the
LISP/Scheme world.

wizard mode: [from nethack] n. A special access mode of a program or
system, usually passworded, that permits some users godlike
privileges.  Generally not used for operating systems themselves
(root mode' or wheel mode' would be used instead).

wizardly: adj. Pertaining to wizards.  A wizardly {feature} is one
that only a wizard could understand or use properly.

womb box: n. 1. [TMRC] Storage space for equipment.  2. [proposed]
A variety of hard-shell equipment case with heavy interior padding
and/or shaped carrier cutouts in a foam-rubber matrix.  Used for
delicate test equipment, electronics, and musical instruments.

WOMBAT: [Waste Of Money, Brains, And Time] adj. Applied to problems
which are both profoundly {uninteresting} in themselves and
unlikely to benefit anyone interesting even if solved.  Often used
in fanciful constructions such as wrestling with a wombat'.  See
also {crawling horror}, {SMOP}.  Also note the rather different
usage as a meta-syntactic variable in {{Commonwealth Hackish}}.

wonky: /wong'kee/ [from Australian slang] adj. Yet another
approximate synonym for {broken}.  Specifically connotes a
malfunction which produces behavior seen as crazy, humorous, or
amusingly perverse.  "That was the day the printer's font logic
went wonky and everybody's listings came out in Tengwar."  Also in
wonked out'.  See {funky}, {demented}, {bozotic}.

workaround: n. A temporary {kluge} inserted in a system under
development or test in order to avoid the effects of a {bug} or
{misfeature} so that work can continue.  Theoretically,
workarounds are always replaced by {fix}es; in practice, customers
often find themselves living with workarounds in the first couple
of releases.  "The code died on NUL characters in the input, so I
fixed it to abort with an error message when it sees one."
"That's not a fix, that's a workaround!"

working as designed: [IBM] adj. 1. In conformance to a wrong or
inappropriate specification; useful, but mis-designed.
2. Frequently used as a sardonic comment on a program's utility.
3. Unfortunately also used as a bogus reason for not accepting a
criticism or suggestion.  At {IBM}, this sense is used in

worm: [from tapeworm' in John Brunner's The Shockwave
Rider', via XEROX PARC] n. A program that propagates itself over a
network, reproducing itself as it goes.  Compare {virus}.
Nowadays the term has negative connotations, as it is assumed that
only crackers write worms.  Perhaps the best known example was
Robert T. Morris's Internet Worm' in 1988, a benign' one that
got out of control and hogged hundreds of Suns and VAXen
{ice}.

wound around the axle: adj. In an infinite loop.  Often used by older
computer types.

wrap around: vi. (also n. wraparound' and v. shorthand wrap')
1. [techspeak] The action of a counter that starts over at 0 or
at minus infinity' after its maximum value has been reached,
and continues incrementing, either because it is programmed to do
so, or because of an overflow like a car's odometer starting over
at 0.  2. To change {phase} gradually and continuously by
maintaining a steady wake-sleep cycle somewhat longer than 24
hours, e.g., living 6 long (28-hour) days in a week (or,
equivalently, sleeping at the rate of 10 microhertz).

write-only code: [a play on read-only memory'] n. Code
sufficiently arcane, complex, or ill-structured that it cannot be
modified or even comprehended by anyone but its author, and
possibly not even by him/her.  A {Bad Thing}.

write-only language: n. A language with syntax (or semantics)
sufficiently dense and bizarre that any routine of significant size
is {write-only code}.  A sobriquet occasionally applied to C and
often to APL, though {INTERCAL} and {TECO} certainly deserve it
more.

write-only memory: n. The obvious antonym to read-only memory'.
In frustration with the long and seemingly useless chain of
approvals required of component specifications, during which no
actual checking seemed to occur, an engineer at Signetics created a
specification for a write-only memory, and included it with a bunch
of other specifications to be approved.  This inclusion came
to the attention of Signetics only when regular customers started
calling and asking for pricing information.  Signetics published a
corrected edition of the data book and requested the return of the
erroneous' ones.  Later, about 1974, Signetics bought a double
page spread in Electronics magazine's April issue and used the
spec as an April Fools' day joke.  Instead of the more conventional
characteristic curves, the 25120 "fully encoded, 9046 x N, Random
Access, write-only-memory" data sheet included diagrams of "bit
capacity vs. Temp.", "Iff vs. Vff", "Number of pins remaining
vs. number of socket insertions" and "AQL vs. selling price".
The 25120 required a 6.3 VAC VFF supply, a +10V VCC, and VDD of 0V,
+/- 2%.

Wrong Thing: n. A design, action, or decision which is clearly
incorrect or inappropriate.  Often capitalized; always emphasized
in speech as if capitalized.  The opposite of the {Right Thing};
more generally, anything that is not the Right Thing.  In cases
where the good is the enemy of the best', the merely good (while
good) is nevertheless the Wrong Thing.

wugga wugga: /wuh'g* wuh'g*/ n. Imaginary sound that a computer
program makes as it labors with a tedious or difficult task.
Compare {cruncha cruncha cruncha}, {grind} (sense #4).

WYSIWYG: /wiz'ee-wig/ adj. Describes a user interface under which
"what you see is what you get"; as opposed to one which uses
more-or-less obscure commands which do not result in immediate
visual feedback.  The term can be mildly derogatory, as it is often
used to refer to dumbed-down {user-friendly} interfaces targeted
at non-programmers, while a hacker has no fear of obscure commands.
On the other hand, EMACS was one of the very first WYSIWYG editors,
replacing (actually, at first overlaying) the extremely obscure,
enough, this term has already made it into the OED --- ESR]

= X =
=====

X: /eks/ n. 1. Used in various speech and writing contexts in
roughly its algebraic sense of unknown within a set defined by
context' (compare {N}).  Thus: the abbreviation 680x0 stands for
68000, 68010, 68020, 68030, or 68040, and 80x86 stands for 80186,
80286 80386 or 80486 (note that a UNIX hacker might write these as
680[0-4]0 and 80[1-4]86 or 680?0 and 80?86 respectively; see
{glob}).  2. [after the name of an earlier window system called
W'] An over-sized, over-featured, over-engineered window system
developed at MIT and widely used on UNIX systems.

XOFF: /eks'off/ n. Syn. {control-s}.

xor: /eks'ohr/, /kzor/ conj. Exclusive or.  A xor B' means A
or B, but not both'.  Example: "I want to get cherry pie xor a
banana split."  This derives from the technical use of the term as
a function on truth-values that is true if exactly one of two
arguments is true.

xref: /eks'ref/ vt.,n. Hackish standard abbreviation for
cross-reference'.

XXX: /eks-eks-eks/ n. A marker that attention is needed.
Commonly used in program comments to indicate areas that are kluged
up or need to be.  Some hackers liked XXX' to the notional
heavy-porn rating.

xyzzy: /eks-wie-zee-zee-wie/, /ik-zi'zee/, /eks-wie-ziz'ee/,
/zi'zee/; in Commonwealth hackish, /eks-wie-zed-zed-wie/. [from the
ADVENT game] adj.  The {canonical} magic word'.  This comes from
{ADVENT}, in which the idea is to explore an underground cave
with many rooms to collect treasure.  If you type xyzzy' at the
appropriate time, you can move instantly between two otherwise
distant points.  If, therefore, you encounter some bit of
{magic}, you might remark on this quite succinctly by saying
simply "Xyzzy!"  Example: "Ordinarily you can't look at someone
else's screen if he has protected it, but if you type
quadruple-bucky-clear the system will let you do it anyway."
"Xyzzy!"  Xyzzy has actually been implemented as an undocumented
no-op command on several OSes; in Data General's AOS/VS, for
example, it would typically respond "Nothing happens.", just as
{ADVENT} did if the magic was invoked at the wrong spot or before
{plugh}.

= Y =
=====

YA-: [Yet Another...] abbrev. In hackish acronyms this almost
invariably expands to {Yet Another}, following the precedent set
by UNIX yacc(1)'.  See {YABA}.

YABA: /ya'buh/ [Cambridge] n. Yet Another Bloody Acronym.  Whenever
some program is being named, someone invariably suggests that it be
given a name which is acronymic.  The response from those with a
trace of originality is to remark ironically that the proposed name
would then be YABA-compatible'.  Also used in response to questions

YAUN: /yawn/ [Acronym for Yet Another UNIX Nerd'] n. Reported
from the San Diego Computer Society (predominantly a microcomputer
users' group) as a good-natured punning insult aimed at UNIX
zealots.

Yellow Book: n. The print version of this Jargon File; The
New Hacker's Dictionary', forthcoming from MIT Press, 1991.
Includes all the material in the File, plus a Foreword by Guy L.
Steele and a Preface by Eric S. Raymond.  Most importantly, the
book version is nicely typeset and includes almost all of the
infamous Crunchly cartoons by the Great Quux, each attached to an
appropriate entry.

Yet Another: adj. [From UNIX's yacc(1)', Yet Another Compiler-
Compiler', a LALR parser generator]  1. Of your own work: humorous
allusion often used in titles to acknowledge that the topic is not
original, though the content is.  As in Yet Another AI Group'
or Yet Another Simulated Annealing Algorithm'.  2. Of other's
work: describes something of which there are far too many.  See
also {YA-}, {YABA}, {YAUN}.

You are not expected to understand this: cav. [UNIX] Canonical
comment describing something {magic} or too complicated to bother
explaining properly.  From a comment in either the context
switching code of the V6 UNIX kernel or the V6 tty driver (accounts
differ).

You know you've been hacking too long when...: The set-up line
for a genre of one-liners told by hackers about themselves.  These
include the following:

* not only do you check your email more often than your paper
postal one.
* your {SO} kisses you on the neck and the first thing you
think is "Uh, oh, {priority interrupt}.".
* you go to balance your checkbook and discover that you're
doing it in octal.
* round numbers' are powers of 2, not 10.
* you've woken up more than once to recall of a dream in
some programming language.
* you realize you've never seen half of your best friends.

All but one of these have been reliably reported as hacker traits
(some of them quite often).  Even hackers may have trouble spotting
the ringer.

Your mileage may vary: cav. [from the standard disclaimer attached
to EPA mileage ratings by American car manufacturers] 1. A ritual
warning often found in UNIX freeware distributions.  Translates
roughly as "Hey, I tried to write this portably but who
*knows* what'll happen on your system?"  2. A qualifier more
generally attached to advice.  "I find that sending flowers works
well, but your mileage may vary."

Yow!: /yow/ [from Zippy the Pinhead comix] interj. Favored hacker
expression of humorous surprise or emphasis.  "Yow!  Check out what
happens when you twiddle the foo option on this display hack!"
Compare {gurfle}.

yoyo mode: n. State in which the system is said to be when it
rapidly alternates several times between being up and being down.
Interestingly (and perhaps not by coincidence), many hardware
vendors give out free yoyos at Usenix exhibits.

Sun Microsystems gave out logoized yoyos at SIGPLAN '88.  Tourists
staying at one of Atlanta's most respectable hotels were
subsequently treated to the sight of 200 of the country's top
computer scientists testing yo-yo algorithms in the lobby.

Yu-Shiang Whole Fish: /yoo-shyang hohl fish/ n. obs. The character
gamma (extended SAIL ASCII #b1001011), which with a loop in its tail
looks like a little fish swimming down the page.  The term is
actually the name of a Chinese dish in which a fish is cooked whole
(not {parse}d) and covered with Yu Shiang sauce.  Usage: was used
primarily by people on the MIT LISP Machine, which could display
this character on the screen.  Tends to elicit incredulity from
people who hear about it second-hand.

= Z =
=====

zap: 1. n. Spiciness.  2. vt. To make food spicy.  3. vt. To make
someone suffer' by making his food spicy.  (Most hackers love
spicy food.  Hot-and-sour soup is considered wimpy unless it makes
you wipe your nose for the rest of the meal.)  See {zapped}.
4. vt. To modify, usually to correct; esp. used when the action is
performed with a debugger or binary patching tool.  Also implies
surgical precision.  In the IBM mainframe world, binary patches are
applied to programs or to the OS with a program called superzap',
whose file name is IMASPZAP' (I M A SuPerZAP).  5. vt. To erase
or reset.  6. To {fry} a chip with static electricity.

zapped: adj. Spicy.  This term is used to distinguish between food
that is hot (in temperature) and food that is *spicy*-hot.
For example, the Chinese appetizer Bon Bon Chicken is a kind of
chicken salad that is cold but zapped; by contrast, {vanilla}
{laser chicken}.  See {zap}, senses #1 and #2.

zen: vt. To figure out something by meditation, or by a sudden flash
of enlightenment.  Originally applied to bugs, but occasionally
applied to problems of life in general.  "How'd you figure out the
buffer allocation problem?"  "Oh, I zenned it".  Contrast {grok},
which connotes a time-extended version of zenning a system.

zero: vt. 1. To set to zero.  Usually said of small pieces of data,
such as bits or words.  2. To erase; to discard all data from.
Said of disks and directories, where zeroing' need not involve
actually writing zeroes throughout the area being zeroed.  One may
speak of something being logically zeroed' rather than being
physically zeroed'.  See {scribble}.

zeroth: /zee'rohth/ adj. First.  Among software designers, comes
from C's and LISP's 0-based indexing of arrays.  Hardware people
also tend to start counting at zero instead of one; this is natural
since, e.g., the 256 states of 8 bits correspond to the binary
numbers 0,1,...,255 and the digital devices known as counters'
count in this way.

Hackers and computer scientists often like to call the first
chapter of a publication Chapter 0', especially if it is of an
introductory nature (one of the classic instances was in the First
Edition of {K&R}).  In recent years this trait has also been
observed among many pure mathematicians (who have an independent
tradition of numbering from 0).  Zero-based numbering tends to
reduce {fencepost error}s, though it cannot eliminate them
entirely.

zigamorph: /zig'*-morf/ n. Hex FF (binary #b11111111) when used
as a delimiter or {fence} character.  Usage: primarily IBM shops.

zip: [primarily MSDOS] vt. To create a compressed archive from a
group of files using PKWare's PKZIP or a compatible archiver.  Its
use is spreading now that portable implementations of the algorithm
have been written.  Commonly used as "I'll zip it up and send it
to you."  See {arc}, {tar and feather}.

zipperhead: [IBM] n. A person with a closed mind.

zombie: [UNIX] n. A process that has died but has not yet
relinquished its process table slot (because the parent process
hasn't executed a wait(2)' for it yet).  These can be seen in
ps(1)' listings occasionally.  Compare {orphan}.

zorch: [TMRC] v. 1. To attack with an inverse heat sink.  2. To
travel, v approaching c [that is, with velocity approaching
lightspeed --- ESR].

Zork: /zork/ n. Second of the great early experiments in computer
fantasy gaming; see {ADVENT}.  Originally written on MIT-DM
during the late seventies, later distributed with BSD UNIX and
commercialized as The Zork Trilogy' by Infocom.

zorkmid: n. The canonical unit of currency in hacker-written games.
This originated in zork: but has spread to {nethack} and is
referred to in several other games.

Appendix A: Hacker Folklore
***************************

This appendix contains several legends and fables which illuminate the
meaning of various entries in the lexicon.

The Meaning of Hack'
=====================

"The word {hack} doesn't really have 69 different meanings", according
to Phil Agre, an MIT hacker.  "In fact, {hack} has only one meaning, an
extremely subtle and profound one which defies articulation.  Which
connotation is implied by a given use of the word depends in similarly
profound ways on the context.  Similar remarks apply to a couple of
other hacker words, most notably {random}."

Hacking might be characterized as "an appropriate application of
ingenuity".  Whether the result is a quick-and-dirty patchwork job or
a carefully crafted work of art, you have to admire the cleverness
that went into it.

An important secondary meaning of {hack} is a creative practical
joke'.  This kind of hack is easier to explain to non-hackers than the
programming kind.  Accordingly, here are some examples of practical
joke hacks:

In 1961, students from Caltech (California Institute of Technology in
Pasadena) hacked the Rose Bowl football game.  One student posed as a
reporter and interviewed' the director of the University of
Washington card stunts (such stunts involve people in the stands who
hold up colored cards to make pictures).  The reporter learned exactly
how the stunts were operated, and also that the director would be out
to dinner later.

While the director was eating, the students (who called themselves the
Fiendish Fourteen') picked a lock and stole one of the direction
sheet blanks for the card stunts.  They then had a printer run off
2300 copies of the blank.  The next day they picked the lock again and
stole the master plans for the stunts, large sheets of graph paper
colored in with the stunt pictures.  Using these as a guide, they made
new instructions for three of the stunts on the duplicated blanks.
Finally, they broke in once more, replacing the stolen master plans
and substituting the stack of diddled instruction sheets for the
original set.

The result was that three of the pictures were totally different.
Instead of spelling "WASHINGTON", the word "CALTECH" was flashed.
Another stunt showed the word "HUSKIES", the Washington nickname,
but spelled it backwards.  And what was supposed to have been a
picture of a husky instead showed a beaver.  (Both Caltech and MIT use
the beaver as a mascot.  Beavers are nature's engineers.)

After the game, the Washington faculty athletic representative said,
"Some thought it ingenious; others were indignant."  The Washington
student body president remarked, "No hard feelings, but at the time
it was unbelievable.  We were amazed."

This is now considered a classic hack, particularly because revising
the direction sheets constituted a form of programming.

Another classic hack:

Some MIT students once illicitly used a quantity of thermite to weld a
trolley car to its tracks.  The hack was actually not dangerous, as
they did this at night to a parked trolley.  It took the transit
people quite a while to figure out what was wrong with the trolley,
and even longer to figure out how to fix it.  They ended up putting
jacks under the trolley and cutting the section of track on either
side of the wheel with oxyacetylene torches.  Then they unbolted the
wheel, welded in a new piece of track, bolted on a new wheel, and
removed the jacks.  The hackers sneaked in the next night and stole
the fused track and wheel!

The pranksters' plunder was later used as the trophy at the First Annual
All-Tech Sing.  They carted it in on a very heavy duty dolly up the
freight elevator of the Student Center.  Six feet of rail and a trolley
wheel is a *lot* of steel.

A rather similar hack, perpetrated by a fraternity at CMU, cost their
campus its trolley service.

Though these displayed some cleverness, the side-effect of expensive
property damage was definitely an esthetic minus.  The best hacks are
harmless ones.

And another:

One winter, late at night, an MIT fraternity hosed down an underpass
that is part of a commuter expressway near MIT.  This produced an ice
slick that trapped' a couple of small cars: they didn't have the
momentum or traction to climb out of the underpass.  While it was
clever to apply some simple science to trap a car, it was also very
dangerous as it could have caused a collision.  As such, this was a
very poor hack overall.

And yet another:

On November 20, 1982, MIT hacked the Harvard-Yale football game.  Just
after Harvard's second touchdown against Yale in the second quarter, a
small black ball popped up out of the ground at the 40-yard line, and
grew bigger, and bigger, and bigger.  The letters "MIT" appeared all
over the ball.  As the players and officials stood around gawking, the
ball grew to six feet in diameter and then burst with a bang and a
cloud of white smoke.

As the Boston Globe later reported, "If you want to know the truth,
M.I.T. won The Game."

The prank had taken weeks of careful planning by members of MIT's
Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity.  The device consisted of a weather
balloon, a hydraulic ram powered by Freon gas to lift it out of the
ground, and a vacuum-cleaner motor to inflate it.  They made eight
separate expeditions to Harvard Stadium between 1 and 5 AM, in which
they located an unused 110-volt circuit in the stadium, and ran buried
wiring from the stadium circuit to the 40-yard line, where they buried
the balloon device.  When the time came to activate the device, two
fraternity members had merely to flip a circuit breaker and push a
plug into an outlet.

This stunt had all the earmarks of a perfect hack: surprise,
publicity, the ingenious use of technology, safety, and harmlessness.
The use of manual control allowed the prank to be timed so as not to
disrupt the game (it was set off between plays, so the outcome of the
game would not be unduly affected).  The perpetrators had even
thoughtfully attached a note to the balloon explaining that the device
was not dangerous and contained no explosives.

Harvard president Derek Bok commented: "They have an awful lot of
clever people down there at MIT, and they did it again."  President
Paul E. Gray of MIT said, "There is absolutely no truth to the rumor
that I had anything to do with it, but I wish there were."

Still another:

At Stevens Tech, a programmer, having seen the {Cookie Bear} program
on the ITS systems, proceeded to write his own version for TOPS-10.
Unlike the ITS one, this version, called TSCB (Time-Sharing Cookie
Bear) was able to simultaneously harass multiple users at a time with
numerous {bells and whistles}.  It had a mode to look for a
particular user or program name and pounce as soon as it saw either;
it accepted wildcards (e.g. the command BOTHER [3??,*]' would sic the
bear on all Chemistry Department users); and it had commands to hide
as various other programs (making detection difficult if not
impossible).

Later on, it acquired other, nastier features; the PUNISH' command
would look for a particular user or program name and log that job out
as soon as it saw it; the IWANT' command could grab a reserved device
from another user, etc.

This program became well-known in the Stevens folklore, and copies
ended up on just about everywhere despite the efforts of the Computer
required privileges to work; unfortunately, the ability of Computer
Center employees to get and use these privileges with impunity lead to
a strong us vs. them' mentality among Stevens hackers.

Finally, here is a great story about one of the classic computer hacks.

Back in the mid-1970s, several of the system support staff at Motorola
discovered a relatively simple way to crack system security on the
XEROX CP-V timesharing system.  Through a simple programming strategy,
it was possible for a user program to trick the system into running a
portion of the program in master mode' (supervisor state), in which
memory protection does not apply.  The program could then poke a large
value into its privilege level' byte (normally write-protected) and
could then proceed to bypass all levels of security within the
file-management system, patch the system monitor, and do numerous
other interesting things.  In short, the barn door was wide open.

Motorola quite properly reported this problem to XEROX via an official
level 1 SIDR' (a bug report with an intended urgency of needs to be
fixed yesterday').  Because the text of each SIDR was entered into a
database that could be viewed by quite a number of people, Motorola
followed the approved procedure: they simply reported the problem as
Security SIDR', and attached all of the necessary documentation,
ways-to-reproduce, etc.

XEROX sat on their thumbs...they either didn't realize the severity of
the problem, or didn't assign the necessary operating-system-staff
resources to develop and distribute an official patch.

Months passed.  The Motorola guys pestered their XEROX field-support
rep, to no avail.  Finally they decided to take Direct Action, to
demonstrate to XEROX management just how easily the system could be
cracked and just how thoroughly the security safeguards could be
subverted.

They dug around in the operating-system listings and devised a
thoroughly devilish set of patches.  These patches were then
incorporated into a pair of programs called Robin Hood' and Friar
Tuck'.  Robin Hood and Friar Tuck were designed to run as ghost jobs'
(daemons, in UNIX terminology); they would use the existing loophole
to subvert system security, install the necessary patches, and then
keep an eye on one another's statuses in order to keep the system
operator (in effect, the superuser) from aborting them.

So... one day, the system operator on the main CP-V software
development system in El Segundo was surprised by a number of unusual
phenomena.  These included the following:

* Tape drives would rewind and dismount their tapes in the middle of a
job.
* Disk drives would seek back and forth so rapidly that they'd attempt
to walk across the floor (see {walking drives}).
* The card-punch output device would occasionally start up of itself and
punch a {lace card}.  These would usually jam in the punch.
* The console would print snide and insulting messages from Robin Hood
to Friar Tuck, or vice versa.
* The XEROX card reader had two output stackers; it could be instructed
to stack into A, stack into B, or stack into A unless a card was
unreadable, in which case the bad card was placed into stacker B.  One
of the patches installed by the ghosts added some code to the
the opposite stacker.  As a result, card decks would divide themselves
in half when they were read, leaving the operator to recollate them
manually.

Naturally, the operator called in the operating-system developers.  They
found the bandit ghost jobs running, and X'ed them... and were once
again surprised.  When Robin Hood was X'ed, the following sequence of
events took place:

!X id1

id1: Friar Tuck... I am under attack!  Pray save me!
id1: Off (aborted)

id2: Fear not, friend Robin!  I shall rout the Sheriff of
Nottingham's men!

id1: Thank you, my good fellow!

Each ghost-job would detect the fact that the other had been killed,
and would start a new copy of the recently-slain program within a few
milliseconds.  The only way to kill both ghosts was to kill them
simultaneously (very difficult) or to deliberately crash the system.

Finally, the system programmers did the latter... only to find
that the bandits appeared once again when the system rebooted!  It
turned out that these two programs had patched the boot-time OS image
(the kernel file, in UNIX terms) and had added themselves to the list
of programs that were to be started at boot time...

The Robin Hood and Friar Tuck ghosts were finally eradicated when the
system staff rebooted the system from a clean boot-tape and
reinstalled the monitor.  Not long thereafter, XEROX released a patch
for this problem.

It is alleged that XEROX filed a complaint with Motorola's management about
the merry-prankster actions of the two employees in question.  It is
not recorded that any serious disciplinary action was taken against
either of them.

The Untimely Demise of Mabel the Monkey
=======================================

The following, modulo a couple of inserted commas and
capitalization changes for readability, is the exact text of a famous
USENET message.  The reader may wish to review the definitions of
{PM} in the main text before continuing.

Date: Wed 3 Sep 86 16:46:31-EDT
From: "Art Evans" <Evans@TL-20B.ARPA>
Subject: Always Mount a Scratch Monkey
To: Risks@CSL.SRI.COM

My friend Bud used to be the intercept man at a computer vendor for
calls when an irate customer called.  Seems one day Bud was sitting at
his desk when the phone rang.

Bud:       Hello.                 Voice:      YOU KILLED MABEL!!
B:         Excuse me?             V:          YOU KILLED MABEL!!

This went on for a couple of minutes and Bud was getting nowhere, so he
decided to alter his approach to the customer.

B:         HOW DID I KILL MABEL?   V: YOU PM'ED MY MACHINE!!

Well, to avoid making a long story even longer, I will abbreviate what had
happened.  The customer was a Biologist at the University of Blah-de-blah,
and he had one of our computers that controlled gas mixtures that Mabel (the
monkey) breathed.  Now, Mabel was not your ordinary monkey.  The University
had spent years teaching Mabel to swim, and they were studying the effects
that different gas mixtures had on her physiology.  It turns out that the
repair folks had just gotten a new Calibrated Power Supply (used to
calibrate analog equipment), and at their first opportunity decided to
calibrate the D/A converters in that computer.  This changed some of the gas
mixtures and poor Mabel was asphyxiated.  Well, Bud then called the branch
manager for the repair folks:

Manager:     Hello
B:           This is Bud, I heard you did a PM at the University of
Blah-de-blah.
M:           Yes, we really performed a complete PM.  What can I do
for you?
B:           Can you swim?

The moral is, of course, that you should always mount a scratch monkey.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

There are several morals here related to risks in use of computers.
Examples include, "If it ain't broken, don't fix it."  However, the
cautious philosophical approach implied by "always mount a scratch
monkey" says a lot that we should keep in mind.

Art Evans
Tartan Labs

TV Typewriters: A Tale Of Hackish Ingenuity
===========================================

Here is a true story about a glass tty.  One day an MIT hacker was in
a motorcycle accident and broke his leg.  He had to stay in the
hospital quite a while, and got restless because he couldn't {hack}.
Two of his friends therefore took a terminal and modem for it to the
hospital, so that he could use the computer by telephone from his
hospital bed.

Now this happened some years before the spread of home computers, and
computer terminals were not a familiar sight to the average person.
When the two friends got to the hospital, a guard stopped them and
asked what they were carrying.  They explained that they wanted to
take a computer terminal to their friend who was a patient.

The guard got out his list of things that patients were permitted to
have in their rooms: TV, radio, electric razor, typewriter, tape
player...  no computer terminals.  Computer terminals weren't on the
list, so they couldn't take it in.  Rules are rules, you know.

Fair enough, said the two friends, and they left again.  They were
frustrated, of course, because they knew that the terminal was as
harmless as a TV or anything else on the list... which gave them an
idea.

The next day they returned, and the same thing happened: a guard
stopped them and asked what they were carrying.  They said, "This is
a TV typewriter!"  The guard was skeptical, so they plugged it in and
demonstrated it.  "See?  You just type on the keyboard and what you
type shows up on the TV screen."  Now the guard didn't stop to think
about how utterly useless a typewriter would be that didn't produce
any paper copies of what you typed; but this was clearly a TV
typewriter, no doubt about it.  So he checked his list: "A TV is all
right, a typewriter is all right... okay, take it on in!"

Two Stories About Magic' (by Guy Steele)
=========================================

When Barbara Steele was in her fifth month of pregnancy in 1981, her
doctor sent her to a specialist to have a sonogram made to determine
whether there were twins.  She dragged her husband Guy along to the
appointment.  It was quite fascinating; as the doctor moved an
instrument along the skin, a small TV screen showed cross-sectional
pictures of the abdomen.

Now Barbara and I had both studied computer science at MIT, and we
both saw that some complex computerized image-processing was involved.
Out of curiosity, we asked the doctor how it was done, hoping to learn
some details about the mathematics involved.  The doctor, not knowing
our educational background, simply said, "The probe sends out sound
waves, which bounce off the internal organs.  A microphone picks up
the echoes, like radar, and send the signals to a computer --- and the
computer makes a picture."  Thanks a lot!  Now a hacker would have
said, "... and the computer *magically* (or {automagically})
makes a picture", implicitly acknowledging that he has glossed over
an extremely complicated process.

Some years ago I was snooping around in the cabinets that housed the
MIT AI Lab's PDP-10, and noticed a little switch glued to the frame of
one cabinet.  It was obviously a homebrew job, added by one of the
lab's hardware hackers (no one knows who).

You don't touch an unknown switch on a computer without knowing what
it does, because you might crash the computer.  The switch was labeled
in a most unhelpful way.  It had two positions, and scrawled in pencil
on the metal switch body were the words magic' and more magic'.
The switch was in the more magic' position.

I called another hacker over to look at it.  He had never seen the
switch before either.  Closer examination revealed that the switch
only had one wire running to it!  The other end of the wire did
disappear into the maze of wires inside the computer, but it's a basic
fact of electricity that a switch can't do anything unless there are
two wires connected to it.  This switch had a wire connected on one
side and no wire on its other side.

It was clear that this switch was someone's idea of a silly joke.
Convinced by our reasoning that the switch was inoperative, we flipped
it.  The computer instantly crashed.

Imagine our utter astonishment.  We wrote it off as coincidence, but
nevertheless restored the switch to the more magic' position before
reviving the computer.

A year later, I told this story to yet another hacker, David Moon as I
recall.  He clearly doubted my sanity, or suspected me of a
supernatural belief in the power of this switch, or perhaps thought I
was fooling him with a bogus saga.  To prove it to him, I showed him
the very switch, still glued to the cabinet frame with only one wire
connected to it, still in the more magic' position.  We scrutinized
the switch and its lone connection, and found that the other end of
the wire, though connected to the computer wiring, was connected to a
ground pin.  That clearly made the switch doubly useless: not only was
it electrically nonoperative, but it was connected to a place that
couldn't affect anything anyway.  So we flipped the switch.

The computer promptly crashed.

This time we ran for Richard Greenblatt, a long-time MIT hacker, who
was close at hand.  He had never noticed the switch before, either.
He inspected it, concluded it was useless, got some diagonal cutters
and {dike}d it out.  We then revived the computer and it ran fine
ever since.

We still don't know how the switch crashed the machine.  There is a
theory that some circuit near the ground pin was marginal, and
flipping the switch changed the electrical capacitance enough to upset
the circuit as millionth-of-a-second pulses went through it.  But
we'll never know for sure; all we can really say is that the switch
was {magic}.

I still have that switch in my basement.  Maybe I'm silly, but I
usually keep it set on more magic'.

A Selection of AI Koans
=======================

These are some of the funniest examples of a genre of jokes told at
the MIT AI lab about various noted hackers.  The original koans were
composed by Danny Hillis.  In reading these, it is at least useful to
know that Minsky, Sussman, and Drescher are AI researchers of note,
that Tom Knight was one of the Lisp machine's principal designers, and
that David Moon wrote much of Lisp machine Lisp.

* * *

A novice was trying to fix a broken Lisp machine by turning the power
off and on.

Knight, seeing what the student was doing spoke sternly: "You can not
fix a machine by just power-cycling it with no understanding of what
is going wrong."

Knight turned the machine off and on.

The machine worked.

* * *

One day a student came to Moon and said, "I understand how to
make a better garbage collector.  We must keep a reference count
of the pointers to each cons."

Moon patiently told the student the following story:

"One day a student came to Moon and said, I understand how
to make a better garbage collector...

[Ed. note: Pure reference-count garbage collectors have problems with
circular structures that point to themselves.]

* * *

In the days when Sussman was a novice, Minsky once came to him as
he sat hacking at the PDP-6.

"What are you doing?" asked Minsky.

"I am training a randomly wired neural net to play Tic-Tac-Toe",
Sussman replied.

"Why is the net wired randomly?" asked Minsky.

"I do not want it to have any preconceptions of how to play."
Sussman said.

Minsky then shut his eyes.

"So that the room will be empty."

At that moment, Sussman was enlightened.

* * *

A disciple of another sect once came to Drescher as he was
eating his morning meal.

"I would like to give you this personality test", said the
outsider, "because I want you to be happy."

Drescher took the paper that was offered him and put it
into the toaster, saying:

"I wish the toaster to be happy, too."

OS and JEDGAR
=============

This story says a lot about the the ITS ethos.

On the ITS system there was a program that allowed you to see what is
being printed on someone else's terminal.  It spied on the other guy's
output by examining the insides of the monitor system.  The output spy
program was called OS.  Throughout the rest of the computer science
(and at IBM too) OS means operating system', but among old-time ITS
hackers it almost always meant output spy'.

OS could work because ITS purposely had very little in the way of
protection' that prevented one user from trespassing on another's
areas.  Fair is fair, however.  There was another program that would
automatically notify you if anyone started to spy on your output.  It
worked in exactly the same way, by looking at the insides of the
operating system to see if anyone else was looking at the insides that
had to do with your output.  This counterspy' program was called
JEDGAR (a six-letterism pronounced as two syllables: /jed'gr/), in
honor of the former head of the FBI.

But there's more.  The rest of the story is that JEDGAR would ask the
user for license to kill'.  If the user said yes, then JEDGAR would
actually {gun} the job of the {luser} who was spying.
Unfortunately, people found this made life too violent, especially when
tourists learned about it.  One of the systems hackers solved the
problem by replacing JEDGAR with another program that only pretended
to do its job.  It took a long time to do this, because every copy of
JEDGAR had to be patched, and to this day no one knows how many people
never figured out that JEDGAR had been defanged.

The Story of Mel, a Real Programmer
===================================

This was posted to USENET by its author Ed Nather (utastro!nather) on
May 21, 1983.

A recent article devoted to the *macho* side of programming
made the bald and unvarnished statement:

Real Programmers write in Fortran.

Maybe they do now,
Lite beer, hand calculators and "user-friendly" software
but back in the Good Old Days,
when the term "software" sounded funny
and Real Computers were made out of drums and vacuum tubes,
Real Programmers wrote in machine code.
Not Fortran. Not RATFOR. Not, even, assembly language.
Machine Code.
Directly.

Lest a whole new generation of programmers
grow up in ignorance of this glorious past,
I feel duty-bound to describe,
as best I can through the generation gap,
how a Real Programmer wrote code.
I'll call him Mel,
because that was his name.

I first met Mel when I went to work for Royal McBee Computer Corp.,
a now-defunct subsidiary of the typewriter company.
The firm manufactured the LGP-30,
a small, cheap (by the standards of the day)
drum-memory computer,
and had just started to manufacture
the RPC-4000, a much-improved,
bigger, better, faster --- drum-memory computer.
Cores cost too much,
and weren't here to stay, anyway.
(That's why you haven't heard of the company, or the computer.)

I had been hired to write a Fortran compiler
for this new marvel and Mel was my guide to its wonders.
Mel didn't approve of compilers.

"If a program can't rewrite its own code",
he asked, "what good is it?"

the most popular computer program the company owned.
It ran on the LGP-30
and played blackjack with potential customers
at computer shows.
Its effect was always dramatic.
The LGP-30 booth was packed at every show,
and the IBM salesmen stood around
talking to each other.
Whether or not this actually sold computers
was a question we never discussed.

Mel's job was to re-write
the blackjack program for the RPC-4000.
(Port?  What does that mean?)
The new computer had a one-plus-one
in which each machine instruction,
in addition to the operation code
and the address of the needed operand,
the next instruction was located.
In modern parlance,
every single instruction was followed by a GO TO!
Put *that* in Pascal's pipe and smoke it.

Mel loved the RPC-4000
because he could optimize his code:
that is, locate instructions on the drum
so that just as one finished its job,
and available for immediate execution.
There was a program to do that job,
an "optimizing assembler",
but Mel refused to use it.

"You never know where its going to put things",
he explained, "so you'd have to use separate constants".

It was a long time before I understood that remark.
Since Mel knew the numerical value
of every operation code,
and assigned his own drum addresses,
every instruction he wrote could also be considered
a numerical constant.
He could pick up an earlier "add" instruction, say,
and multiply by it,
if it had the right numeric value.
His code was not easy for someone else to modify.

I compared Mel's hand-optimized programs
with the same code massaged by the optimizing assembler program,
and Mel's always ran faster.
That was because the "top-down" method of program design
and Mel wouldn't have used it anyway.
He wrote the innermost parts of his program loops first,
so they would get first choice
of the optimum address locations on the drum.
The optimizing assembler wasn't smart enough to do it that way.

Mel never wrote time-delay loops, either,
even when the balky Flexowriter
required a delay between output characters to work right.
He just located instructions on the drum
when it was needed;
the drum had to execute another complete revolution
to find the next instruction.
He coined an unforgettable term for this procedure.
Although "optimum" is an absolute term,
like "unique", it became common verbal practice
to make it relative:
"not quite optimum" or "less optimum"
or "not very optimum".
Mel called the maximum time-delay locations
the "most pessimum".

After he finished the blackjack program
and got it to run,
("Even the initializer is optimized",
he said proudly)
he got a Change Request from the sales department.
The program used an elegant (optimized)
random number generator
to shuffle the "cards" and deal from the "deck",
and some of the salesmen felt it was too fair,
since sometimes the customers lost.
They wanted Mel to modify the program
so, at the setting of a sense switch on the console,
they could change the odds and let the customer win.

Mel balked.
He felt this was patently dishonest,
which it was,
and that it impinged on his personal integrity as a programmer,
which it did,
so he refused to do it.
The Head Salesman talked to Mel,
as did the Big Boss and, at the boss's urging,
a few Fellow Programmers.
Mel finally gave in and wrote the code,
but he got the test backwards,
and, when the sense switch was turned on,
the program would cheat, winning every time.
Mel was delighted with this,
claiming his subconscious was uncontrollably ethical,
and adamantly refused to fix it.

After Mel had left the company for greener pa$ture$,
the Big Boss asked me to look at the code
and see if I could find the test and reverse it.
Somewhat reluctantly, I agreed to look.
Tracking Mel's code was a real adventure.

I have often felt that programming is an art form,
whose real value can only be appreciated
by another versed in the same arcane art;
there are lovely gems and brilliant coups
hidden from human view and admiration, sometimes forever,
by the very nature of the process.
You can learn a lot about an individual
just by reading through his code,
Mel was, I think, an unsung genius.

Perhaps my greatest shock came
when I found an innocent loop that had no test in it.
No test. *None*.
Common sense said it had to be a closed loop,
where the program would circle, forever, endlessly.
Program control passed right through it, however,
and safely out the other side.
It took me two weeks to figure it out.

The RPC-4000 computer had a really modern facility
called an index register.
It allowed the programmer to write a program loop
that used an indexed instruction inside;
each time through,
the number in the index register
so it would refer
to the next datum in a series.
He had only to increment the index register
each time through.
Mel never used it.

Instead, he would pull the instruction into a machine register,
and store it back.
He would then execute the modified instruction
right from the register.
The loop was written so this additional execution time
was taken into account ---
just as this instruction finished,
But the loop had no test in it.

The vital clue came when I noticed
the index register bit,
the bit that lay between the address
and the operation code in the instruction word,
was turned on ---
yet Mel never used the index register,
leaving it zero all the time.
When the light went on it nearly blinded me.

He had located the data he was working on
near the top of memory ---
the largest locations the instructions could address ---
so, after the last datum was handled,
would make it overflow.
The carry would add one to the
operation code, changing it to the next one in the instruction set:
a jump instruction.
Sure enough, the next program instruction was
and the program went happily on its way.

I haven't kept in touch with Mel,
so I don't know if he ever gave in to the flood of
change that has washed over programming techniques
since those long-gone days.
I like to think he didn't.
In any event,
I was impressed enough that I quit looking for the
offending test,
telling the Big Boss I couldn't find it.
He didn't seem surprised.

When I left the company,
the blackjack program would still cheat
if you turned on the right sense switch,
and I think that's how it should be.
I didn't feel comfortable
hacking up the code of a Real Programmer.

[This is one of hackerdom's great heroic epics, free verse or no.  In a
few spare images it captures more about the esthetics and psychology
of hacking than every scholarly volume on the subject put together.
For an opposing point of view, see the entry for {real programmer}.]

Appendix B: A Portrait of J. Random Hacker
******************************************

This profile reflects detailed comments on an earlier trial balloon'
version from about a hundred USENET respondents.  Where comparatives
are used, the implicit other' is a randomly selected group from the
non-hacker population of the same size as hackerdom.

General appearance:
===================

Intelligent.  Scruffy.  Intense.  Abstracted.  Surprisingly for a
sedentary profession, more hackers run to skinny than fat; both
extremes are more common than elsewhere.  Tans are rare.

Dress:
======

Casual, vaguely post-hippy; T-shirts, jeans, running shoes,
Birkenstocks (or bare feet).  Long hair, beards and moustaches are
common.  High incidence of tie-dye and intellectual or humorous
slogan' T-shirts (only rarely computer related; that's too obvious).

A substantial minority prefers outdoorsy' clothing --- hiking boots
("in case a mountain should suddenly spring up in the machine room",
as one famous parody put it), khakis, lumberjack or chamois shirts and
the like.

Very few actually fit the National-Lampoon-Nerd stereotype, though it
lingers on at MIT and may have been more common before 1975.  These
days, backpacks are more common than briefcases, and the hacker look'
is more whole-earth than whole-polyester.

Hackers dress for comfort, function, and minimal maintenance hassles
rather than for appearance (some, perhaps unfortunately, take this to
extremes and neglect personal hygiene).  They have a very low
tolerance of suits or other business' attire, in fact it is not
uncommon for hackers to quit a job rather than conform to a dress
code.

Female hackers never wear visible makeup and many use none at all.

===============

Omnivorous, but usually includes lots of science and science fiction.
The typical hacker household might subscribe to Analog',
Scientific American', Co-Evolution Quarterly', and
Smithsonian'.  Hackers often have a reading range that astonishes
liberal arts' people but tend not to talk about it as much.  Many
hackers spend as much of their spare time reading as the average
American burns up watching TV, and often keep shelves and shelves of
well-thumbed books in their homes.

Other interests:
================

Some hobbies are widely shared and recognized as going with the
culture.  Science fiction.  Music.  Medievalism.  Chess, go,
backgammon, wargames and intellectual games of all kinds.
(Role-playing games such as Dungeons and Dragons used to be extremely
popular among hackers but have lost a bit of their former luster as
they moved into the mainstream and became heavily commercialized.)
Logic puzzles.  Ham radio.  Other interests that seem to correlate
less strongly but positively with hackerdom include: linguistics and
theater teching.

Physical Activity and Sports:
=============================

Many (perhaps even most) hackers don't follow or do sports at all and
are determinedly anti-physical.  Among those who do, interest in
spectator sports is low to non-existent; sports are something one
*does*, not something one watches on TV.

Further, hackers avoid most team sports like the plague (though
volleyball is a notable exception, perhaps because it's non-contact
and relatively friendly).  Hacker sports are are almost always
primarily self-competitive ones involving concentration, stamina, and
micromotor skills: martial arts, bicycling, auto racing, kite-flying,
hiking, rock-climbing, sailing, caving, juggling, skiing, skating (ice
and roller).

Education:
==========

Nearly all hackers past their teens are either college-degreed or
self-educated to an equivalent level.  The self-taught hacker is often
considered (at least by other hackers) to be better-motivated, and may
be more respected than his school-shaped counterpart.  Academic areas
from which people often gravitate into hackerdom include (besides the
obvious computer science and electrical engineering) physics,
mathematics, linguistics, and philosophy.

Things hackers detest and avoid:
================================

IBM mainframes.  Smurfs, Ewoks, and other forms of offensive cuteness.
Bureaucracies.  Stupid people.  Easy listening music.  Television
(except for cartoons, movies, the old Star Trek', and the new
Simpsons').  Business suits.  Dishonesty.  Incompetence.

Food:
=====

Ethnic.  Spicy.  Oriental, esp. Chinese and most especially Szechuan,
Hunan and Mandarin (hackers consider Cantonese vaguely declasse).
Hackers prefer the exotic; for example, the Japanese-food fans among
them will eat with gusto such delicacies as fugu (poisonous
pufferfish) and whale.  Thai food has experienced flurries of
popularity.  Where available, high-quality Jewish delicatessen food is
much esteemed.  A visible minority of Southwestern and Pacific Coast
hackers prefers Mexican.

For those all-night hacks, pizza and microwaved burritos are big.
Interestingly, though the mainstream culture has tended to think of
hackers as incorrigible junk-food junkies, many have at least mildly
health-foodist attitudes and are fairly discriminating about what they
eat.  This may be generational; anecdotal evidence suggests that the
stereotype was more on the mark ten to fifteen years ago.

Politics:
=========

Vaguely left of center, except for the strong libertarian contingent
which rejects conventional left-right politics entirely.  The only
safe generalization is that almost all hackers are anti-authoritarian,
thus both conventional conservatism and hard' leftism are rare.
Hackers are far more likely than most non-hackers to either (a) be
aggressively apolitical, or (b) entertain peculiar or idiosyncratic
political ideas and actually try to live by them day-to-day.

Gender & Ethnicity:
===================

Hackerdom is still predominantly male.  However the percentage of
women is clearly higher than the low-single-digit range typical for
technical professions, and female hackers are generally respected and
dealt with as equals.

In the U.S., hackerdom is predominantly Caucasian with strong
minorities of Jews (east coast) and Orientals (west coast).  The
Jewish contingent has exerted a particularly pervasive cultural
influence (see Food, and note that several common jargon terms are
obviously mutated Yiddish).

The ethnic distribution of hackers is understood by them to be a
function of which subcultures tend to seek and value education.  Race
and ethnic prejudice is notably uncommon and tends to be met with
freezing contempt.

When asked, hackers often ascribe their culture's gender- and
color-blindness to a positive effect of text-only network channels.

Religion:
=========

Agnostic.  Atheist.  Non-observant Jewish.  Neo-pagan.  Very commonly,
three or more of these are combined in the same person.  Conventional
faith-holding Christianity is rare though not unknown (at least on the
east coast, more hackers wear yarmulkes than crucifixes).

Even hackers who identify with a religious affiliation tend to be
relaxed about it, hostile to organized religion in general and all
forms of religious bigotry in particular.  Many enjoy parody'
religions such as Discordianism and the Church of the SubGenius.

Also, many hackers are influenced to varying degrees by Zen Buddhism
or (less commonly) Taoism, and blend them easily with their native'
religions.

There is a definite strain of mystical, almost Gnostic sensibility
that shows up even among those hackers not actively involved with
neo-paganism, Discordianism, or Zen.  Hacker folklore that pays homage
to wizards' and speaks of incantations and demons has too much
psychological truthfulness about it to be entirely a joke.

Ceremonial chemicals:
=====================

Most hackers don't smoke tobacco and use alcohol in moderation if at
all (though there is a visible contingent of exotic-beer fanciers, and
a few hackers are serious oenophiles).  Limited use of non-addictive
psychedelic drugs such as marijuana, LSD, psilocybin, nitrous oxide,
etc. used to be relatively common and is still regarded with more
tolerance than in the mainstream culture.  Use of downers' and
opiates, on the other hand, appears to be particularly rare; hackers
seem in general to dislike drugs that dumb them down'.  On the third
hand, many hackers regularly wire up on caffeine and/or sugar for
all-night hacking runs.

Communication style:
====================

See the dictionary notes on Hacker speech style'.  Though hackers
often have poor person-to-person communication skills, they are as a
rule extremely sensitive to nuances of language and very precise in
their use of it.  They are often better at written communication than
spoken.

Geographical Distribution:
==========================

In the U.S., hackerdom revolves on a Bay Area/Boston axis; about half
of the hard core seems to live within a hundred miles of Cambridge
(Massachusetts) or Berkeley (California), although there are
significant contigents in Los Angeles, the Pacific Northwest, and
Washington DC.  Hackers tend to cluster around large cities,
especially university towns' such as the Raleigh/Durham area in North
Carolina or Princeton, New Jersey (this may simply reflect the fact
that many are students or ex-students living near their alma maters).

Sexual habits:
==============

Hackerdom tolerates a much wider range of sexual and lifestyle
variation than the mainstream culture.  It includes a relatively large
gay contingent.  Hackers are somewhat more likely to live in
polygynous or polyandrous relationships, practice open marriage, or
live in communes or group houses.  In this, as in some other respects,
(see General Appearance') hackerdom semi-consciously maintains
counterculture' values.

Personality Characteristics:
============================

The most obvious common personality' characteristics of hackers are
high intelligence, consuming curiosity, and facility with intellectual
abstractions.  Also, most hackers are neophiles', stimulated by and
appreciative of novelty (especially intellectual novelty).  Most are
also relatively individualistic and anti-conformist.

Contrary to stereotype, hackers are *not* usually intellectually
narrow; they tend to be interested in any subject that can provide
mental stimulation, and can often discourse knowledgeably and even
interestingly on any number of obscure subjects --- assuming you can
get them to talk at all as opposed to, say, going back to hacking.

It is noticeable (and contrary to many outsiders' expectations) that
the better a hacker is at hacking, the more likely he/she is to have
outside interests at which he/she is more than merely competent.

Hackers are control freaks' in a way that has nothing to do with the
usual coercive or authoritarian connotations of the term.  In the same
way that children delight in making model trains go forward and back
by moving a switch, hackers love making complicated things like
computers do nifty stuff for them.  But it has to be *their*
nifty stuff.  They don't like tedium, nondeterminism or most of the
fussy, boring, ill-defined little tasks that go with maintaining a
normal existence.  Accordingly, they tend to be careful and orderly in
their intellectual lives and chaotic elsewhere.  Their code will be
beautiful, even if their desks are buried in three feet of crap.

Hackers are generally only very weakly motivated by conventional
rewards such as social approval or money.  They tend to be attracted
by challenges and excited by interesting toys, and to judge the
interest of work or other activities in terms of the challenges
offered and the toys they get to play with.

In terms of Myers-Briggs and equivalent psychometric systems,
hackerdom appears to concentrate the relatively rare INTJ and INTP
types; that is, introverted, intuitive, and thinker types (as opposed
to the extroverted-sensate personalities that predominate in the
mainstream culture).  ENT[JP] types are also concentrated among
hackers but are in a minority.

Weaknesses of the hacker personality:
=====================================

Relatively little ability to identify emotionally with other people.
This may be because hackers generally aren't much like other people'.
Unsurprisingly, there is also a tendency to self-absorption,
intellectual arrogance, and impatience with people and tasks perceived
to be wasting one's time.  As a result, many hackers have difficulty
maintaining stable relationships.

As cynical as hackers sometimes wax about the amount of idiocy in the
world, they tend by reflex to assume that everyone is as rational,
cool', and imaginative as they consider themselves.  This bias often
contributes to weakness in communication skills.  Hackers tend to be
especially poor at confrontations and negotiation.

Hackers are often monumentally disorganized and sloppy about dealing
with the physical world.  Bills don't get paid on time, clutter piles
up to incredible heights in homes and offices, and minor maintenance

The sort of person who uses phrases like incompletely socialized'
usually thinks hackers are.  Hackers regard such people with contempt
when they notice them at all.

Miscellaneous:
==============

Hackers are more likely to have cats than dogs (in fact, it is widely
grokked that cats have the hacker nature).  Many drive incredibly
decrepit heaps and forget to wash them; richer ones drive spiffy
Porsches and RX-7s and then forget to have them washed.  Almost all
hackers have terribly bad handwriting, and often grow up
block-printing everything like junior draftsmen.

Appendix C: Bibliography
************************

hacker mindset.

Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid
Basic Books, 1979, New York
ISBN 0-394-74502-7

This book reads like an intellectual Grand Tour of hacker
preoccupations.  Music, mathematical logic, programming, speculations
on the nature of intelligence, biology, and Zen are woven into a
brilliant tapestry themed on the concept of encoded self-reference.
The perfect left-brain companion to Illuminatus'.

The Illuminatus Trilogy
Shea, Robert & Wilson, Robert Anton
Dell Books, 1988, New York
ISBN 0-440-53981-1

This work of alleged fiction is an incredible berserko-surrealist
rollercoaster of world-girdling conspiracies, intelligent dolphins,
the fall of Atlantis, who really killed JFK, sex, drugs, rock & roll
and the Cosmic Giggle Factor.  First published in 3 volumes, but
there's now a one-volume trade paperback carried by most chain
bookstores under SF.  The perfect right-brain companion to Hofstadter's
Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid'.  See {Eris},
{Discordianism}, {random numbers}, {Church Of The Sub-Genius}.

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
Pocket Books, 1981, New York
ISBN 0-671-46149-4

This Monty-Python-in-Space' spoof of SF genre traditions has been
popular among hackers ever since the original British radio show.
Read it if only to learn about Vogons (see {bogons}) and the
significance of the number 42 (see {random numbers}) --- also why the
winningest chess program of 1990 was called Deep Thought'.

The Tao of Programming
James Geoffrey
Infobooks, 1987, Santa Monica
ISBN 0-931137-07-1

This gentle, funny spoof of the Tao Te Ching' contains much that is
illuminating about the hacker way of thought.  "When you have learned
to snatch the error code from the trap frame, it will be time for you
to leave."

Hackers
Steven Levy
Anchor/Doubleday 1984, New York
ISBN 0-385-19195-2

Levy's book is at its best in describing the early MIT hackers at the
Model Railroad Club and the early days of the microcomputer
revolution.  He never understood UNIX or the networks, though, and his
enshrinement of Richard Stallman as "the last true hacker" turns out
(thankfully) to have been quite misleading.  Numerous minor factual
errors also mar the text; for example, Levy's claim that the original
Jargon File derived from the TMRC Dictionary (the File originated at
Stanford and was brought to MIT in 1976; the First Edition co-authors
had never seen the dictionary in question).  There are also numerous
misspellings in the book that inflame the passions of old-timers; as
Dan Murphy, the author of TECO, once said, "You would have thought
he'd take the trouble to spell the name of a winning editor right."
Nevertheless this remains a useful and stimulating book that captures
the feel of several important hackish subcultures.

The Cuckoo's Egg
Clifford Stoll
Doubleday 1989, New York
ISBN 0-385-24946-2

Clifford Stoll's absorbing tale of how he tracked Markus Hess and the
Chaos Club cracking-ring nicely illustrates the difference between
hacker' and cracker'.  Stoll's portrait of himself, his lady Martha,
and his friends at Berkeley and on the Internet paints a marvelously
vivid picture of how hackers and the people around them like to live
and what they think.

The Devil's DP Dictionary
by Stan Kelly-Bootle
McGraw-Hill Inc, 1981
ISBN 0-07-034022-6

This pastiche of Ambrose Bierce's famous work is similar in format to
the Jargon File (and quotes several entries from jargon-1) but
somewhat different in tone and intent.  It is more satirical and less
anthropological, and largely a product of the author's literate and
quirky imagination.  For example, it defines computer science' as
"A study akin to numerology and astrology, but lacking the precision
of the former and the success of the latter."; also as "The boring
art of coping with a large number of trivialities."

The Devouring Fungus: Tales from the Computer Age
by Karla Jennings
W. W. Norton 1990, New York
ISBN 0-393-30732-8

The author of this pioneering compendium knits together a great deal
of computer and hacker-related folklore with good writing and a few
well-chosen cartoons.  She has a keen eye for the human aspects of the
lore and is very good at illuminating the psychology and evolution of
hackerdom.  Unfortunately, a number of small errors and awkwardnesses
suggest that she didn't have the final manuscript vetted by a native
speaker; the glossary in the back is particularly embarrassing, and at
least one classic tale (the Magic Switch story in this file's Appendix
A) is given in incomplete and badly mangled form.  Nevertheless, this
book is a win overall and can be enjoyed by hacker and non-hacker
alike.

True Names... and Other Dangers
by Vernor Vinge
Baen Books 1987, New York
ISBN 0-671-65363

Hacker demigod Richard Stallman believes the title story of this book
"expresses the spirit of hacking best".  This may well be true; it's
certainly difficult to recall anyone doing a better job.  The other
stories in this collection are also fine work by an author who is
perhaps one of today's very best practitioners of the hard-SF genre.