term% ls -F
term% cat index.txt
STAT(5)                       File Formats Manual                      STAT(5)

       stat, wstat - inquire or change file attributes

       size[4] Tstat tag[2] fid[4]
       size[4] Rstat tag[2] stat[n]

       size[4] Twstat tag[2] fid[4] stat[n]
       size[4] Rwstat tag[2]

       The  stat  transaction  inquires about the file identified by fid.  The
       reply will contain a machine-independent directory  entry,  stat,  laid
       out as follows:

              total byte count of the following data

              for kernel use

       dev[4] for kernel use

              the  type  of  the  file (directory, etc.), represented as a bit
              vector corresponding to the high 8 bits of the file's mode word.

              version number for given path

              the file server's unique identification for the file

              permissions and flags

              last access time

              last modification time

              length of file in bytes

       name[ s ]
              file name; must be / if the file is the root  directory  of  the

       uid[ s ]
              owner name

       gid[ s ]
              group name

       muid[ s ]
              name of the user who last modified the file

       Integers in this encoding are in little-endian order (least significant
       byte first).  The convM2D and convD2M routines (see  fcall(2))  convert
       between directory entries and a C structure called a Dir.

       The mode contains permission bits as described in intro(5) and the fol‐
       lowing: 0x80000000 (DMDIR, this file is a directory), 0x40000000 (DMAP‐
       PEND,  append  only),  0x20000000  (DMEXCL,  exclusive use), 0x04000000
       (DMTMP, temporary); these are echoed in Qid.type.   Writes  to  append-
       only  files  always place their data at the end of the file; the offset
       in the write message is ignored, as is the OTRUNC bit in an open.   Ex‐
       clusive  use files may be open for I/O by only one fid at a time across
       all clients of the server.  If a second open is attempted, it draws  an
       error.  Servers may implement a timeout on the lock on an exclusive use
       file: if the fid holding the file open has been unused for an  extended
       period  (of order at least minutes), it is reasonable to break the lock
       and deny the initial fid further I/O.  Temporary files are not included
       in nightly archives (see fossil(4)).

       The  two  time  fields  are  measured in seconds since the epoch (Jan 1
       00:00 1970 GMT).  The mtime field reflects the time of the last  change
       of  content  (except  when  later changed by wstat).  For a plain file,
       mtime is the time of the most recent create, open with  truncation,  or
       write;  for  a directory it is the time of the most recent remove, cre‐
       ate, or wstat of a file in the directory.  Similarly, the  atime  field
       records the last read of the contents; also it is set whenever mtime is
       set.  In addition, for a directory, it is set by an  attach,  walk,  or
       create, all whether successful or not.

       The  muid  field names the user whose actions most recently changed the
       mtime of the file.

       The length records the number of bytes in the  file.   Directories  and
       most files representing devices have a conventional length of 0.

       The stat request requires no special permissions.

       The  wstat request can change some of the file status information.  The
       name can be changed by anyone with write permission in the  parent  di‐
       rectory; it is an error to change the name to that of an existing file.
       The length can be changed (affecting the actual length of the file)  by
       anyone with write permission on the file.  It is an error to attempt to
       set the length of a directory to a non-zero value, and servers may  de‐
       cide  to  reject  length changes for other reasons.  The mode and mtime
       can be changed by the owner of the file or  the  group  leader  of  the
       file's  current group.  The directory bit cannot be changed by a wstat;
       the other defined permission  and  mode  bits  can.   The  gid  can  be
       changed:  by  the  owner  if  also a member of the new group; or by the
       group leader of the file's current group if  also  leader  of  the  new
       group (see intro(5) for more information about permissions and users(6)
       for users and groups).  None of the other data  can  be  altered  by  a
       wstat  and  attempts to change them will trigger an error.  In particu‐
       lar, it is illegal to attempt to change the owner of  a  file.   (These
       conditions may be relaxed when establishing the initial state of a file
       server; see fsconfig(8).)

       Either all the changes in wstat request happen, or none of  them  does:
       if the request succeeds, all changes were made; if it fails, none were.

       A wstat request can avoid modifying some properties of the file by pro‐
       viding explicit ``don't touch'' values in the stat data that  is  sent:
       zero-length  strings  for text values and the maximum unsigned value of
       appropriate size for integral values.  As a special case,  if  all  the
       elements of the directory entry in a Twstat message are ``don't touch''
       values, the server may interpret it as a request to guarantee that  the
       contents  of the associated file are committed to stable storage before
       the Rwstat message is returned.  (Consider the message to mean,  ``make
       the state of the file exactly what it claims to be.'')

       A read of a directory yields an integral number of directory entries in
       the machine independent encoding given above (see read(5)).

       Note that since the stat information is sent as  a  9P  variable-length
       datum, it is limited to a maximum of 65535 bytes.

       Stat messages are generated by fstat and stat.

       Wstat messages are generated by fwstat and wstat.

       To  make the contents of a directory, such as returned by read(5), easy
       to parse, each directory entry begins with a size field.   For  consis‐
       tency,  the  entries  in  Twstat  and Rstat messages also contain their
       size, which means the size appears twice.  For example, the Rstat  mes‐
       sage  is  formatted  as  ``(4+1+2+2+n)[4]  Rstat  tag[2]  n[2] (n-2)[2]
       type[2] dev[4]...,'' where n is the value returned by convD2M.