term% ls -F
term% cat index.txt
CACHECHARS(2)                 System Calls Manual                CACHECHARS(2)

       cachechars,  agefont,  loadchar, Subfont, Fontchar, Font  - font utili‐

       #include <u.h>
       #include <libc.h>
       #include <draw.h>

       int  cachechars(Font *f, char **s, Rune **r, ushort *c, int max,

                    int *widp, char **sfname)

       int  loadchar(Font *f, Rune r, Cacheinfo *c, int h,

                    int noclr, char **sfname)

       void agefont(Font *f)

       A Font may contain too many characters to  hold  in  memory  simultane‐
       ously.  The graphics library and draw device (see draw(3)) cooperate to
       solve this problem by maintaining a cache of  recently  used  character
       images.  The details of this cooperation need not be known by most pro‐
       grams: initdraw and its associated  font  variable,  openfont,  string‐
       width, string, and freefont are sufficient for most purposes.  The rou‐
       tines described below are used internally by the  graphics  library  to
       maintain the font cache.

       A  Subfont  is  a  set  of images for a contiguous range of characters,
       stored as a single image with the characters placed side-by-side  on  a
       common baseline.  It is described by the following data structures.

              struct Fontchar {
                    int      x;        /* left edge of bits */
                    uchar    top;      /* first non-zero scan-line */
                    uchar    bottom;   /* last non-zero scan-line */
                    char     left;     /* offset of baseline */
                    uchar    width;    /* width of baseline */
              } Fontchar;

              struct Subfont {
                    char     *name;
                    short    n;        /* number of chars in subfont */
                    uchar    height;   /* height of image */
                    char     ascent;   /* top of image to baseline */
                    Fontchar *info;    /* n+1 Fontchars */
                    Image    *bits;    /* of font */
              } Subfont;

       The  image fills the rectangle (0, 0, w, height), where w is the sum of
       the horizontal extents (of non-zero pixels) for  all  characters.   The
       pixels  to  be  displayed  for  character c are in the rectangle (i->x,
       i->top, (i+1)->x, i->bottom) where  i  is  &subfont->info[c].   When  a
       character  is displayed at Point p in an image, the character rectangle
       is placed at (p.x+i->left, p.y) and the next character of the string is
       displayed  at  (p.x+i->width,  p.y).  The baseline of the characters is
       rows down from the top of the subfont image.  The array  has  n+1  ele‐
       ments, one each for characters 0 to n-1 plus an additional entry so the
       size of the last character can be calculated.  Thus the  width,  w,  of
       the Image associated with a Subfont s is s->info[s->n].x.

       A  Font  consists  of  an overall height and ascent and a collection of
       subfonts together with the ranges of runes (see utf(6)) they represent.
       Fonts are described by the following structures.

              struct Cachefont {
                    Rune      min;      /* value of 0th char in subfont */
                    Rune      max;      /* value+1 of last char in subfont */
                    int       offset;   /* posn in subfont of char at min */
                    char      *name;    /* stored in font */
                    char      *subfontname;/* to access subfont */
              } Cachefont;

              struct Cacheinfo {
                    ushort    x;        /* left edge of bits */
                    uchar     width;    /* width of baseline */
                    schar     left;     /* offset of baseline */
                    Rune      value;    /* of char at this slot in cache */
                    ushort    age;
              } Cacheinfo;

              struct Cachesubf {
                    ulong     age;      /* for replacement */
                    Cachefont *cf;      /* font info that owns us */
                    Subfont   *f;       /* attached subfont */
              } Cachesubf;

              struct Font {
                    char      *name;
                    Display   *display;
                    short     height;   /* max ht of image;interline space*/
                    short     ascent;   /* top of image to baseline */
                    short     width;    /* widest so far; used in caching */
                    short     nsub;     /* number of subfonts */
                    ulong     age;      /* increasing counter; for LRU */
                    int       ncache;   /* size of cache */
                    int       nsubf;    /* size of subfont list */
                    Cacheinfo *cache;
                    Cachesubf *subf;
                    Cachefont **sub;    /* as read from file */
                    Image     *cacheimage;
              } Font;

       The and fields of Font are described in graphics(2).  contains pointers
       to Cachefonts.  A Cachefont connects runes through  inclusive,  to  the
       subfont  with file name it corresponds to a line of the file describing
       the font.

       The characters are taken from the subfont starting at character  number
       (usually  zero)  in  the subfont, permitting selection of parts of sub‐
       fonts.  Thus the image for rune r is found in position r-min+offset  of
       the subfont.

       For  each  font,  the  library,  with support from the graphics server,
       maintains a cache of subfonts and a cache of  recently  used  character
       images.   The subf and cache fields are used by the library to maintain
       these caches.  The of a font is the maximum of the  horizontal  extents
       of  the  characters in the cache.  String draws a string by loading the
       cache and emitting a sequence of cache  indices  to  draw.   Cachechars
       guarantees the images for the characters pointed to by *s or *r (one of
       these must be nil in each call) are in the cache of f.  It calls  load‐
       char  to  put missing characters into the cache.  Cachechars translates
       the character string into a set of cache indices which  it  loads  into
       the  array c, up to a maximum of n indices or the length of the string.
       Cachechars returns in c the number of cache indices emitted, updates *s
       to  point  to the next character to be processed, and sets *widp to the
       total width of the characters processed.  Cachechars may return  before
       the  end  of  the string if it cannot proceed without destroying active
       data in the caches.  If it needs to load a new subfont,  it  will  fill
       *sfname  with  the  name of the subfont it needs and return -1.  It can
       return zero if it is unable to make progress because it  cannot  resize
       the caches.

       Loadchar  loads  a  character  image into the character cache.  Then it
       tells the graphics server to copy the character into position h in  the
       character  cache.   If  the current font is smaller than the horizontal
       extent of the character being loaded, loadfont  clears  the  cache  and
       resets  it  to accept characters with the bigger width, unless noclr is
       set, in which case it just returns -1.  If the character does not exist
       in  the  font  at  all, loadfont returns 0; if it is unable to load the
       character without destroying cached information, it returns -1,  updat‐
       ing *sfname as described above.  It returns 1 to indicate success.

       The  fields  record  when  subfonts and characters have been used.  The
       font is increased every time the font is used (agefont does  this).   A
       character or subfont is set to the font age at each use.  Thus, charac‐
       ters or subfonts with small ages are the best candidates  for  replace‐
       ment when the cache is full.


       graphics(2), allocimage(2), draw(2), subfont(2), image(6), font(6)

       All of the functions use the graphics error function (see graphics(2)).