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STRING(2)                     System Calls Manual                    STRING(2)



NAME
       s_alloc, s_append, s_array, s_copy, s_error, s_free, s_incref, s_memap‐
       pend, s_nappend, s_new, s_newalloc, s_parse, s_reset, s_restart, s_ter‐
       minate,  s_tolower,  s_putc,  s_unique,  s_grow,  s_read,  s_read_line,
       s_getline,  s_allocinstack,  s_freeinstack,  s_rdinstack  -  extensible
       strings

SYNOPSIS
       #include <u.h>
       #include <libc.h>
       #include <String.h>

       String*   s_new(void)
       void      s_free(String *s)
       String*   s_newalloc(int n)
       String*   s_array(char *p, int n)
       String*   s_grow(String *s, int n)

       void      s_putc(String *s, int c)
       void      s_terminate(String *s)
       String*   s_reset(String *s)
       String*   s_restart(String *s)
       String*   s_append(String *s, char *p)
       String*   s_nappend(String *s, char *p, int n)
       String*   s_memappend(String *s, char *p, int n)
       String*   s_copy(char *p)
       String*   s_parse(String *s1, String *s2)

       void      s_tolower(String *s)

       String*   s_incref(String *s)
       String*   s_unique(String *s)

       #include <bio.h>

       int       s_read(Biobuf *b, String *s, int n)
       char*     s_read_line(Biobuf *b, String *s)
       char*     s_getline(Biobuf *b, String *s)
       Sinstack* s_allocinstack(char *file)
       void      s_freeinstack(Sinstack *stack)
       char*     s_rdinstack(Sinstack *stack, String *to)

DESCRIPTION
       These  routines  manipulate  extensible  strings.   The  basic  type is
       String, which points to an array of characters.  The  string  maintains
       pointers  to the beginning and end of the allocated array.  In addition
       a finger pointer keeps track of where parsing will start (for  s_parse)
       or  new characters will be added (for s_putc, s_append, and s_nappend).
       The structure, and a few useful macros are:

       typedef struct String {
            Lock;
            char *base;    /* base of String */
            char *end;     /* end of allocated space+1 */
            char *ptr;     /* ptr into String */
            ...
       } String;

       #define s_to_c(s) ((s)->base)
       #define s_len(s) ((s)->ptr-(s)->base)
       #define s_clone(s) s_copy((s)->base)

       S_to_c is used when code needs a  reference  to  the  character  array.
       Using s->base directly is frowned upon since it exposes too much of the
       implementation.

   allocation and freeing
       A string must be allocated before it can be used.   One  normally  does
       this using s_new, giving the string an initial allocation of 128 bytes.
       If you know that the string will need to grow much longer, you can  use
       s_newalloc instead, specifying the number of bytes in the initial allo‐
       cation.

       S_free causes both the string and its character array to be freed.

       S_grow grows a string's allocation by a fixed amount.  It is useful  if
       you  are reading directly into a string's character array but should be
       avoided if possible.

       S_array is used to create a constant array, that is, one whose contents
       won't  change.   It  points directly to the character array given as an
       argument.  Tread lightly when using this call.

   Filling the string
       After its initial allocation, the string points to the beginning of  an
       allocated array of characters starting with NUL.

       S_putc  writes  a character into the string at the pointer and advances
       the pointer to point after it.

       S_terminate writes a NUL at the pointer but doesn't advance it.

       S_restart resets the pointer to the begining of the string but  doesn't
       change the contents.

       S_reset is equivalent to s_restart followed by s_terminate.

       S_append  and  s_nappend copy characters into the string at the pointer
       and advance the pointer.  They also write a NUL at the pointer  without
       advancing the pointer beyond it.  Both routines stop copying on encoun‐
       tering a NUL.  S_memappend is like s_nappend but doesn't stop at a NUL.

       If you know the initial character array to be copied into a string, you
       can  allocate a string and copy in the bytes using s_copy.  This is the
       equivalent of a s_new followed by an s_append.

       S_parse copies the next white space terminated token from s1 to the end
       of s2.  White space is defined as space, tab, and newline.  Both single
       and double quoted strings are treated as a single token.  The  bounding
       quotes are not copied.  There is no escape mechanism.

       S_tolower converts all ASCII characters in the string to lower case.

   Multithreading
       S_incref  is  used by multithreaded programs to avoid having the string
       memory released until the last user of the string performs  an  s_free.
       S_unique returns a unique copy of the string: if the reference count it
       1 it returns the string, otherwise it returns an s_clone of the string.

   Bio interaction
       S_read reads the requested number of characters through a Biobuf into a
       string.   The string is grown as necessary.  An eof or error terminates
       the read.  The number of bytes read is returned.  The string  is  ASCII
       NUL terminated.

       S_read_line  reads  up  to and including the next newline and returns a
       pointer to the beginning of the bytes read.  An eof or error terminates
       the read and returns 0.  The string is NUL terminated.

       S_getline  reads  up  to  the next newline and returns a pointer to the
       beginning of the bytes read (0 on eof or error).   Leading  spaces  and
       tabs  and  the trailing newline are all discarded.  S_getline will dis‐
       card all lines beginning with

       S_rdinstack will recursively read through files included with and  dis‐
       card  all other lines beginning with The next line read from a stack of
       include files is appended to to.  S_rdinstack returns a pointer to  the
       beginning  of  the bytes read.  An eof or error terminates the read and
       returns 0.  The string is NUL terminated.   S_allocinstack  opens  file
       for  reading  and returns a pointer to a new stack of include files, or
       nil on failure.  S_freeinstack frees such a stack.

SOURCE
       /sys/src/libString

SEE ALSO
       bio(2)



                                                                     STRING(2)